The Unit is committed to the dissemination of research findings in the NHS in Scotland and beyond, in line with its remit to 'work for the implementation of proven changes in clinical activities'. A variety of methods have been used to promote this. Active dissemination is pursued through presentations at conferences and publications in scientific journals and books.

Recent Publications

Abdel-Fattah, M, Cooper, D, Davidson, T, Kilonzo, M, Hossain, M, Boyers, D, Bhal, K, Wardle, J, N'Dow, J, MacLennan, G, Norrie, J. Single-Incision Mini-Slings for Stress Urinary Incontinence in Women. N Engl J Med 2022;386(13):1230-43.

Abdel-Fattah, M, Johnson, D, Constable, L, Thomas, R, Cotton, S, Tripathee, S, Cooper, D, Boran, S, Dimitropoulos, K, Evans, S, Granitsiotis, P, Hashim, H, Kilonzo, M, Larcombe, J, Little, P, MacLennan, S, Murchie, P, Myint, PK, N'Dow, J, Norrie, J, Omar, MI, Paterson, C, Scotland, G, Thiruchelvam, N, MacLennan, G. Randomised controlled trial comparing the clinical and cost-effectiveness of various washout policies versus no washout policy in preventing catheter associated complications in adults living with long-term catheters: study protocol for the CATHETER II study. Trials 2022;23(1):630.

Aceves Martins, M, Quinton, R, Brazzelli, M, Cruickshank, M, Manson, P, Hudson, J, Oliver, N, Hernández, RA, Aucott, L, Wu, FCW, Dhillo, WS, Bhattacharya, S, Gillies, K, Jayasena, CN, NIHR Testosterone Efficacy Safety Consortium. Identifying the outcomes important to men with hypogonadism: a qualitative evidence synthesis. Andrology 2022;10(4):625-41.

Achison, M, Adamson, S, Akpan, A, Aspray, T, Avenell, A, Band, MM, Bashir, T, Burton, LA, Cvoro, V, Donnan, PT, Duncan, GW, George, J, Gordon, AL, Gregson, CL, Hapca, A, Henderson, E, Hume, C, Jackson, TA, Kemp, P, Kerr, S, Kilgour, A, Lyell, V, Masud, T, McKenzie, A, McKenzie, E, Patel, H, Pilvinyte, K, Roberts, HC, Rossios, C, Sayer, AA, Smith, KT, Soiza, RL, Steves, CJ, Struthers, AD, Sumukadas, D, Tiwari, D, Whitney, J, Witham, MD, LACE study group. Effect of perindopril or leucine on physical performance in older people with sarcopenia: the LACE randomized controlled trial. Journal of cachexia, sarcopenia and muscle 2022;13(2):858-71.

Banister, K, Cook, JA, Scotland, G, Azuara-Blanco, A, Goulao, B, Heimann, H, Hernández, RA, Hogg, RE, Kennedy, C, Sivaprasad, S, Ramsay, C, Chakravarthy, U, EDNA study group. Non-invasive testing for early detection of neovascular macular degeneration in unaffected second eyes of older adults: EDNA diagnostic accuracy study. Health Technol Assess 2022;26(8):1-142.

Berry, E, Skea, Z, Campbell, M, Locock, L. “Using humanity to change systems” – Understanding the work of online feedback moderation: a case study of Care Opinion Scotland. Digital Health 2022;8:1-13.

Brazzelli, M, Aucott, L, Aceves Martins, M, Robertson, C, Jacobsen, E, Imamura, M, Poobalan, A, Manson, P, Scotland, G, Kaye, C, Sawhney, S, Boyers, D. Biomarkers for assessing acute kidney injury for people who are being considered for admission to critical care: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis. Health Technol Assess 2022;26(7):1-286.

Bricca, A, Swithenbank, Z, Scott, N, Treweek, S, Johnston, M, Black, N, Hartmann-Boyce, J, West, R, Michie, S, de Bruin, M. Predictors of recruitment and retention in randomised controlled trials of behavioural smoking cessation interventions: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Addiction 2022;117(2):299-311.

Brown, LR, Sullivan, F, Treweek, S, Haddow, A, Mountain, R, Selby, C, van Beusekom, M. Increasing uptake to a lung cancer screening programme: Building with communities through co-design. BMC Public Health 2022;22(1):815.

Bruhn, H, Campbell, M, Entwistle, V, Humphreys, R, Jayacodi, S, Knapp, P, Tizzard, J, Gillies, K. What, how, when and who of trial results summaries for trial participants: stakeholder informed guidance from the RECAP project. BMJ Open 2022;12(3):e057019.

