The Marischal Chair
Some recent lectures / media work:
Tom Greggs holds the Marischal Chair of Divinity (the oldest separated Divinity chair established in 1616) at the University, and is a founding co-director of the Aberdeen Centre for Protestant Theology. He also currently serves as Head of Divinity at Aberdeen. He previously held a chair in Historical and Doctrinal Theology, and until 2011, when he joined the University of Aberdeen, was Professor of Systematic Theology at the University of Chester. He has also taught at the University of Cambridge.
Tom's principal publications include: Theology against Religion: Constructive Dialogues with Bonhoeffer and Barth (T&T Clark, 2011); Barth, Origen, and Universal Salvation: Restoring Particularity (OUP, 2009); New Perspectives for Evangelical Theology (Routledge, 2010); and The Vocation of Theology Today (Cascade, 2013, with Rachel Muers and Simeon Zahl). He is also the author of over 50 articles and book chapters. His current work focuses on ecclesiology, and he has just completed the first volume (Participating in the Priestly Catholicity of the Church which will be published in autumn 2019) of his 3 volume Protestant Ecclesiology. Alongside this, with Maria Dekake and Steven Kepnes, he is writing A Handbook for Scriptural Reasoning, and has recently completed a short more popula level monograph provisionally entitled The Breadth of Salvation. Tom is the editor of Brill's Companions to Modern Theology Series and co-editor of the Edinburgh University Press Critical History of Theology Series. He is a member of the editorial boards of The Journal for Scriptural Reasoning and Holiness (a newly launched Methodist peer-reviewed journal), as well as being a consultant editor for Stanford University Press's 'Encountering Traditions' series.
Tom is the former Secretary of Society for the Study of Theology (2010-2013; acting secretary 2008-10); and has served as co-chair of the Scriptural Reasoning Panel at the American Academy of Religion, for which he currently sits on the Book Awards Jury for the History of Religion Section. He was elected a founding member of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Young Academy of Scotland, and is an Honorary Professor of Theology at St Mellitus College, London. He has been a visiting research fellow at St John's College, Durham, and College of Arts and Sciences International Visiting Scholar and Visiting Professor in Religion at the University of Virginia.
Tom serves on the Faith and Order Commission of the World Council of Churches, having been elected in 2015, and on the Faith and Order Committee of the Methodist Church. He was involved in 2017 in a theological review of the Crown Nominations Commission as the only non-Anglican member. He is a Preacher in the British Methodist Connexion, and has given sermons around the world. He regularly leads Continuing Professional Development for clergy, speaks at large church conferences, and appears on the radio. He was the 2014 Fernely Hartley-Lecturer for the Methodist Church, and addressed the doctrine of the Priesthood of All Believers. He also gave the 2014 Conference Lecture for the Methodist Church on the impact of Doctrine on the life and ministry of the church (an honour very rarely bestowed on a non-presbyter to presbyteral session); this paper was used to launch the journal Holiness.
Tom's own theological training took place at the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. He was awarded an open scholarship at Christ Church, University of Oxford, where he was very influenced by the late Professor John Webster. Tom graduated from Oxford with the highest first class honours in his year in Theology, for which was received the Denyer and Johnson Prize. Following time as a teacher of Religion and Philosophy at the Manchester Grammar School (and a PGCE in Religious Studies, Philosophy and PSHE), Tom took a PhD in Systematic Theology at the University of Cambridge, supervised by Professor David Ford (Regius Professor of Divinity). During his doctorate, he also studied with Dr Thomas Graumann and Professor Dan Hardy.
A Scouser born and bred, Tom remains a foundation guardian at his old school, the Liverpool Blue Coat. Outside of Theology, his interests include politics, crime novels, cooking, wine, theatre and jazz. He is married to Heather and lives in rural Aberdeenshire.
There are five main areas of my research, and I would be interested in receiving applicants from post-graduates in each of these areas:
1. My major focus currently is a three volume Protestant ecclesiology: volume 1 - participating in the priestly catholicity of the church; volume 2 - encountering the prophetic apostolicity of the church; and volume 3 - being transformed into the kingly holiness of the church. The three volumes are provisionally entitled A Dogmatic Ecclesiology, and are under contract to be published by Baker Academic over the next ten years. I wrote a first draft of this first volume during 2017 thanks to a grant from the British Academy; the draft manuscript is currently the discussion text for the Systematics Seminar. I would welcome applicants from students on any area relating to ecclesiology, or to homiletics.
