PINE Study

PINE Study

P.I.N.E.Based in Aberdeen, Scotland, the Parkinsonism Incidence in North-East (PINE) study is a large population-based incidence cohort of Parkinson's disease and other forms of parkinsonism which is generating robust data to better understand how people are affected by these conditions.

Key features:

  • One of the largest incidence cohorts worldwide (201 patients with Parkinson's disease, 114 with other forms of parkinsonism)
  • Derived from incidence study with high consent rate to follow-up (94%) resulting in a population-representative cohort
  • Very few losses to follow-up (e.g. >99% ascertainment of death and dementia)
  • Participants are seen annually (at home if needed)
  • Carer and matched control cohorts
  • Wide range of demographic, clinical, genetic, and imaging data
  • High rate of pathological diagnostic confirmation
Current Team
  • Dr Carl Counsell (Reader (Clinical) in Neurology, Principal Investigator)
  • Dr Angus Macleod (Senior Clinical Lecturer in Neurology)
  • Dr Diane Swallow (SCREDS Clinical lecturer in Neurology)
  • Hazel Forbes (Research nurse)
Key Publications
  • Caslake R, Taylor K, Scott N, Harris C, Gordon J, Wilde K, Murray A, Counsell C. Age-, and gender-specific incidence of vascular parkinsonism, progressive supranuclear palsy, and parkinsonian-type multiple system atrophy in North East Scotland: The PINE study. Park Rel Dis 2014;20:834-839.
  • Scott NW, Macleod AD, Counsell CE. Motor complications in an incident Parkinson’s disease cohort.  Eur J Neurol 2016;23:304-312. doi:10.1111/ene.12751
  • Sleeman I, Chung Che Z, Counsell CE.  Risk of fracture amongst patients with Parkinson’s disease and other forms of parkinsonism. Park Rel Dis 2016;29:60-65. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2016.05.026
  • Lunde KA, Chung J, Dalen I, Pedersen KF, Linder J, Domellöf ME, Elgh E, MacLeod AD, Tzoulis C, Larsen JP, Tysnes O-B, Forsgren L, Counsell CE, Alves G, Maple-Grødem J.  Association of GBA polymorphisms and mutations with dementia in incident Parkinson’s disease. Alzheimers Dement 2018;14:1293-1301.  Doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2018.04.006
  • Caslake R, Taylor K, Scott N, Gordon J, Harris C, Wilde K, Murray A, Counsell C. Age-, gender-, and socioeconomic status-specific incidence of Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism in northeast Scotland: the PINE study. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders. 2013;19(5):515-21.
  • Fielding S, Macleod AD, Counsell CE. Medium-term prognosis of an incident cohort of parkinsonian patients compared to controls. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders. 2016;32:36-41.
  • Macleod AD, Counsell CE. Predictors of functional dependency in Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders. 2016;31(10):1482-8.
  • Cumming K, Macleod AD, Myint PK, Counsell CE. Early weight loss in parkinsonism predicts poor outcomes: Evidence from an incident cohort study. Neurology. 2017;89(22):2254-61.
  • Macleod AD, Dalen I, Tysnes OB, Larsen JP, Counsell CE. Development and validation of prognostic survival models in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders. 2018;33(1):108-16.
  • Maple-Grødem J, Dalen I, Tysnes OB, Macleod AD, Forsgren L, Counsell CE, Alves G. Association of GBA Genotype With Motor and Functional Decline in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Parkinson Disease. Neurology. 2021;96(7):1036-1044.

The PINE study has been funded by Parkinson’s UK, the Scottish Chief Scientist Office, the Academy of Medical Sciences, the BMA Doris Hillier award, RS Macdonald Trust, the BUPA Foundation, NHS Grampian endowments and SPRING.

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Data Availability

We are keen to collaborate or share data with other researchers. Please contact Dr Counsell to discuss.

The PINE study is part of the PICC collaboration which has pooled data from PINE and five other incidence cohorts.