Burn, E, Fisher, R, Locock, L, Smith, J. A longitudinal qualitative study of the UK general practice workforce experience of COVID-19. Prim Health Care Res Dev 2022;23:e45.

Clarkson, JE, Ramsay, CR, Mannocci, F, Jarad, F, Albadri, S, Ricketts, D, Tait, C, Banerjee, A, Deery, C, Boyers, D, Marshman, Z, Goulao, B, Hamilton, AR, Banister, K, Bell, R, Brown, L, Conway, DI, Donaldson, P, Duncan, A, Dunn, K, Fee, P, Forrest, M, Glenny, AM, Gouick, J, Gupta, E, Jacobsen, E, Kettle, J, MacLennan, G, Macpherson, L, McGuff, T, Mitchell, F, van der Pol, M, Moazzez, R, Roberston, D, Wojewodka, G, Young, L, Lamont, T. Pulpotomy for the Management of Irreversible Pulpitis in Mature Teeth (PIP): a feasibility study. Pilot and Feasability Studies 2022;8(1):77.

Coffey, T, Gillies, K, Duncan, E, Morgan, H, Lawrie, L. Behavioural approaches to recruitment and retention in clinical trials: a systematic mapping review. BMJ Open 2022;12(3):e054854.

Constable, L, Abrams, P, Cooper, D, Kilonzo, M, Cotterill, N, Harding, C, Drake, MJ, Pardoe, MN, McDonald, A, Smith, R, Norrie, J, McCormack, K, Ramsay, C, Uren, A, Mundy, T, Glazener, C, MacLennan, G. Synthetic sling or artificial urinary sphincter for men with urodynamic stress incontinence after prostate surgery: the MASTER non-inferiority RCT. Health Technol Assess 2022;26(36):1-152.

Cotton, S, Devereux, G, Abbas, H, Briggs, AH, Campbell, K, Chaudhuri, R, Choudhury, G, Dawson, D, De Soyza, A, Fielding, S, Gompertz, S, Haughney, J, Lang, CC, Lee, A, MacLennan, G, MacNee, W, McCormack, K, McMeekin, N, Mills, NL, Morice, A, Norrie, J, Petrie, L, Price, D, Short, P, Vestbo, J, Walker, P, Wedzicha, JA, Wilson, A, Lipworth, BJ. Use of the oral beta blocker bisoprolol to reduce the rate of exacerbation in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a randomised controlled trial (BICS). Trials 2022;23(1).

Coulter, A, Collins, A, Edwards, A, Entwistle, V, Finnikin, S, Joseph-Williams, N, Thomas, V, Thomson, R. Implementing shared decision making in UK: Progress 2017–2022. Zeitschrift für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität im Gesundheitswesen 2022.

Cribb, A, Entwistle, V, Mitchell, P. Talking it better: conversations and normative complexity in healthcare improvement. Med Humanit 2022;48(1):85-93.

Cruickshank, M, Imamura, M, Booth, C, Aucott, L, Counsell, C, Manson, P, Scotland, G, Brazzelli, M. Pre-hospital and emergency department treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in adults: an evidence synthesis. Health Technol Assess 2022;26(20):1-76.

Cruickshank, M, Imamura, M, Counsell, C, Aucott, L, Manson, P, Booth, C, Scotland, G, Brazzelli, M. Management of the first stage of convulsive status epilepticus in adults: a systematic review of current randomised evidence. J Neurol 2022.

Dasgupta, R, Cameron, S, Aucott, L, MacLennan, G, Kilonzo, MM, Lam, TB, Thomas, R, Norrie, J, McDonald, A, Anson, K, N'Dow, J, Burgess, N, Clark, CT, Keeley, FX, MacLennan, SJ, Starr, K, McClinton, S. Shockwave lithotripsy compared with ureteroscopic stone treatment for adults with ureteric stones: the TISU non-inferiority RCT. Health Technol Assess 2022;26(19):1-70.

Dawson, S, Banister, K, Biggs, K, Cotton, S, Devane, D, Gardner, H, Gillies, K, Gopalakrishnan, G, Isaacs, T, Khunti, K, Nichol, A, Parker, A, Russell, AM, Shepherd, V, Shiely, F, Shorter, G, Starling, B, Williams, H, Willis, A, Witham, MD, Treweek, S. Trial Forge Guidance 3: randomised trials and how to recruit and retain individuals from ethnic minority groups—practical guidance to support better practice. Trials 2022;23(1):672.

Duncan, E, Ivers, NM, Grimshaw, JM. Channelling the force of audit and feedback: averting the dark side. BMJ Quality & Safety 2022:10.1136/bmjqs-2021-014520.

