The ArabTrans Project produces a wide range of outputs, including project Deliverables, Policy Briefs, Reports of interest to stakeholders, and further academic outputs building on project research. All outputs are listed here by country and by theme. Project Deliverables are also listed independently.

Documents that are fully accessible and useable with a screen reader are linked. If you would like access to a document not available online, please email

By Country

This page provides links to all the project outputs which are available for downloading listed by country.

Algeria | Egypt | Iraq | Jordan | Libya | Morocco | Tunisia

A map of the Middle East and North Africa with project countries in focus









By Theme

In order to better explain the findings of its research, the Arab Transformations Project has organised its data around a number of themes.

EU - Mena Relations | Security | Quality of Life | Gender | Youth and Social Media | Corruption | Migration | Politics and Religion | Trust | Drivers of the Uprisings

EU-Mena Relations

Through its research, the Arab Transformations Project identifies a disconnect between the EU intentions in the MENA region, and local perceptions of the failure of its influence and impact. The EU aims to attain inclusive growth and shared prosperity, inclusive political systems and democracy as well as greater security and stability. However, research shows that it has failed to respond to popular demands and has instead retained policies which produce greater economic polarisation, ongoing political marginalisation and de facto support for authoritarian regimes. These policies leave untouched the structural causes of insecurity and instability in MENA countries. The effects of these failures have been a deeper undermining of the EU’s reputation as well as continued insecurity, instability and increasing pressures on migration.


Across all countries surveyed as part of the Arab Transformations Project, there is a general perception that the security situation has significantly deteriorated. This is particularly prevalent in Libya, Tunisia, Egypt, Jordan and Iraq. This phenomenon is linked to the turmoil of the Uprisings, and in Libya and Iraq’s central provinces there is specific concern about civil war and terrorism. Governments’ inability to address popular concern is likely to fuel popular frustration.

Quality of Life

Respondents to the Arab Transformation survey were not simply concerned with their economic circumstances but their quality of life more generally. Most respondents felt relatively safe in their immediate neighbourhood and that they had neighbours that they could rely on in time of need. They were concerned about educational and employment opportunities and the quality of public services. Respondents expressed relatively high levels of dissatisfaction with the educational, health and social security systems in their individual countries. Many had an expectation that the EU should provide development assistance for education, social services and job creation.


The Arab Transformations survey found relatively slight differences between male and female respondents on gender issues. Female respondents were less likely than males to have participated in the Uprisings or to have considered the possibility of migration. Few respondents believed gender equality was a priority, but women and younger people were marginally more likely to support gender equality than men and older respondents. Most people considered education to be equally important for girls as boys and that married women should be able to work outside the home if they wished. However, respondents were less certain that women made as effective political leaders as men and a large majority wanted Sharia law to be enforced - a legal system that gives women fewer rights than men.

Youth and Social Media

The Arab Transformations Project research has identified that the virtual tool of social organisation – social media – was influential in the Arab Uprisings in helping to make people better informed. It may play a greater role in organising political activity when citizens are already engaged in conflict situations. The research demonstrates an almost ubiquitous interest in politics across the region and identifies a schism between traditional political activities - such as voting and membership of political parties - and activism by age. Older people who are active politically tend to be offline whilst younger people who are politically engaged tend to operate online.


Roughly sixty per cent of those surveyed as part of the Arab Transformations Project believed state corruption is extremely widespread with the number leaping to ninety percent when responses from those who believe there is a medium level of corruption within society are added. Very few respondents believed their governments were taking measures to address corruption. Corruption is of course more than simply about money, but includes nepotism, cronyism and clientelism. Across much of the region the need for ‘wasta’ (social influence) is prevalent in order to obtain services and in the expectation of reciprocation from others. In all countries over eighty percent of respondents believe wasta is always or almost always needed to secure a job. Corruption was given as a major reason for joining or supporting the Arab Uprisings by many respondents. Crucially, where corruption is felt to be endemic, respondents show extremely low levels of confidence that governments are acting effectively to counter it.