2. I am interested in major doctrinal loci, especially in relation to patristic theology, protestant theology (Reformation, nineteenth century and modern), and modern theology. Within this broad area, I am particularly interested in the figures of Origen, Barth and Bonhoeffer; and in the doctrines of God, the Trinity, salvation, the last things and the Holy Spirit; however, I am happy to supervise more broadly. I am interested in historical approaches to doctrines and theologians for the sake of constructive theological reflection.
3. As a Methodist Theologian who sits on Faith and Order of the Methodist Church and serves as a Methodist on the World Council of Churches Faith and Order Commission, I am interested in the history and theology of the Methodist Churches and traditions. I have a particular interest in the theology and preaching of John Wesley and in methodological questions of appropriating Wesley for contrustive theology, in Methodism as a form of Protestantism (and its relation to Reformation figures), Methodism and Evangelical Theology, and Methodist use of the Patrisitc traditions. I am also interested in radical Methodist traditions and in significant Methodist preachers, as well as the relationship between Methodist and Pentecostal / charismatic theology and Methodist ecumenism.
4. A large part of my work concerns how to articulate theology outwith the conditions of Christendom. This involves both theological reflection on the conditions of post-Christendom, and on issues that the conditions of post-Christendom raise. This aspect of my research has included reflection on such issues as how to think theologically about church-state relations, theo-politics, pluralism, secularism/secularity, political liberalism, contemporary evangelicalism, and salvation and the non-Christian. I am particularly interested in the ways in which classical doctrine and public theology relate.
5. Alongside these areas, I am also working, with Steven Kepnes of Colgate University and Rumee Ahmed of University of British Columbia, on an Introduction to Scriptural Reasoning (the inter-faith practice of Muslims, Jews and Christians reading scripture together), and have led a project with Mike Higton (University of Cambridge) on the nature of impact for theology in a post-Christendom Society. I would be interested receiving applications from students who wish to study theologies of the religions and inter-faith work, as well as the nature and impact of doctrine.
Dr Yacob Godebo (now Dean of Addis Abbaba Lutheran Theological Seminary, Ethiopia):
The Charismatic Movement and Lutheran Theology
Dr Chris Burkett (now Diocesan Director of Ministry):
Homiletics and Collective Memory
Dr James Holt (now Senior Lecturer in Religious Studies Education):
A Latter-Day Saint Theology of the Religions
Dr Joan Evans (retired):
The Mystical Immanence of Matthew Fox
Dr John Tyers (retired):
A history of the Anglican Retreat Movement
Dr Nathan Paylor (University of Chester):
Reformed Theological Hermeneutics
Dr John McCabe (University of Chester):
Dietrich Bonhoeffer's Theology of Work
Dr Aaron Edwards (Lecturer in Systematic Theology, Cliff College):
Dialectic and Preaching
Dr Rory MacLoed (DMin):
The contemporary church and pneumatology
Dr Roderick Grahame (DMin):
Does the Round ower Topple?