El Feky, A, Treweek, S, Hannes, K, Bruhn, H, Gillies, K. Using qualitative methods in pilot and feasibility trials to inform recruitment and retention processes in full-scale randomised trials: a qualitative evidence synthesis. BMJ Open 2022;12(4):e055521.

Farmer, A, Jones, L, Newhouse, N, Kenning, C, Williams, N, Chi, Y, Bartlett, YK, Plumpton, C, McSharry, J, Cholerton, R, Holmes, E, Robinson, S, Allen, J, Gudgin, B, Velardo, C, Rutter, H, Horne, R, Tarassenko, L, Williams, V, Locock, L, Rea, R, Yu, LM, Hughes, D, Bower, P, French, D. Supporting People With Type 2 Diabetes in the Effective Use of Their Medicine Through Mobile Health Technology Integrated With Clinical Care to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk: Protocol for an Effectiveness and Cost-effectiveness Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR Research Protocols 2022;11(2):e32918.

Gumley, AI, Bradstreet, S, Ainsworth, J, Allan, S, Alvarez-Jimenez, M, Aucott, L, Birchwood, M, Briggs, A, Bucci, S, Cotton, SM, Engel, L, French, P, Lederman, R, Lewis, S, Machin, M, MacLennan, G, McLeod, H, McMeekin, N, Mihalopoulos, C, Morton, E, Norrie, J, Schwannauer, M, Singh, SP, Sundram, S, Thompson, A, Williams, C, Yung, AR, Farhall, J, Gleeson, J. The EMPOWER blended digital intervention for relapse prevention in schizophrenia: a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial in Scotland and Australia. The Lancet Psychiatry 2022;9(6):477-86.

Gumley, AI, Bradstreet, S, Ainsworth, J, Allan, S, Alvarez-Jimenez, M, Birchwood, M, Briggs, A, Bucci, S, Cotton, S, Engel, L, French, P, Lederman, R, Lewis, S, Machin, M, MacLennan, G, McLeod, H, McMeekin, N, Mihalopoulos, C, Morton, E, Norrie, J, Reilly, F, Schwannauer, M, Singh, SP, Sundram, S, Thompson, A, Williams, C, Yung, A, Aucott, L, Farhall, J, Gleeson, J. Digital smartphone intervention to recognise and manage early warning signs in schizophrenia to prevent relapse: the EMPOWER feasibility cluster RCT. Health technology assessment (Winchester, England) 2022;26(27):1-174.

Haladu, Nu, Alabi, A, Brazzelli, M, Imamura, M, Ahmed, I, Ramsay, G, Scott, NW. Open versus laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernia: an overview of systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials. Surg Endosc 2022.

Hamilton, C, Filia, K, Lloyd, S, Prober, S, Duncan, E. 'More than just numbers on a page?' A qualitative exploration of the use of data collection and feedback in youth mental health services. PLoS One 2022;17(7):e0271023.

Innes, K, Hudson, J, Banister, K, Croal, B, Ramsay, C, Ahmed, I, Blazeby, JM, Gillies, K, CGALL Trial Group. Core outcome set for symptomatic uncomplicated gallstone disease. Br J Surg 2022:znac095.

Jansen, JO, Cochran, C, Boyers, D, Gillies, K, Lendrum, R, Sadek, S, Lecky, F, MacLennan, G, Campbell, MK, Jansen, JO, Campbell, MK, Moran, C, Brohi, K, Lecky, F, Lendrum, R, MacLennan, G, Morrison, JJ, Tai, N, Harris, T, Norrie, J, Boyers, D, Paterson, A, Welch, N,U. K. Reboa Trial Grantholders. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) for trauma patients with uncontrolled torso haemorrhage: study protocol for a randomised clinical trial (the UK-REBOA trial). Trials 2022;23(1):384.

Lawrie, L, Duncan, EM, Jansen, JO, Campbell, MK, Brunsdon, D, Skea, Z, Coffey, T, Cochran, C, Gillies, K. Behavioural optimisation to address trial conduct challenges: case study in the UK-REBOA trial. Trials 2022;23(1):398.

Maclaren, A, Cleland, J, Locock, L, Skea, Z, Denison, A, Hollick, R, Murchie, P, Wilson, P. Understanding recruitment and retention of doctors in rural Scotland: Stakeholder perspectives. Geographical Journal 2022;188(2):261-76.

MacLeod, C, Hudson, J, Brogan, M, Cotton, S, Treweek, S, MacLennan, G, Watson, AJM. ScotCap - A large observational cohort study. Colorectal Dis 2022;24(4):411-21.

