The Unit is committed to the dissemination of research findings in the NHS in Scotland and beyond, in line with its remit to 'work for the implementation of proven changes in clinical activities'. A variety of methods have been used to promote this. Active dissemination is pursued through presentations at conferences and publications in scientific journals and books.

Recent Publications

Abdel-Fattah, M, Nipa, SI, Cooper, D, Mostafa, A, Hagen, S. Novel clinically meaningful scores for the ICIQ-UI-SF and ICIQ-FLUTS questionnaires in women with stress incontinence. International Urogynecology Journal 2023.

Adam, R, Duncan, L, MacLennan, S, Locock, L. Treatment burden in survivors of prostate and colorectal cancer: a qualitative interview study. BMJ Open 2023;13:e068997.

Al, P, Hey, SP, Weijer, C, Gillies, K, McCleary, N, Yee, M-L, Inglis, J, Presseau, J, Brehaut, JC. Changing patient preferences toward better trial recruitment: an ethical analysis. Trials 2023;24:233.

Ball, WP, Black, C, Gordon, S, Ostrovska, B, Paranjothy, S, Rasalam, A, Ritchie, D, Rowlands, H, Rzewuska, M, Thompson, E, Wilde, K, Butler, JE. Inequalities in children’s mental health care: analysis of routinely collected data on prescribing and referrals to secondary care. BMC Psychiatry 2023;23(1):22.

Beecher, B, O'Doherty, A, Goulao, B, Jalali, A, Salsberg, J, Dore, L, Hannigan, A. Designing infographics in health research with patients and the public: a scoping review protocol. PLoS One 2023;18(9):e0291066.

Bolland, MJ, Avenell, A, Grey, A. Responses to concerns raised about publications don’t address the concerns raised. British Journal of Pain 2023; 17(5):426-427.

Bolland, MJ, Gamble, GD, Avenell, A, Cooper, DJ, Grey, A. Distributions of baseline categorical variables were different from the expected distributions in randomized trials with integrity concerns. J Clin Epidemiol 2023;154:117-24.

Boyers, D, Kilonzo, M, Davidson, T, Cooper, D, Wardle, J, Bhal, K, N’Dow, J, MacLennan, G, Norrie, J, Abdel-Fattah, M. Patient preferences for stress urinary incontinence treatments: a discrete choice experiment. BMJ Open 2023;13(8):e066157.

Boyle, BR, Ablett, AD, Ochi, C, Hudson, J, Watson, L, Rauh, D, Avenell, A. The effect of weight loss interventions for obesity on fertility and pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 2023;161(2):335-42.

Buckley, C, Treweek, S, Laidlaw, L,Shiely, F. Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) in outcome selection in breast cancer and nephrology trials. Trials 2023;24:93.

Butler, K, Bartlett, YK, Newhouse, N, Farmer, A, French, DP, Kenning, C, Locock, L, Rea, R, Williams, V, McSharry, J. Implementing a text message-based intervention to support type 2 diabetes medication adherence in primary care: a qualitative study with general practice staff. BMC Health Serv Res 2023;23(1):614.

Campbell, MK, Beard, DJ, Blazeby, JM, Cousins, S, Gillies, K, The Aspire Group. Further considerations for placebo controls in surgical trials. Trials 2023;24(1):391.

Chan, J, Blane, DN, Choudhary, P, Chowdhury, TA, Goyal, A, Hanif, W, Jacca, J, Mathu, R, Misra, S, Rutter, MK, Studley, R, Treweek, S, Valabhji, J, Khunti, K. Addressing health inequalities in diabetes through research: recommendations from Diabetes UK’s 2022 health inequalities in diabetes workshop. Diabet Med 2023;40(4):e15024.

Chong, HY, McNamee, P, Bachmair, E-M, Martin, K, Aucott, L, Dhaun, N, Dures, E, Emsley, R, Gray, SR, Kidd, E, Kumar, V, Lovell, K, MacLennan, G, Norrie, J, Paul, L, Packham, J, Ralston, SH, Siebert, S, Wearden, A, Macfarlane, G, Basu, N, LIFT study group. Cost-effectiveness of cognitive behavioural and personalised exercise interventions for reducing fatigue in inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Rheumatology 2023:kead157.