Dr Petre Maican:
Theology of the Image
Dr Chris Dodson:
Bonhoeffer's Religionless Christianity and the Sacraments
Dr Matthew Burdette:
Jenson and Cone's Revolutionary Theology
Dr DJ Konz:
Father, child and missio dei (with reference to Barth)
Dr David Emerton:
Ecclesiology in Bonhoeffer
Dr Ross Hallbach:
Dietrich Bonhoeffer's contribution to Race and Gentrification Discourse
Dr Kenneth Laing:
The Rule of Faith in Irenaeus
Dr Sean McGever:
A theology of conversion in Wesley and Whitfield
Dr Jonathan Lynch:
Bonhoeffer on a Weakness of Faith
Mystery in Barth
Karl Barth on the Confessions of the Church
Coptic Theology and T F Torrance
Berger's Plausibility Structures as applie to St John's Gospel
Bonhoeffer's Ecumenical Theology
Nyssa's Doctrine of God in Dialogue with Contemporary Theology Proper
Bonhoeffer's Doctrine of Sin in dialogue with Augustine
Liturgical Theology and Theological Method
Bonhoeffer and Missiology
Religionless Christianity and Salvationist Missiology
John Webster's Doctrine of God
John Wesley's Doctrines of Sin and Sanctification
T. F. Torrance's Ecclesiology
Sola Gratia & Hyper-Grace
The Impact of Samuel Davies on American Evangelical Life and Thought
The Implications of Wesleyan and Orthodox Accounts of Sanctification for Liturgical Theology
Bonhoeffer's Fictional Literature
Tillich and Bonhoeffer
The Impeccability of Christ
T F Torrance's Ecclesiology
Recent Grants include:
AHRC Network Grant (with Professor Mike Higton): Doctrine after Christendom (complete): £35,000
British Academy Mid-Career Research Grant (2017): £122,000
My usual teaching areas include:
- Global Issues / Global Religion (Level 1, Sixth Century Course): course co-ordinator
- An Introduction to Christian Theology (Level 1)
- From Jesus to Calvin: The History of Christian Thought (Level 2): course co-ordinator
- Philosophy of Religion (Level 2)
- Dissertations (undergraduate and postgraduate)
- The Doctrine of God (postgraduate)
- Further Info
- Member of the World Council of Churches Faith and Order Panel
- Member of the Faith and Order Commission of the Methodist Church
- Steering Committee Member, Duke University Theology, Modernity and the Arts
- External Examiner, Theology in History, University of Edinburgh (post-graduate)
- Member of Methodist Church's Faith and Order Committee
- Executive Committee Member of TRSUK
- Book Award Jury Member, American Academy of Religion
- Member of the Shalom Hartmann Institute Religious Pluralism Consultation
- Member of Scriptural Reasoning in the University Group (Cambridge)
- Former External Examiner: University of Aberdeen (undergrad and PGT), University of Cambridge (tripos, MPhil and diploma), Heythrop College (PGT), and University of St Andrews (undergrad and PGT)
- PhD External Examiner: Universities of Cambridge, Oxford, London (King's College), St Andrews, Edinburgh, Belfast (Queen's), Wales, Chester
- Head of Divinity (from Jan 2019)
- Impact Lead
- Multi-Faith Chaplaincy Committee
- Honorary Chaplain
- The Vocation of Theology Today: A Festscrift for David Ford, editor with Rachel Muers and Simeon Zahl (Eugene, Or.: Cascade, 2013), xiv + 409pp., ISBN: 978-1-61097-625-1.
- Theology against Religion: constructive dialogues with Bonhoeffer and Barth (London: T&T Clark, 2011), 256pp., ISBN: 9780567104236.
- New Perspectives for Evangelical Theology: Engaging God, Scripture and the World, editor (Abingdon: Routledge, 2010), xvi + 223pp., ISBN: 978-0-415-47733-8 (paperback); 978-0-415-44356-2 (hardback).
- Barth, Origen, and Universal Salvation: Restoring Particularity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), xxiv + 272pp., ISBN: 978-0-199-56048-6.
- Dietrich Bonhoeffer: A Real Theologian (Liverpool: CTT, 2003), ii + 24pp., ISBN:189-7-705-247.
Books in preparation / under contract:
- A Dogmatic Ecclesiology (Baker Academic): three volumes.
- A Handbook to Scriptural Reasoning, with Steve Kepnes.
- The Breadth of Salvation
Editorships of Series:
- Brill Companions to Modern Theology Series.
- Edinburgh University Press Critical History of Christian Theology.
Select Academic Articles and Book Chapters:
- “Why does the Church need academic theology?” Epworth Review 33, no. 3 (April 2006): 27-37.
- “‘Jesus is Victor’: Passing the Impasse of Barth on Universalism.” Scottish Journal of Theology 60, no.2 (May 2007): 196-212.
- “Exclusivist or universalist? Origen ‘the wise steward of the word’ (CommRom. V.1.7) and the issue of genre.” International Journal of Systematic Theology 9, no.3 (July 2007): 315-327.
- “Religionless Christianity in a Complexly Religious and Secular World: Thinking through and beyond Bonhoeffer” in Ralf K. Wüstenberg & Stephen J. Plant (eds), Religion, Religionlessness and Contemporary Western Culture. International Bonhoeffer Interpretations Vol.1 (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2008): 111-125.