Forty per cent of respondents surveyed in the Arab Transformations Project considered living abroad, with a majority considering doing so for a temporary period. This varied by country, with over half of Moroccans saying they have considered migration, compared with just over a quarter of Iraqis. Around a fifth of Jordanians and Moroccans have considered permanent migration compared with just six per cent of Egyptians. In most cases, the key driver for migration is economic, although in Iraq security is the overriding concern, and in Libya both security and education are more important. Political reasons
for migration account for only three per cent of responses to the survey, although the economy and security are deeply entwined in political contexts.

Politics and Religion

Although religion is clearly important it is not so certain to what extent this translates into the political sphere. The Arab Transformations survey found that with the exception of Jordan, all countries have a majority of people who agree to an extent to a separation between Islam and the government. They also display noticeably low trust in religious elites and show little desire for clerics to influence government or voters. This is particularly prevalent in Egypt. In all the countries surveyed a large majority of respondents think that at least some laws should be based on (some interpretation of)
religious jurisprudence (Sharia). This preference was strongest in Family Law and Property Law, areas in which state and religious institutions have historically cooperated. Tunisia provides a partial exception, with relatively lower preferences across the board. By contrast, nearly half of respondents in Jordan and just over a third in Morocco – two countries in which the EU’s democracy assistance efforts have been strongest – preferred an ‘Islamic’ form of government.


Trust is the basis of social cohesion. It is what makes it possible for individuals and groups to interact in ways which work to the overall collective good. In surveyed countries however, trust in social and political institutions is worryingly low. The Council of Ministers was trusted by just over half of respondents in Egypt and Iraq, but only around a quarter or less in the rest of the countries surveyed. Parliament and political parties were trusted by very few. Local government was trusted by a few more, but still only between twenty and thirty per cent of respondents, except in Iraq where this figure reached nearly sixty per cent. There is a great deal of variation in the extent to which the courts and
legal system are trusted. Egyptians displayed the most faith at over fifty-eight per cent, whilst Morocco was the lowest with just twenty-eight per cent. The police were trusted by over eighty per cent of Jordanians but Iraqis, at only eleven per cent, barely trusted them at all. Respondents did not have much faith in the media either: Iraq was the most trusting but only thirty-five per cent expressed ‘a great deal’ or ‘quite a lot’ of trust in media sources.

Drivers of the Uprisings

Support for the Arab Uprisings, perhaps not surprisingly, varied by country, but overall the tendency is for supporters to be male, relatively young (not elderly) and neither the poorest nor the least well educated in society. The research conducted by the Arab Transformations survey reveals differences between the six countries surveyed, but overall corruption and economic issues were perceived as significantly more important drivers than purely political ones. By 2014 people seem less optimistic about the outcomes of the Arab Uprisings than they did in 2011, and less likely to say that they supported them. The general view is that the economic situation of the countries and individual
households has deteriorated, with the exception of Morocco where overall respondents note a small improvement. Egyptians are noticeably more positive about the prospects for economic growth.