Coffey, T, Duncan, E, Morgan, H, Gillies, K. Developing strategies to address disparities in retention communication during the consent discussion: development of a behavioural intervention. Trials 2023;24(1):296.

Cribb, A, Entwistle, V, Mitchell, P. Varieties of improvement expertise: knowledge and contestation in health-care improvement. Sociology of Health & Illness. 2023.

Cro, S, Kahan, BC, Patel, A, Henley, A, C, J, Hellyer, P, Kumar, M, Rahman, Y, Goulão, B. Starting a conversation about estimands with public partners involved in clinical trials: a co-developed tool. Trials 2023;24(1):443.

Davies, H, Munday, R, O’Reilly, M, Gilmour Hamilton, C, Ardavan, A, Kolstoe, S, Gillies, K. Reshaping consent so we might improve participant choice (II): helping people decide. Research Ethics 2023;19(4):466-73.

Davis, SE, Ssemaganda, H, Koola, JD, Mao, J, Westerman, D, Speroff, T, Govindarajulu, US, Ramsay, CR, Sedrakyan, A, Ohno-Machado, L, Resnic, FS, Matheny, ME. Simulating complex patient populations with hierarchical learning effects to support methods development for post-market surveillance. BMC Med Res Methodol 2023;23(1):89.

Dick, S, Kyle, R, Wilson, P, Aucott, L, France, E, King, E, Malcolm, C, Hoddinott, P, Turner, S. Insights from and limitations of data linkage studies: analysis of short stay urgent admission referral source from routinely collected Scottish data. Arch Dis Child 2023;108(4):245-46.

Dunsmore, J, Duncan, E, MacLennan, S, N’Dow, J, MacLennan, S. Effectiveness of de-implementation strategies for low-value prescribing in secondary care: a systematic review. Implementation Science Communications 2023;4:115.

Entwistle, V, McCann, S, Weng Keong Loh, V, Tai, ES, Hian Tan, W, Wei Yew, T. Implementing and evaluating Care and Support Planning: a qualitative study of health professionals’ experiences in public polyclinics in Singapore. BMC Primary Care 2023;24(1):212.

Entwistle, VA, Cribb, A, Mitchell, P. Tackling disrespect in health care: The relevance of socio-relational equality. J Health Serv Res Policy 2023:13558196231187961.

Farquharson, B, Johnston, M, Williams, B, Smith, K, Dombrowski, S, Jones, C, Treweek, S, Dougall, N, Grindle, M, Savinc, J, Abyhankar, P. Reducing patient delay in acute coronary syndrome: randomized controlled trial testing effect of behaviour change intervention on intentions to seek help. Br J Health Psychol 2023;28(1):188-207.

Gallagher, K, Bhatt, N, Clement, K, Zimmermann, E, Khadhouri, S, MacLennan, S, Kulkarni, M, Gaba, F, Anbarasan, T, Asif, A, Light, A, Ng, A, Chan, V, Nathan, A, Cooper, D, Aucott, L, Marcq, G, Teoh, JY, Hensley, P, Duncan, E, Goulao, B, O'Brien, T, Nielsen, M, Mariappan, P, Kasivisvanathan, V. Audit, feedback, and education to improve quality and outcomes in transurethral resection and single-instillation intravesical chemotherapy for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer treatment: protocol for a multicenter international observational study with an embedded cluster randomized trial. JMIR Res Protoc 2023;12:e42254.

Gallagher, K, Bhatt, N, Clement, K, Zimmermann, E, Khadhouri, S, MacLennan, S, Kulkarni, M, Gaba, F, Anbarasan, T, Asif, A, Light, A, Ng, A, Chan, V, Nathan, A, Cooper, D, Aucott, L, Marcq, G, Teoh, JY-C, Hensley, P, Duncan, E, Goulao, B, O'Brien, T, Nielsen, M, Mariappan, P, Kasivisvanathan, V. Study protocol: transurethral REsection and Single instillation intravesical chemotherapy Evaluation in bladder Cancer Treatment (RESECT). A multi-centre international observational study with embedded cluster randomised trial of audit, feedback and education. JMIR Research Protocols 2023;12:e42254.

