Professor Carol Munro

Professor Carol Munro

Personal Chair

Overview
Professor Carol Munro
Professor Carol Munro

Contact Details


Qualifications

PhD, The Molecular Analysis of Chitin Synthesis in Candida albicans University of Aberdeen 1997
BSc, Biochemistry University of Aberdeen 1993
First Class Hons

External Memberships and Affiliations

Deputy Editor-In-Chief of FEMS Yeast Research.

Chair of Advanced Lecture Course on Human Fungal Pathogens HFP2017.

Ad hoc reviewer for international journals: PLoS Pathogens, Molecular Microbiology, Journal Biological Chemistry, FEMS Microbiology Letters, Microbiology, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Medical Mycology, Mycoses, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Fungal Genetics and Biology, Eukaryotic Cell, Infection & Immunity, Yeast, Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions.

 

 

Research

Research Areas


Research Overview

My research interests are focussed on understanding the pathogenicity of the most common life-threatening fungal agent Candida albicans in order to design better therapies to combat invasive fungal infections. I am particularly interested in the fungal wall as it is central to pathogen-host interactions and is an attractive target for novel therapies. We are studying how the cell surface is remodelled in response to the environment including exposure to antifungal drugs and growth in vivo and the signalling pathways that govern cell wall remodelling. We study the signalling pathways that regulate cell wall synthesis and re-modelling, and their target genes, especially cell surface proteins that have potential roles in pathogenesis including interactions with the host. My research team are investigating the function and transcriptional regulation of a subset of novel GPI-anchored proteins. We are also using a proteomics approach to detect proteins in the cell wall under different environment conditions and in response to antifungal drugs. We are investigating the molecular mechanisms that regulate cell wall salvage pathways and alter cell wall architecutre and composition. We are using these approaches to compare the cell walls of drug sensitive and resistant fungal isolate to determine the impact on cell wall changes to antifungal resistance.  

My research also spans antifungal drug development and I have been awarded a Knowledge Transfer Partnership grant, SULSA Bioskape industrial studentship and a MRC CASE studentship with NovaBiotics Ltd to develop antimicrobial peptides as therapies for systemic fungal and polymicrobial infections. I am also developing antibodies against fungal cell surface proteins with the Scottish Biologics Facility as diagnostics and therapeutics against invasive fungal infections. 

A further area of research is functional genomics and through a Wellcome Trust Biomedical Resources grant jointly funded with Dr Christophe D’Enfert, Institut Pasteur my group have constructed C. albicans ORFeome and over-expression libraries that will be distributed to the community. My aim is to use the over-expression collection to perform high throughput phenotypic analysis to gain a better understanding of fungal virulence and to improve the existing genome annotation by elucidating the roles of uncharacterised genes.


Current Research

I am a partner in the EU -funded Innovative Training Network OPATHY (From Omics to Patient: Improving Diagnostics of Pathogenic Yeasts) http://www.opathy.eu/ Within this network we are developing antifungal drug resistance biomarkers using a proteomics approach. 

I am a partner in the EU -funded Innovative Training Network FunHoMic (Deciphering the fungus-host-microbiota interplay to improve the management of fungal infections). https://www.funhomic.eu/en 

 


Past Research

I was a partner in the EU -funded Innovative Training Network OPATHY (From Omics to Patient: Improving Diagnostics of Pathogenic Yeasts) http://www.opathy.eu/ Within this network we developed antifungal drug resistance biomarkers using a proteomics approach. 


Collaborations

Dr Christophe D'Enfert Pasteur Institute, France, - C. albicans ORFeome and over-expression library.

 Dr Campbell Gourlay, University of Kent -  Investigating the role of mitochondrial electron transport chain function in fungal pathogenicity and drug resistance.

Dr Donna MaCallum, University of Aberdeen - Human skin ex-plant model to study fungal infections.

Dr Soumya Palliyl, Professor Andy Porter, Scottish Biologics Facility - Developing fungal cell surface targeting antibodies.

Dr Annika Scheynius, Karolinska Institute - Malassezia sympodialis interactions with the host.


Research Funding and Grants

EU FunHoMic Innovative Training Network 2019-2023 “Deciphering the fungus-host-microbiota interplay to improve the management of fungal infections” PI with Dr Alan Walker and Prof Al Brown.

