Varroa Mite Research
A short video of the bee health crisis and our work is available here
The varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is the biggest global killer of honey bees. The mite is an ectoparasite that sucks the blood from developing and adult bees whilst spitting viruses into the bee as well as immunosuppressants that render the bee more susceptible to normally benign bacteria and fungi. Our lab works with DEFRA's National Bee Unit on several aspects of varroa research: (1) we have developed a method of gene knockdown in varroa that has potential as a control measure; (2) we have dissected out the "brain" of mites (not an easy task!!) and studied the genes expressed in that vital tissue by transcriptomics; (3) we have developed a method of collecting saliva from these tiny beasts and studied the effect of the saliva on insect immune cell function.
Dietary Protection against Sea Lice
Sea lice remain major economic burden to the salmon aquaculture industry and have been implicated in wild salmon and sea trout stock declines. Various components in some salmon diets are reported to confer protection against sea louse infestation. In a project funded by BioMar Ld, we aim to elucidate the underlying mechanism of this dietary protection employing next-generation sequencing and proteomics to assess changes in the transcriptome and proteome.
Employing semio-chemicals for sea louse control
Sea lice use semiochemicals ("smells") emanating from their preferred host for host location. Conversely, the lice use semiochemicals from non-host fish species to avoid locating and settling on inappropriate hosts. Funded by three industrial partners, our lab investigates the feasibility of moving semiochemical control approaches from the lab to the field.
Increased emergence of resistance to currently used acarcides ("tickicides"), together with the withdrawal of other aracicides, has necessitated the development of new acaricides. We investigate the presence of new targets at the protein and gene level and the development of protocols for assessing their potential as targets for acaricides. Transcriptome analysis of both salivary gland and synganglion ("brain") is performed to identify potential acaricide targets and these targets are then functionally characterised in hrterologous expression systems. Gene knockdown by double-stranded RNA-interference to "genetically validate" our putative targets is a useful approach in our studies
Water channels or Aquaporins:
Cell membranes are, by default, impermeable to water. Cells are rendered water-permeable by aquaporins or water-channels embedded in the membrane. Unsurprisingly, cells involved in the movement of large volumes of water have high levels of aquaporins. Relatively little is known about aquaporins in invertebrates. Our lab investigates aquaporins in ticks, earthworms and silkworms. We study the transport properties and regulation by the expression of aquaporins in frogs eggs and site-directed mutagenesis. By depleting isolated tissues or whole animals of these aquaporins using RNA-interference "knock-down" we can study the functional role and importance of these aquaporins and, hence, genetically validate whether such aquaporins might be appropriate for drug development.
Fatty Acid Binding Proteins in Tick Salivary Glands:
Tick salivary glands contain an intracellular fatty acid binding protein (FABP) postulated to play a role in arachidonate and eicosanoid metabolism. This project assesses the ligand binding characteristics of the recombinant tick FABP and investigates the regulation and localization of its expression.
Programmed Cell Death in Tick Salivary Glands:
After adult ticks have fed on the host, the salivary glands are no longer needed and degenerate over the next few days. This project investigates the mechanisms of this deliberate and non-pathological process and studies the genes and proteins involved.
Immunomodulators in Tick Saliva:
Ticks remain attached to the host for many days without eliciting an immune or inflammatory response capable of rejecting the tick. Compounds in the saliva suppress the host's inflammatory and immune response. This project investigates what these factors are and how they function.
Sam Martin, University of Aberdeen
Stefan Hoppler, University of Aberdeen
Lucy Gilbert, Macaulay Institute
Ken Forbes, University of Aberdeen
David Sattelle, University of Oxford
Giles Budge, National Bee Unit, FERA
Elaine Richards, FERA, Sand Hutton, York
Funding and Grants
2014-2019: Veterinary Medicine Directive: Establishing off-host culturing methods for Varroa destructor as a tool to evaluate new veterinary medicines
2014-2018: EU-FP7 Sustainable Management of Resilient Bee Populations (SMARTBEES)
2014-2018: BBSRC EASTBIO with EARS2 PhD Studentship: How does deformed wing virus change as it passes between honey bees and Varroa?
2013-2017: Biosciences KTN BBSRC-CASE PhD Studentship with Pfizer Animal Health (now Zoetis) Drug target identification in the cat flea by transcriptomics and gene knockdown
2013-2017: Norwegian Research Council and Skretting Aquaculture Research, Norway PhD Studentship: Developing dietary protection against sea lice in the Atlantic salmon.