Goulao, B, Duncan, A, Innes, K, Ramsay, CR, Kahan, BC. Using re-randomisation designs to increase the efficiency and applicability of retention studies within trials: a case study. Trials 2023;24:299.

Green, H, Murray, C, Thompson, L, Young, N, Treweek, S, Wilson, P. A protocol for a systematic review of randomised evaluations of strategies to improve recruitment of rural participants to randomised controlled trials. . Rural and Remote Health 2023;23:7793.

Green, HR, Dawson, A, Elfeky, A, Pickles, D, Treweek, S, Gillies, K. Exploring the perspectives of selectors and collecters of trial outcome data: an international qualitative study. BMC Med Res Methodol 2023;23(1):229.

Hudson, J, Cruickshank, M, Quinton, R, Aucott, L, Wu, F, Grossmann, M, Bhasin, S, Snyder, PJ, Ellenberg, SS, Travison, TG, Brock, GB, Gianatti, EJ, van der Schouw, YT, Emmelot-Vonk, MH, Giltay, EJ, Hackett, G, Ramachandran, S, Svartberg, J, Hildreth, KL, Antonic, KG, Tenover, JL, Tan, HM, Ho Chee Kong, C, Tan, WS, Marks, LS, Ross, RJ, Schwartz, RS, Manson, P, Roberts, SA, Skovsager Andersen, M, Velling Magnussen, L, Aceves-Martins, M, Gillies, K, Hernández, R, Oliver, N, Dhillo, WS, Bhattacharya, S, Brazzelli, M, Jayasena, CN. Symptomatic benefits of testosterone treatment in patient subgroups: a systematic review, individual participant data meta-analysis, and aggregate data meta-analysis. Lancet Healthy Longevity 2023;4(10):e561-e72.

Jansen, JO, Hudson, J, Cochran, C, MacLennan, G, Lendrum, R, Sadek, S, Gillies, K, Cotton, S, Kennedy, C, Boyers, D, Ferry, G, Lawrie, L, Nath, M, Wileman, S, Forrest, M, Brohi, K, Harris, T, Lecky, F, Moran, C, Morrison, JJ, Norrie, J, Paterson, A, Tai, N, Welch, N, Campbell, MK, Aylwin, C, Bew, D, Brooks, A, Chinery, J, Cowlam, T, Frith, D, George, A, Hudson, A, Johnstone, P, Mahmood, A, Novak, A, O'Meara, M, Reid, S, Sattout, A, Smith, C, Stansfield, T, Thompson, J, UK-REBOA Study Group. Emergency Department Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta in Trauma Patients With Exsanguinating Hemorrhage: The UK-REBOA Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2023.

Kilonzo, MM, Dasgupta, R, Thomas, R, Aucott, L, MacLennan, S, Lam, TBL, Anson, K, Cameron, S, Starr, K, Burgess, N, Keeley, FX, Clark, CT, N’Dow, J, MacLennan, G, McClinton, S. Cost utility analysis of shockwave lithotripsy versus ureteroscopic stone treatment in adults. BJU Int 2023;131(2):253-61.

King, AJ, Hudson, J, Azuara-Blanco, A, Kirwan, JF, Goyal, S, Lim, KS, Maclennan, G, TAGS Research Group. Effects of socioeconomic status on baseline values and outcomes at 24 months in the Treatment of Advanced Glaucoma Study randomised controlled Trial. Br J Ophthalmol 2023.

King, E, Dick, S, Hoddinott, P, Malcolm, C, France, E, Kyle, RG, Aucott, L, Wilson, P,T urner, S. Regional variations in short stay urgent paediatric hospital admissions: a sequential mixed-methods approach exploring differences through data linkage and qualitative interviews. BMJ Open 2023;13:e072734.

King, E, France, E, Malcolm, C, Kumar, S, Dick, S, Kyle, RG, Wilson, P, Aucott, L, Turner, S, Hoddinott, P. Identifying and prioritising future interventions with stakeholders to improve paediatric urgent care pathways in Scotland, UK: a mixed-methods study. BMJ Open 2023;13:e074141.

Lawrie, L, Duncan, EM, Lendrum, R, Lebrec, V, Gillies, K. Challenges and opportunities for conducting pre-hospital trauma trials: a behavioural investigation. Trials 2023;24(1):157.