NC3Rs Phd studentship 2019-2022. Modelling Candida albicans infection of the human gut using human intestinal organoid cultures. Co-PI with Dr Silvia Gratz and Dr Donna MacCallum

Gilead Investigator Led Study 2020-2021 Can echinocandin-induced tolerance mechanisms promote persistent, drug recalcitrant infections? PI with Dr Louise Walker

Leverhulme Trust/Royal Society Senior Research Fellowship 2019-2020 Unbiased functional genomics screens for the molecular dissection of Candida albicans pathobiology and cellular morphology.

SULSA Antimicrobial Resistance Seed Funding 2018-2019 Antifungal potential of compounds produced by thermophilic Actinobacteria from compost, upon strains of azole resistant Aspergillus fumigatus. Co-Pi with Dr Gillian Halket, University of Strathclyde.

Wellcome Trust Strategic Award International PhD Scholarship 2014-2018  Investigating the role of mitochondrial electron transport chain function in fungal pathogenicity and drug resistance. Co-PI with Dr Campbell Gourlay, University of Kent.

MRC Case studentship with NovaBiotics Ltd 2013-2017 Novel combination strategies to combat complex respiratory polymicrobial infections associated with cystic fibrosis.

Wellcome Trust Strategic Award Cross-disciplinary PDRA Project Award 2013-2017  Evaluating clinical outcomes to Candida albicans biofilm formation in candidaemia patients. Co-PI with Prof Ramage, University of Glasgow.

EU OPATHY Innovative Training Network 2015-2019 fungal diagnostics.

Wellcome Trust ISSF award 2016-2017 barcode sequencing.

MRC Confidence in Concepts grant 2015-2017 Development of novel biologics-based antifungal therapeutics and diagnostics targeted towards Candida albicans cell surface glycoproteins.

SULSA MSD Postdoctoral grant with Dundee Drug Disovery Unit 2013-2015. Developing chitin synthase inhibitors.

BBSRC Case studentship with NovaBiotics, Prof. Ruth Ross, Prof Tony Ormerod. 2011-2015 Development of a bacterial-skin infection model to optimise the treatment and improve our understanding of persistent infections.

SULSA BioSkape industrial studentship with NovaBiotics Ltd 2010-2014

Antifungal peptide drugs. Knowledge Transfer Partnership with NovaBiotics Ltd 2010-2012

The Candida albicans ORFeome project .Wellcome Trust Biomedical Resources grant 2009-2013 (Lead PI with Dr d'Enfert, Institut Pasteur)

Gilead Sciences sponsored industrial studentships 2006-2010, 2009-2012 (with Professor Gow)

Regulation of the biosynthesis of the cell wall skeleton of Candida albicans. Wellcome Trust project grant  2009-2012 (Co-PI with Professor Gow and Odds)

Antifungal drug screening programme. University of Aberdeen Commercialisation Award 2010

The role of fungal cell wall composition and remodelling in echinocandin drug tolerance and resistance. British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy research grant 2010

Teaching

Courses

Publications

Publications 

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  • The impact of the Fungus-Host-Microbiota interplay upon Candida albicans infections: current knowledge and new perspectives

    d'Enfert, C., Kaune, A., Rey Alaban, L., Chakraborty, S., Cole, N., Delavy, M., Kosmala, D., Marsaux, B., FróisMartins, R., Morelli, M., Rosati, D., Valentine, M., Xie, Z., Emritloll, Y., Warn, P. A., Bequet, F., Bougnoux, M., Bornes, S., Gresnigt, M. S., Hube, B., Jacobsen, l. D., Legrand, M., Leibundgut-Landmann, S., Manichanh, C., Munro, C., Netea, M. G., Queiroz, K., Roget, K., Thomas, V., Thora, C., Van den Abbeele, P., Walker, A. W., Brown, A. J.

    FEMS Microbiology Reviews, fuaa060

    Contributions to Journals: Review articles

  • The potential of respiration inhibition as a new approach to combat human fungal pathogens

    Duvenage, L., Munro, C. A., Gourlay, C. W.