Project Reports

List of Deliverables

  • WP1 D1.1: Framework PaperGeneral framework paper describing the state‐of the art of transition studies regarding the Arab countries in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Jordan and Iraq using both national and international literature.
  • WP2 D2.2: Background Reports; Literature Report for political and social change in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Jordan, and Iraq
  • WP3 D3.3: Master Questionnaire – English ; Master Questionnaire agreed by all partners in English
  • WP4 D4.4: Survey Questionnaire Version 2.1 – English ; Final Survey Questionnaire in English
  • WP4 D4.5: Survey Questionnaire Version 2.0 – Arabic ; Final Survey Questionnaire in all national and regional languages - Available on request
  • WP4 D4.6: Survey Technical Handbook ; Survey Technical Handbook
  • WP5 D5.32: Quality Assurance Report ; Full assessment of the project at the time of management change and methods of correction
  • WP5 D5.33: Data Set ; Full data set for the Arab Trans survey. SPSS and STATA.
  • WP5 D5.34: Codebook – Algeria ; Codebook from cleaned data for Algeria
  • WP5 D5.35: Codebook – Egypt ; Codebook from cleaned data for Egypt
  • WP5 D5.36: Codebook – Iraq ; Codebook from cleaned data for Iraq
  • WP5 D5.37: Codebook – Jordan ; Codebook from cleaned data for Jordan
  • WP5 D5.38: Codebook – Libya ; Codebook from cleaned data for Libya
  • WP5 D5.39: Codebook – Morocco ; Codebook from cleaned data for Morocco
  • WP5 D5.40: Codebook – Tunisia ; Codebook from cleaned data Tunisia
  • WP5 D5.41: Combined Codebook ; Combined codebook from cleaned data
  • WP6 D6.7: Country Report – Morocco; Survey results on political and social change in Morocco
  • WP6 D6.8: Country Report – Algeria; Survey results on political and social change in Algeria
  • WP6 D6.9: Country Report – Tunisia; Survey results on political and social change in Tunisia
  • WP6 D6.10: Country Report – Libya ; Survey results on political and social change in Libya
  • WP6 D6.11: Country Report – Egypt ; Survey results on political and social change in Egypt
  • WP6 D6.12: Country Report – Jordan ; Survey results on political and social change in Jordan
  • WP6 D6.13: Country Report – Iraq ; Survey results on political and social change in Iraq
  • WP6 D6.14: Comparative Country Report ; Comparative survey results on political and social change in 7 Arab countries: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Jordan, and Iraq
  • WP7 D7.15: Transformation Analysis – Morocco ; Report about political and social transformations in Morocco, 2010 – 2015
  • WP7 D7.16: Transformation Analysis – Algeria ; Report about political and social transformations in Algeria, 2010 – 2015
  • WP7 D7.17: Transformation Analysis – Tunisia ; Report about political and social transformations in Tunisia, 2010 – 2015
  • WP7 D7.18: Transformation Analysis – Libya ; Report about political and social transformations in Libya, 2010 – 2015
  • WP7 D7.19: Transformation Analysis – Egypt ; Report about political and social transformations in Egypt, 2010 – 2015
  • WP7 D7.20: Transformation Analysis – Jordan ; Report about political and social transformations in Jordan, 2010 – 2015
  • WP7 D7.21: Transformation Analysis – Iraq ; Report about political and social transformations in Iraq, 2010 – 2015
  • WP7 D7.23: Comparative Transformation Analysis ; Comparative Report about political and social transformations in 7 Arab countries: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Jordan, and Iraq
  • WP7 D7.42: Longitudinal database ; Comparative dataset of longitudinal surveys and guide
  • WP8 D8.24: Comparative Report on youth, generations, and new media in transition 
  • WP9 D9.25: The Impact and Role of the European Union on Political Transitions in the Middle East and North Africa: Democratisation and Democracy Assistance Policies ; Literature Report for Euro‐Mediterranean relations, the impact and role of the EU
  • WP9 D9.26: The Impact of the European Union in Arab Countries and the impact of the Arab transformations upon the EU
  • WP10 D10.30: Executive Summary ; Executive Summary of all Work Packages
  • WP11: D11.22: Policy Brief I: What do 'The People' Want? Citizens' perceptions of Democracy and EU-MENA relations
  • WP11 D11.27: Website ; Website in English and Arab language and subsequent quarterly updates
  • WP11 D11.28: The Relative Importance of Religion and Region in Explaining Differences in Political Economic and Social Attitudes in Iraq in 2014: Findings from the Arab Transformations Public Opinion Survey ; Dissemination paper for international scientific community
  • WP11 D11.29: Policy Brief II: Building Decent Societies: Economics and Political Cohesion in Egypt, Jordan and Tunisia
  • WP11 D11.31: Dissemination Plan ; Description of the dissemination plan approved by all teams
Other Outputs

This page provides links to all the project outputs which are available for downloading organised by type.

Academic Papers | Reports for Stakeholders | Presentations | Posters | Scientific Reports

Academic Papers

Reports for Stakeholders


Posters - available on request

Posters presented at Edinburgh Conference (May 2016)

  • Introductory
  • Corruption (Comparative)
  • Migration (Comparative)
  • Politics and_Religion (Comparative)
  • Trust (Comparative)
  • Iraq
  • Jordan
  • Libya
  • Tunsia

Scientific Reports

Working Papers

The Arab Transformations projects collects in a Working Papers series publications which are part of ongoing research of interest to academics and stakeholders, but not part of project reports.

Policy Briefs

The Arab Transformations Project produces a series of Policy Briefs designed to make the results of ongoing research accessible to a non-specialist audiences.

This work is licensed under CC BY 4.0