Lawrie, L, Turner, S, Cotton, SC, Wood, J, Morgan, HM. A qualitative process evaluation within a clinical trial that used healthcare technologies for children with asthma-insights and implications. PLoS One 2023;18(1):e0280086.

Lee, SI, Hanley, S, Vowles, Z, Plachcinski, R, Azcoaga-Lorenzo, A, Taylor, B, Nelson-Piercy, C, McCowan, C, O'Reilly, D, Hope, H, Abel, KM, Eastwood, KA, Locock, L, Singh, M, Moss, N, Brophy, S, Nirantharakumar, K, Thangaratinam, S, Black, M. Key outcomes for reporting in studies of pregnant women with multiple long-term conditions and their children: a qualitative study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2023;23:551.

Lee, SI, Hanley, S, Vowles, Z, Plachcinski, R, Moss, N, Singh, M, Gale, C, Fagbamigbe, AF, Azcoaga-Lorenzo, A, Subramanian, A, Taylor, B, Nelson-Piercy, C, Damase-Michel, C, Yau, C, McCowan, C, O'Reilly, D, Santorelli, G, Dolk, H, Hope, H, Phillips, K, Abel, KM, Eastwood, KA, Kent, L, Locock, L, Loane, M, Mhereeg, M, Brocklehurst, P, McCann, S, Brophy, S, Wambua, S, Sudasinghe, SPB, Thangaratinam, S, Nirantharakumar, K, Black, M, MuM PreDiCT Group. The development of a core outcome set for studies of pregnant women with multimorbidity. BMC Med 2023;21.

MacLean, A, Hunt, K, Brown, A, Evered, JA, Dowrick, A, Fokkens, A, Grob, R, Law, S, Locock, L, Marcinow, M, Smith, L, Urbanowicz, A, Verheij, N, Wild, C. Negotiation of collective and individual candidacy for long Covid healthcare in the early phases of the Covid-19 pandemic: validated, diverted and rejected candidacy. SSM Qualitatative Research in Health 2023;3:100207.

MacLean, A, Wild, C, Hunt, K, Nettleton, S, Skea, Z, Ziebland, S. The impact of Long Covid on the school experiences of children and young people: a qualitative study. BMJ Open 2023;13(9):e075756.

MacLennan, S, Pereira-Azevedo, N, Duncan, E, Dunsmore, J, Fullwood, L, Lumen, N, Plass, K, Ribal, MJ, Roobol, MJ, Niebor, D, Schouten, N, Skolarus, TA, Smith, EJ, N'Dow, J, Mottet, N, Briganti, A, Pan-European National Urological Society Imagine Collaborative. Mapping European Association of Urology Guideline Practice Across Europe: An Audit of Androgen Deprivation Therapy Use Before Prostate Cancer Surgery in 6598 Cases in 187 Hospitals Across 31 European Countries. Eur Urol 2023.

MacLeod, C, Foxton, A, Wilson, P, Treweek, S,Watson, A. Associations between patient factors and successful colon capsule endoscopy – a prospective cohort study. Colorectal Dis 2023.

Marsden, MER, Kellett, S, Bagga, R, Wohlgemut, J, Lyon, RL, Perkins, ZB, Gillies, K, Tai, NRM. Understanding prehospital blood transfusion decision-making for injured patients: an interview study. Emerg Med J 2023;40:777-84.

McCarthy, M, Gillies, K, Rousseau, N, Wade, J, Gamble, C, Toomey, E, Matvienko-Sikar, K, Sydes, M, Dowling, M, Bryant, V, Biesty, L, Houghton, C. Qualitative data sharing practices in clinical trials in the UK and Ireland: towards the production of good practice guidance. HRB Open Research 2023;6(10).

Michalsen, BO, Xu, AXT, Alderson, SL, Bjerrum, L, Brehaut, J, Bucher, HC, Clarkson, J, Duncan, E, Grimshaw, J, Gunnarsson, R, Høye, S, Ivers, N, Lecky, DM, Lindbæk, M, Llor, C, Lundgren, PT, O'Connor, D, Pulcini, C, Ramsay, C, Sundvall, PD, Verheij, T, Schwartz, KL, JPIAMR-PAAN. Regional and national antimicrobial stewardship activities: a survey from the Joint Programming Initiative on Antimicrobial Resistance - Primary Care Antibiotic Audit and Feedback Network (JPIAMR-PAAN). JAC-Antimicrobial Resistance 2023;5(2):dlad048.