McDonald, MD, Hunt, K, Sivaramakrishnan, H, Moullin, J, Avenell, A, Kerr, DA, Birch, JM, Ntoumanis, N, Quested, E. A Systematic Review Examining Socioeconomic Factors in Trials of Interventions for Men that Report Weight as an Outcome. Obes Rev 2022:e13436.

McDougall, M, Guthrie, B, Doyle, A, Timmins, A, Bateson, M, Ridley, E, Drummond, G, Vadiveloo, T. Introducing NICE guidelines for intravenous fluid therapy into a district general hospital. BMJ Open Quality 2022;11(1).

Mitchell, P, Cribb, A, Entwistle, J. Vagueness and variety in person-centred. Wellcome Open Research 2022;7:170.

Murchie, P, Constable, L, Hall, S, Brant, W, Allan, J, Johnston, M, Masthoff, J, Lee, A, Treweek, S, Ayansina, D, Proby, C, Rahman, K, Walter, F, Burrows, N, Durrani, A, Maclennan, G. The Achieving Self-directed Integrated Cancer Aftercare Intervention for Detection of Recurrent and Second Primary Melanoma in Survivors of Melanoma: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR Cancer 2022;8(3):e37539.

Murphy, E, Shiely, F, Treweek, S. How much is the lack of retention evidence costing trial teams in Ireland and the UK? Trials 2022;23:396.

Newlands, R, Duncan, E, Treweek, S, Elliott, J, Presseau, J, Bower, P, MacLennan, G, Ogden, M, Wells, M, Witham, MD, Young, B, Gillies, K. The development of theory-informed participant-centred interventions to maximise participant retention in randomised controlled trials. Trials 2022;23:268.

Oliveira, CA, Weber, B, Dos Santos, JLF, Zucoloto, ML, de Camargo, LL, Zanetti, ACG, Rzewuska, M,de Azevedo-Marques, JM. Health complexity assessment in primary care: A validity and feasibility study of the INTERMED tool. PLoS One 2022;17(2):e0263702.

Parkes, T, Matheson, C, Carver, H, Foster, R, Budd, J, Liddell, D, Wallace, J, Pauly, B, Fotopoulou, M, Burley, A, Anderson, I, Price, T, Schofield, J, MacLennan, G. Assessing the feasibility, acceptability and accessibility of a peer-delivered intervention to reduce harm and improve the well-being of people who experience homelessness with problem substance use: the SHARPS study. Harm Reduct J 2022;19(1):10.

Paterson, H, Cotton, S, Norrie, J, Nimmo, S, Foo, I, Balfour, A, Speake, D, MacLennan, G, Stoddart, A, Innes, K, Cameron, S, Aucott, L, McCormack, K. The ALLEGRO trial: a placebo controlled randomised trial of intravenous lidocaine in accelerating gastrointestinal recovery after colorectal surgery. Trials 2022;23:84.

Pirosca, S, Shiely, F, Clarke, M, Treweek, S. Tolerating bad health research: the continuing scandal. Trials 2022;23(1):458.

Ramsay, G, Scott, N, Bekheit, M, Watson, A, Jansen, JJ, Wohlgemut, J. Emergency General Surgery: Impact of Distance and Rurality on Mortality. BJS Open 2022;6(2).

Robertson, C, Aceves-Martins, M, Cruickshank, M, Imamura, M, Avenell, A. Does weight management research for adults with severe obesity represent them? Analysis of systematic review data. BMJ Open 2022;12(5):e054459.

Runjic, R, Plenkovic, M, Pirosca, S, Clarke, M, Treweek, S, Puljak, L. Recommendations from Cochrane reviews for improving future trials on anesthesia and pain: a meta-research study. J Comp Eff Res 2022:

Treweek, S, Miyakoda, V, Burke, D, Shiely, F. Getting it wrong most of the time? Comparing trialists’ choice of primary outcome with what patients and health professionals want. Trials 2022;23(1):537.

Turner, S, Cotton, S, Wood, J, Bell, V, Raja, EA, Scott, NW, Morgan, H, Lawrie, L, Emele, D, Kennedy, C, Scotland, G, Fielding, S, MacLennan, G, Norrie, J, Forrest, M, Gaillard, EA, de Jongste, J, Pijnenburg, M, Thomas, M, Price, D. Reducing asthma attacks in children using exhaled nitric oxide (RAACENO) as a biomarker to inform treatment strategy: a multicentre, parallel, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Respir Med 2022.

Wood, J, Cotton, S, Gillies, K. The relative importance of information items and preferred mode of delivery when disseminating results from trials to participants: a mixed methods study. Health Expect 2022;25(1):419-29.