    Current Genetics, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 1347-1353

    Contributions to Journals: Review articles

  • Inhibition of Classical and Alternative Modes of Respiration in Candida albicans Leads to Cell Wall Remodeling and Increased Macrophage Recognition

    Duvenage, L., Walker, L. A., Bojarczuk, A., Johnston, S. A., MacCallum, D. M., Munro, C. A., Gourlay, C. W.

    mBio, vol. 10, no. 1, e02535-18

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Hypoxia Promotes Immune Evasion by Triggering β-glucan Masking on the Candida albicans Cell Surface via Mitochondrial and cAMP-Protein Kinase A Signaling

    Pradhan, A., Avelar, G. M., Bain, J. M., Childers, D. S., Larcombe, D. E., Netea, M. G., Shekhova, E., Munro, C. A., Brown, G. D., Erwig, L. P., Gow, N. A. R., Brown, A. J. P.

    mBio, vol. 9, e01318-18

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Systematic Gene Overexpression in Candida albicans identifies a Regulator of Early Adaptation to the Mammalian Gut

    Znaidi, S., van Wijlick, L., Hernández-Cervantes, A., Sertour, N., Desseyn, J., Vincent, F., Atanassova, R., Gouyer, V., Munro, C. A., Bachellier-Bassi, S., Dalle, F., Jouault, T., Bougnoux, M., d'Enfert, C.

    Cellular Microbiology, vol. 20, no. 11, 12890

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Generating genomic platforms to study Candida albicans pathogenesis

    Legrand, M., Bachellier-Bassi, S., Lee, K. K., Chaudhari, Y., Tournu, H., Arbogast, L., Boyer, H., Chauvel, M., Cabral, V., Maufrais, C., Nesseir, A., Maslanka, I., Permal, E., Rossignol, T., Walker, L. A., Zeidler, U., Znaidi, S., Schoeters, F., Majgier, C., Julien, R. A., Ma, L., Tichit, M., Bouchier, C., Dijck, P. V., Munro, C. A., d'Enfert, C.

    Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 46, no. 14, pp. 6935-6949

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Methodologies for in vitro and in vivo evaluation of efficacy of antifungal and antibiofilm agents and surface coatings against fungal biofilms

    Dijck, P. V., Sjollema, J., Cammue, B. P., Lagrou, K., Berman, J., d'Enfert, C., Andes, D. R., Arendrup, M. C., Brakhage, A. A., Calderone, R., Cantón, E., Coenye, T., Cos, P., Cowen, L. E., Edgerton, M., Espinel-Ingroff, A., Filler, S. G., Ghannoum, M., Gow, N. A. R., Haas, H., Jabra-Rizk, M. A., Johnson, E. M., Lockhart, S. R., López-Ribot, J. L., Maertens, J., Munro, C. A., Nett, J. E., Nobile, C. J., Pfaller, M. A., Ramage, G., Sanglard, D., Sanguinetti, M., Spriet, I., Verweij, P. E., Warris, A., Wauters, J., Yeaman, M. R., Zaat, S. A., Thevissen, K.

    Microbial Cell, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 300-326

    Contributions to Journals: Review articles

  • Defects in intracellular trafficking of fungal cell wall synthases lead to aberrant host immune recognition

    Esher, S. K., Ost, K. S., Kohlbrenner, M. A., Pianalto, K. M., Telzrow, C. L., Campuzano, A., Nichols, C. B., Munro, C., Wormley, Jr, F. L., Alspaugh, J. A.

    PLoS Pathogens, vol. 14, no. 6, e1007126

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Cell walls of the dimorphic fungal pathogens Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis exhibit bilaminate structures and sloughing of extensive and intact layers

    Lopes Bezerra, L. M., Walker, L. A., Vega, G. N., MoraMontes, H. M., Neves, G. W. P., Villalobos-Duno, H., Barreto, L., Garcia, K., Franco, B., Martínez-Álvarez, J. A., Munro, C. A., Gow, N. A. R.

    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 12, no. 3, e0006169

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Mitogen activated kinases (MAPK) and protein phosphatases are involved in Aspergillus fumigatus adhesion and biofilm formation

    Manfiolli, A., Dos Reis, T. F., de Assis, L. J., de Castro, P. A., Pereira Silva, L., Hori, J., Walker, L. A., Munro, C. A., Rajendran, R., Ramage, G., Goldman, G. H.

    The Cell Surface, vol. 1, pp. 43-56

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Elevated catalase expression in a fungal pathogen is a double-edged sword of iron

    Pradhan, A., Herrero De Dios, C., Belmonte, R., Budge, S., Lopez Garcia, A., Kolmogorova, A., LEE, K. K., Martin, B. D., Ribeiro, A., Bebes, A., Yuecel, R., Gow, N. A. R., Munro, C. A., MacCallum, D. M., Quinn, J., Brown, A. J. P.

    PLoS Pathogens, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1-25

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Unlocking the therapeutic potential of the fungal cell wall: Clinical implications and drug resistance

    Ibe, C., Walker, L. A., Gow, N. A., Munro, C. A.