Mitchell, EJ, Appelbe, D, Bravery, A, Culliford, L, Evans, H, Farrin, AJ, Gillies, K, Hood, K, Love, SB, Sydes, MR, Williamson, PR, Wakefield, N. e-Consent in UK academic-led clinical trials: current practice, challenges and the need for more evidence. Trials 2023;24(1):657.

Mitchell, P, Cribb, A,Entwistle, V. Patient safety and the question of dignitary harms. The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 2023;48(1):33-49.

Mitchell, WG, Azuara-Blanco, A, Foster, PJ, Halawa, O, Burr, J, Ramsay, CR, Cooper, D, Cochran, C, Norrie, J, Friedman, D, Chang, D. Predictors of long-term intraocular pressure control after lens extraction in primary angle closure glaucoma: results from the EAGLE trial. Br J Ophthalmol 2023;107(8):1072-78.

Parker, A, Arundel, C, Mills, N, Rooshenas, L, Jepson, MA, Donovan, JL, Blazeby, JM, Coleman, E, Clark, L, Doherty, L, Hewitt, CA, Partha Sarathy, P, Beard, DJ, Bower, P, Brealey, S, Brocklehurst, P, Cooper, C, Crofts, J, Culliford, L, Dias, J, Devane, D, eldridge, s, Emsley, R, Galvin, S, Gemperle-Mannion, E, Jayne, D, Metcalfe, A, Montgomery, A, Rangan, A, Sutton, C, Tharmanathan, P, Treweek, S, Torgerson, D. Staff training to improve participant recruitment into surgical randomised controlled trials: A feasibility study within a trial (SWAT) across four host trials simultaneously. Research Methods in Medicine & Health Sciences 2023;4(1):2-15.

Prowse, S, Treweek, S, Kiezebrink, K, Hanna, C. Evidencing the impacts of health research: insights from trials reported in the 2018 Australian Engagement and Impact Assessment.  Health Promot J Austr 2023:

Reid, FM, Aucott, L, Glazener, CMA, Elders, A, Hemming, C, Cooper, KG, Freeman, RM, Smith, ARB, Hagen, S, Kilonzo, M, Boyers, D, MacLennan, G, Norrie, J, Breeman, S, Prospect Study Group. PROSPECT: 4- and 6-year follow-up of a randomised trial of surgery for vaginal prolapse. International Urogynecology Journal 2023;34:67-78.

Reilly, F, Wani, N, Hall, S, Morgan, HM, Allan, J, Constable, L, Ntessalen, M, Murchie, P. User experiences in a digital intervention to support total skin self-examination by melanoma survivors: nested qualitative evaluation embedded in a randomized controlled trial. JMIR Dermatol 2023;6:e39544.

Riley, J, Entwistle, V, Arnason, A, Crozier, R, Locock, L, Maccagno, P, Pattenden, A. Revisiting funeral recordings during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. Bereavement 2023;2:1093.

Riley, J, Entwistle, V, Arnason, A, Locock, L, Crozier, R, Maccagno, P,Pattenden, A. Why does funeral attendance matter?: Revisiting 'Configurational Eulogies' in light of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. Mortality 2023.

Riley, J, Entwistle, V, Arnason, A, Locock, L, Maccagno, P, Pattenden, A, Crozier, R. Hybrid funerals: how online attendance facilitates and impedes participation. Mortality 2023.

Robertson, C, Shaikh, S, Hudson, J, Roberts, PG, Beard, D, Mackie, T, Matthew, C, Ramsay, C, Gillies, K, Campbell, M. The RoboCOS Study: Development of an international core outcome set for the comprehensive evaluation of patient, surgeon, organisational and population level impacts of robotic assisted surgery. PLoS One 2023;18(3):e0283000.

Russell, AM, Shepherd, V, Woolfall, K, Young, B, Gillies, K, Volkmer, A, Jayes, M, Huxtable, R, Perkins, A, Noor, NM, Nickolls, B, Wade, J. Complex and alternate consent pathways in clinical trials: methodological and ethical challenges encountered by underserved groups and a call to action. Trials 2023;24(1).