- “Bringing Barth on religion to the inter-faith table.” The Journal of Religion 88, no.1 (January 2008): 75-94.
- “The many names of Christ in Wisdom: reading Scripture with Origen for a diverse world.” in “Spreading Rumours of Wisdom: Essays in honour of David Ford” The Journal for Scriptural Reasoning (January 2008). (4,185 words)
- “Religionless Christianity and the Political Implications of Theological Speech: What Bonhoeffer’s Theology yields to a World of Fundamentalisms.” International Journal of Systematic Theology 11, no. 3 (June 2009), 293-308.
- “Preaching Inter-faith: finding hints about the religious other from the Good Samaritan.” Epworth Review 36, no.3 (December 2009), 60-70.
- “Beyond the binary: Forming evangelical eschatology” in Tom Greggs (ed.), New Perspectives for Evangelical Theology, (Abingdon: Routledge, 2010), 153-167.
- “Introduction - Opening Evangelicalism: Towards a post-critical and formative theology,” in Tom Greggs (ed.), New Perspectives for Evangelical Theology, (Abingdon: Routledge, 2010), 1-13.
- “Editorial.” International Journal of Systematic Theology 12, no. 1, (January 2010) 1-3. (Guest editor of an edition on “Trinitarian Theology”).
- “Legitimizing and Necessitating Inter-faith Dialogue: The Dynamics of Inter-faith for Individual Faith Communities.” International Journal of Public Theology 4, no. 2 (2010), 194-211.
- “The Eschatological Tension of Theological Method: Some reflections after reading Daniel W. Hardy’s ‘Creation and Eschatology’.” Theology, CXIII, no. 875 (2010), 339-47.
- “Inter-faith Pedagogy for Muslims and Christians: Scriptural Reasoning and Christian and Muslim Youth Work.” Discourse 9, no. 2 (2010), 201-26.
- “Pessimistic Universalism: Rethinking the Wider Hope with Bonhoeffer and Barth.” Modern Theology, 26, no. 4 (2010), 495-510.
- “Particularist Universalism in Origen of Alexandria,” in Gregory MacDonald (ed.), “All Shall Be Well”: Explorations in Universal Salvation and Christian Theology from Origen to Moltmann (Eugene, OR: Cascade, 2010), 29-46.
- “The Lord of All: Rediscovering the Christian Doctrine of Providence for a Pluralist Society,” in Hannah Bacon & Wayne Morris (eds), Theology, Religion and Exclusion: Towards Transformation (London: T&T Clark, 2011), 44-62.
- “Motifs in Pneumatology in the Twenty-first century,” in Jane Williams (ed.), The Holy Spirit and the World Today (London: SPTC Books, 2011), 175-88.
- “The Confessions of Stanley: Accounting for a Human Life Lived Before God.” Modern Theology, 28, no. 2 (2012), 315-319.
- “Review article of David Kelsey, Eccentric Existence.” Scottish Journal of Theology, 65, no. 4 (2012), 449-463.
- “Peoples of the Covenants: Evangelical Theology and the Plurality of the Covenants in Scripture.” Journal for Scriptural Reasoning, 11, no. 1 (2012), online.
- “Reading Scripture in a Pluralist Society: A Path to Discovering the Hermeneutics of Agape” in Stanley E. Porter & Matthew Malcolm (eds), Horizons in Hermeneutics: A Festschrift in Honor of Anthony C. Thiselton (Grand Rapids: Eerdmanns, 2013), 201-216.
- “Being a wise apprentice to the communion of modern saints: on the need for conversation with a plurality of theological interlocutors,” in The Vocation of Theology Today: A Festschrift for David Ford (Eugene, Or.: Cascade, Jan 2013), 21-24.
- “Introduction,” (with Muers and Zahl) in The Vocation of Theology Today (Eugene, Or.: Cascade , 2013), 1-18.
- “A strangely warmed heart in a strange and complex world: on assurance and generous hope” in Julie Gittoes, Brutus Green and James Heard (eds), Generous Ecclesiology: Church, World and the Kingdom of God (London: SCM, 2013), 120-39.
- “Relational Responsibility in Biblical Hermeneutics: Towards a Protestant Account of the Authority of Creeds for Scriptural Interpretation,” in Stanley E. Porter & Matthew Malcolm (eds), The Future of Biblical Interpretation: Responsible Plurality in Biblical Hermeneutics (Milton Keynes: Paternoster, 2013), 93-105.