2012-2014: BBSRC-LINK (Industrial Partner: Vita Europe) : The potential of gene-knockdown for controlling varroa mites.
2012 – 2013: Meriden Animal Health: Assessing the potential and mode of action of essential plant oils on the sea louse, Lepeoptheirus salmonis
2011-2015: Raigmore Hospital, NHS PhD Studentship: Improving discriminatory specificity of patient diagnosis testing for early-, mid- and late-Lyme borreliosis
2011 Marine Harvest; Scottish Salmon Producers Organisation; Sainsbury's Supermarkets "Feasibility study of semiochemicals for sea louse control"
2010/2014 BioMar Ltd "Understanding the molecular basis of dietary protection against sealice in Atlantic salmon: application of transcriptomics and proteomics"
2009 National Bee Unit, FERA "The Varroa mite: feasibilbity study of synganglion transcriptome analysis and gene knockdown"
2009 Genesis Faraday "The Varroa mite: feasibilbity study of synganglion transcriptome analysis and gene knockdown"
2009 CLSM Pump Priming Initiative "Gene knockdown in sea lice"
2008 Pfizer Animal Health "Functional characterisation of a nicotinic acetlycholine receptor from the dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus"
2007 Evolutec plc "EST analysis of a Ixodes ricinus salivary gland"
2006/2007 Evolutec plc "Generation of a cDNA library from the salivary glands of Ixodes ricinus and its validation"
2006/2009 BBSRC, "Tick salivary gland aquaporins"
2006/2010 BBSRC-DTG CASE studentship with the Macaulay Institute "Lyme borreliosis in Scotland"
2006/2009 Evolutec plc / College of Life Sciences and Medicine studentship "Bioactive factors in the sheep tick, Ixodes ricinus"
2004/2007 BBSRC Committee studentship "Earthworm aquaporins"
2004/2007 BBSRC Industrial-CASE studentship (with Pfizer) "Drug targets in the tick synganglia"
2003/2006 NERC studentship (with CEH Banchory) "Ticks & pathogens in the Scottish Uplands)
2002/2005: BBSRC-CASE (with Pfizer) studentship, "Drug targets in tick salivary glands"
2002/2005: BBSRC, "Tick Fatty Acid Binding Proteins"
2001/2004: Leverhulme Trust, "Programmed Cell Death in Ticks"
2001/2003: Cunningham Trust, "Tick Salivary Immunomodulators"
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Quantitative and Qualitative Changes in the Deformed Wing Virus Population in Honey Bees Associated with the Introduction or Removal of Varroa destructor.Viruses, vol. 14, no. 8, 1597Contributions to Journals: Articles
RNAi gene knockdown in the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer 1778), a tool for functional genomicsParasites & Vectors, vol. 14, no. 1, 57Contributions to Journals: Articles
A salivary chitinase of Varroa destructor influences host immunity and mite’s survivalPLoS Pathogens, vol. 16, no. 12, e1009075Contributions to Journals: Articles
RNA interference in the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae74th Association for Veterinary Teaching and Research Work Annual ConferenceContributions to Conferences: Abstracts
Green Bees: Reverse Genetic Analysis of Deformed Wing Virus Transmission, Replication, and TropismViruses, vol. 12, no. 5, 532Contributions to Journals: Articles
RNA interference in the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis: Approaches for sustained gene knockdown and evidence of involvement of Dicer-2 and Argonaute2International Journal for Parasitology, vol. 48, no. 13, pp. 993-1002Contributions to Journals: Articles
The development of an IgG avidity Western blot with potential to differentiate patients with active Lyme borreliosis from those with past infectionJournal of Microbiological Methods, vol. 146, pp. 71-76Contributions to Journals: Articles
A real-time PCR method for quantification of the total and major variant strains of the Deformed wing virusPloS ONE, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 1-19Contributions to Journals: Articles
Dietary Yeast Cell Wall Extract Alters the Proteome of the Skin Mucous Barrier in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar): Increased Abundance and Expression of a Calreticulin-Like ProteinPloS ONE, vol. 12, no. 1, e0169075Contributions to Journals: Articles
Factors influencing the long-term dynamics of larval sea lice density at east and west coast locations in ScotlandDiseases of Aquatic Organisms, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. 181-192Contributions to Journals: Articles