Robert Heppner, Denise Heppner




This article explores Deborah Stone’s (1997) work regarding the types of language (specifically: symbols, numbers, causes, interests, and decisions) used to define and portray policy problems; and provides insightful discussion of the dynamics/complexity of such language within the context of an Indigenous educational initiative called the Pimacihowin Project. In becoming fluent in this type of language a researcher can learn to view educational policy problems from multiple perspectives. Stone’s work questions the ontological status of our own analytic concepts and reflects upon moral relativism. This analysis of insights gained from Stone’s work adopts a moral perspective, one grounded in social justice. Exploration of locally developed educational programs such as the Pimacihowin Project can provide great insight into culturally responsive pedagogy that is rethinking education, disrupting marginality, and meeting the needs of the communities that they serve.


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research, Indigenous, education, Canada, wayfinding


Published in Volume 28(1) Wayfinding Conversations: rethinking education to disrupt marginality,