- "Speaking and Thinking about God," in The Review vol LXII, 2 Nos 220-21 (2011 & 2012), 349-56.
- "Ecclesial Priestly Mediation in the Theology of Bonhoeffer," in Theology Today - Special Bonhoeffer Edition, 71/1, 2014, 81-91.
- “The Church and Sacraments” in Kent Eilers & Kyle Strobel (eds), Sanctified by Grace: A Theology of the Christian Life (London: T&T Clark, 2014), 157-170.
- “Dialoguing with the Wisdom of the Past: An Interview with Professor Tom Greggs.” The Christian Thought (translated into Korean) (Korea, 2014): 144-153.
- “‘If it is teaching, then teach!’ (Rom 12: 7): Ministry, Big Issues, and Grown Up Discipleship.” Holiness vol. 1, no. 1, (Spring 2015); online: 3-20.
- “Proportion and Topography in Ecclesiology: A Working Paper on the Dogmatic Location of the Doctrine of the Church,” in R. David Nelson, Darren Sarisky & Justin Stratis (eds), Theological Theology (London: T&T Clark, 2015), 89-106.
- “The Priesthood of No Believer: On the Priesthood of Christ and His Church,” International Journal of Systematic Theology, 17:4 (2015): 374-98.
- “The Influence of Dietrich Bonhoeffer on Karl Barth,” in Matthew Kirkpatrick (ed.), Engaging Bonhoeffer: The Impact and Influence and Impact of Bonhoeffer’s Life and Thought (Minneapolis: Fortress, 2016), 45-64.
- “Bearing Sin in the Church: The Ecclesial Harmartiology of Dietrich Bonhoeffer,” in Michael Mawson & Philip Ziegler (eds), Christ, Church and World: New Studies in Bonhoeffer’s Theology and Ethics (London: T&T Clark, 2016), 77-100.
- “Communio Ecclesiology: The Spirit’s Work of Salvation in the Life of the Church,” in Myk Habets (ed.), Third Article Theology: A Pneumatological Dogmatics (Minneapolis: Fortress Press: 2016), 347-66.
- “Sola Scriptura, the community of the church and a pluralist age,” in Angus Pattison, Theologians on Scripture (London: Bloomsbury, 2016), 79-92.
- "The Order and Movement of Eternity: Karl Barth on the Eternity of God and Creaturely Time," in Philip Ziegler (ed.), Eternal God, Eternal Life: Theological Investigations into the Concept of Immortality (London: Bloomsbury, 2016), 1-26.
- “Karl Barth on Salvation,” in Justin Holcomb, Christian Theologies of Salvation (New York: New York University Press, 2017), 300-317.
- "Scripture in the Life of the Church: Sola Scriptura and Ecclesial Interpretation” in Donald Wood (ed.), Scripture, Canon and Interpretation (London: IVP, forthcoming); in press.
- “Universalism,” in Adam Johnson (ed.), T&T Clark Companion to the Atonement (London: T&T Clark, forthcoming), in press.
- “In gratitude for grace: praise, worship and the sanctified life,” Scottish Journal of Theology 70:2 (2017): 147-65.
- "The Catholic Spirit of Protestantism: The Third Article, Visible Unity, and Ecumenism," Pro Ecclesia 26:4 (2017): 353-72.
- “Barthian Universalism,” in David Congdon (ed.), Christian Universalism: A Multi-View Account (working title) (Westmont: IVP, forthcoming), in press, 15,000 words.
- “On the Nature, Task and Method of Theology: A Very Methodist Account,” International Journal of Systematic Theology (13,500 words, accepted and forthcoming).
- "Christian Universalism," in Adam Johnson (ed.), Five Views of the Extent of the Atonement (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, forthcoming), in press, 9,000 words.
- "Karl Barth and the Patristic Era," in Paul Jones & Paul Nimmo (eds), Oxford Handbook to Karl Barth (Oxford: OUP, forthcoming), in press.
- "The Glory of God in the People of God: Participating in the Intensity of the Spirit's Life," in Adesola Akala (ed.), Exploring the Glory of God (forthcoming).