Saul, H, Deeney, B, Cassidy, S, Kwint, J, Constable, L, Abrams, P. Male sling is as good as more complex surgery for incontinence after prostate surgery. BMJ 2023;381:p1179.

Snooks, H, Khanom, A, Ballo, R, Bower, P, Checkland, K, Ellins, J, Ford, G, Locock, L,                                                                                      Walshe, K. Is bureaucracy being busted in research ethics and governance for health services research in the UK? Experiences and perspectives reported by stakeholders through an online survey. BMC Public Health 2023;23:1119.

South, A, Bailey, J, Bierer, BE, Burnett, E, Cragg, WJ, Diaz-Montana, C, Gillies, K, Isaacs, T, Joharatnam-Hogan, N, Snowdon, C, Sydes, MR, Copas, AJ. Site staff perspectives on communicating trial results to participants: Cost and feasibility results from the Show RESPECT cluster randomised, factorial, mixed-methods trial. Clin Trials 2023.

Subramanian, A, Azcoaga-Lorenzo, A, Anand, A, Phillips, K, Lee, SI, Cockburn, N, Fagbamigbe, AF, Damase-Michel, C, Yau, C, McCowan, C, O'Reilly, D, Santorelli, G, Hope, H, Kennedy, JI, Abel, KM, Eastwood, K-A, Locock, L, Black, M, Loane, M, Moss, N, Plachcinski, R, Thangaratinam, S, Brophy, S, Agrawal, U, Vowles, Z, Brocklehurst, P, Dolk, H, Nelson-Piercy, C, Nirantharakumar, K, MuM-PreDiCT Group. Polypharmacy during pregnancy and associated risk factors: a retrospective analysis of 577 medication exposures among 1.5 million pregnancies in the UK, 2000-2019. BMC Med 2023;21:21.

Sutton, E, Armstrong, N, Locock, L, Conroy, S, Tarrant, C. Visual identifiers for people with dementia in hospitals: a qualitative study to unravel mechanisms of action for improving quality of care. BMJ Qual Saf 2023.

Swithenbank, Z, Bricca, A, Black, N, Hartmann-Boyce, J, Johnston, M, Scott, N, West, R, Courtney, RJ, Treweek, S, Michie, S, de Bruin, M. Tailoring CONSORT-SPI to Improve the Reporting of Smoking Cessation Intervention Trials: An expert consensus study. Addiction 2023.

Turner, S, Chapman, A, Aucott, L. Antenatal size, early childhood growth, and asthma within a cohort created by data linkage. Pediatr Pulmonol 2023;58(8):2364-74.

Vanderhout, S, Nevins, P, Nicholls, SG, Macarthur, C, Brehaut, JC, Potter, BK, Gillies, K, Goulao, B, Smith, M, Hilderley, A, Carroll, K, Spinewine, A, Weijer, C, Fergusson, DA, Taljaard, M. Patient and public involvement in pragmatic trials: online survey of corresponding authors of published trials. CMAJ Open 2023;11(5):E826-E37.

Yousuf, S, Rzewuska, M, Duncan, E, Ramsay, C. Identification of outcomes reported for hospital antimicrobial stewardship interventions using a systematic review of reviews. JAC Antimicrob Resist 2023;5(1):dlac127.

Yu, G, Rice, S, Heer, R, Lewis, R, Vadiveloo, T, Mariappan, P, Penegar, S, Clark, E, Tandogdu, Z, Hall, E, Vale, L. Photodynamic Diagnosis-guided Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumour in Participants with a First Suspected Diagnosis of Intermediate- or High-risk Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer: Cost-effectiveness Analysis Alongside a Randomised Controlled Trial. European Urology Open Science 2023;53:67-77.

Zaremba, SMM, Stead, M, McKell, J, O’Carroll, RE, Mutrie, N, Treweek, S, Anderson, AS, The ActWELL Team. Response to a novel, weight self-awareness plan used in a multi-component lifestyle intervention programme to reduce breast cancer risk factors in older women – secondary analysis from The ActWELL trial. J Hum Nutr Diet 2023;36(1):266-76.