- "Ecclesiology," in Philip Ziegler and Michael Mawson (eds), Oxford Handbook to Dietrich Bonhoeffer (Oxford: OUP, forthcoming), in press.
- "The Call to Focus on God: John Webster’s God without Measure," Modern Theology (accepted and forthcoming)
- "Never a Liberal to be ‘Post’ It: (Re-)learning to be a Better Kind of Evangelical with Peter Ochs," in Tom Greggs, Mark James and Randi Rashkover (eds), Essays in Honour of Peter Ochs (forthcoming).
- "Creation and Covenant," in Simon Oliver (ed.), The Oxford Handbook to Creation (Oxford: OUP, forthcoming), in press.
- "Wesley's Radical Ecclesiology: A Church for the World not a World for the Church; or Polity only for a Purpose," in Kenneth Newport et al., The Reinventions of Methodism: Sect, Church and Radical Movement (Oxford: OUP, forthcoming), in press.
- "Joining Christ in Prayer: The Threefold Office of Christ," in Ashley Cocksworth and John McDowell, T&T Clark Handbook to Christian Prayer (London: T&T Clark, forthcoming), in preparation.
Select Academic Reviews:
- "Academic News: X. International Bonhoeffer Congress: Dietrich Bonhoeffer's Theology in Today's World: A Way between Fundamentalism and Secularism, 22-27 July, 2008, Agricultural University, Prague, Czech Republic." Sino-Christian Studies: An International Journal of Bible, Theology & Philosophy, vol. 6, December 2008: 199-203.
- Numerous book reviews in the following journals: Scottish Journal of Theology, Expository Times, Journal of Reformed Theology, Theology, Epworth Review, Modern Theology, Studies in Christian Ethics and Modern Believing.
- "Irenaeus and Augustine on the Problem of Evil Reconsidered." New Theologian, Spring 2004: 22-4.
- "The Future of God," Emerging Culture, Summer 2006: 25.
- "Tolerance isn't enough!" Emerging Culture, Spring 2007: 12-13.
- "A Giant of Theology," in "Supplement on Calvin," The Methodist Recorder, January 2009 (1,004 words).
- Panelist on Radio 4, Beyond Belief.
- "Faith and Reason," Educational Videos for VI form students.
- "Dietrich Bonhoeffer," St John's, Nottingham, Theological Timeline Project.
- "Karl Barth and Contemporary Theology," St John's, Nottingham, Theological Timeline Project.
- Game Changer (TV film documentary discussing Bonhoeffer), 2016.
Select Public Lectures / Sermon Series:
- Studies on II Corintians, Easter People, 2005, 5 talks. Filmed and recorded by Reel Life.
- Studies on II Timothy, Easter People, 2006, 5 talks, with Charles Price. Filmed and Recorded by Reel Life.
- Reconceiving Repentance, Convocation of the Diaconal Order of the Methodist Church, 2007, 4 lectures.
- "I desire mercy not sacrifice," sermon at Matins at Canterbury Cathedral, 2008.
- "Can there be Theology after Darwin? The Dawkins Delusion," Centre for Religion and the Biosciences Public Lecture, University of Chester, 2008.?
- "Respondent to David Ford, Rowan Williams, Miroslav Volf and Juergen Moltmann," The Holy Spirit and the World Today, St Paul's Theological Centre, London, May 2010.
- "The Holy Spirit and engaging with other religions," St Paul's Theological Centre, London, May 2010.
- "Why wisdom is greater than knowledge," The Paton Lecture, Manchester, July 2010.
- "The Church after Christendom," The Sutcliffe Lecture, The Methodist Church, July 2010.
- "Church and Theology in the Spirit: Theological Reflections on Acts 2," Holy Trinity Brompton, May 2011.
- "Thinkers Theological," Faith and Order Lecture, The Methodist Church, September 2012.
- Reflections on the Cross, Good Friday, Holy Trinity Brompton, March 2013.
- Studies on Ephesians (5 talks recorded and distributed), April 2015.
- The Breadth of Salvation (Trinity College, Singapore)
Membership of Scholarly Societies
- Society for the Study of Theology
- American Academy of Religion
- Society for Scriptural Reasoning
- International Dietrich Bonhoeffer Society
- Scriptural Reasoning in the University
- Karl Barth Society of North America
- International Bonhoeffer Colloquium