    Candida albicans. Prasad, R. (ed.). Springer International Publishing AG, pp. 313-346, 34 pages

    Chapters in Books, Reports and Conference Proceedings: Chapters

  • Lactate signalling regulates fungal β-glucan masking and immune evasion

    Ballou, E., M. Avelar, G., Childers, D. S., Mackie, J., Bain, J. M., Wagener, J., Kastora, S. L., Panea, M. D., Hardison, S. E., Walker, L., Erwig, L. P., Munro, C. A., Gow, N. A. R., Brown, G. D., MacCallum, D. M., Brown, A. J. P.

    Nature Microbiology, vol. 2, 16238

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Biofilm formation is a risk factor for mortality in patients with Candida albicans bloodstream infection-Scotland, 2012-2013

    Rajendran, R., Sherry, L., Nile, C. J., Sherriff, A., Johnson, E. M., Hanson, M. F., Williams, C., Munro, C. A., Jones, B. J., Ramage, G.

    Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 87-93

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Aspergillus fumigatus sitA phosphatase homologue is important for adhesion, cell wall integrity, biofilm formation and virulence

    Bom, V. L. P., de Castro, P. A., Winkelströter, L. K., Marine, M., Hori, J. I., Ramalho, L. N. Z., Dos Reis, T. F., Goldman, M. H. S., Brown, N. A., Rajendran, R., Ramage, G., Walker, L. A., Munro, C. A., Rocha, M. C., Malavazi, I., Hagiwara, D., Goldman, G. H.

    Eukaryotic Cell, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 728-744

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Targeted changes of the cell wall proteome influence Candida albicans ability to form single- and multi-strain biofilms

    Cabral, V., Znaidi, S., Walker, L. A., Martin-Yken, H., Dague, E., Legrand, M., Lee, K., Chauvel, M., Firon, A., Rossignol, T., Richard, M. L., Munro, C. A., Bachellier-Bassi, S., d'Enfert, C.

    PLoS Pathogens, vol. 10, no. 12, e1004542

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • The pH-responsive PacC transcription factor of Aspergillus fumigatus governs epithelial entry and tissue invasion during pulmonary aspergillosis

    Bertuzzi, M., Schrettl, M., Alcazar-Fuoli, L., Cairns, T. C., Muñoz, A., Walker, L. A., Herbst, S., Safari, M., Cheverton, A. M., Chen, D., Liu, H., Saijo, S., Fedorova, N. D., Armstrong-James, D., Munro, C. A., Read, N. D., Filler, S. G., Espeso, E. A., Nierman, W. C., Haas, H., Bignell, E. M.

    PLoS Pathogens, vol. 10, no. 10, e1004413

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Modulation of Alternaria infectoria cell wall chitin and glucan synthesis by cell wall synthase inhibitors

    Fernandes, C., Anjos, J., Walker, L. A., Silva, B. M. A., Cortes, L., Mota, M., Munro, C. A., Gow, N. A. R., Gonçalves, T.

    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 2894-2904

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Carbon metabolism in pathogenic yeasts (Especially Candida): The role of cell wall metabolism in virulence

    Lee, K. K., Munro, C. A.

    Molecular Mechanisms in Yeast Carbon Metabolism. Piskur, J., Compagno, C. (eds.). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 141-167, 27 pages

    Chapters in Books, Reports and Conference Proceedings: Chapters

  • Determination of chitin content in fungal cell wall: an alternative flow cytometric method

    Costa-de-Oliveira, S., Silva, A. P., Miranda, I. M., Salvador, A., Azevedo, M. M., Munro, C. A., Rodrigues, A. G., Pina-Vaz, C.

    Cytometry Part A : Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology, vol. 83A, no. 3, pp. 324-328

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Genomic insights into the atopic eczema-associated skin commensal yeast Malassezia sympodialis

    Gioti, A., Nystedt, B., Li, W., Xu, J., Andersson, A., Averette, A. F., Münch, K., Wang, X., Kappauf, C., Kingsbury, J. M., Kraak, B., Walker, L., Johansson, H. J., Holm, T., Lehtiö, J., Stajich, J. E., Mieczkowski, P., Kahmann, R., Kennell, J. C., Cardenas, M. E., Lundeberg, J., Saunders, C. W., Boekhout, T., Dawson, T. L., Munro, C. A., de Groot, P. W. J., Butler, G., Heitman, J., Scheynius, A.

    mBio, vol. 4, no. 1, e00572-12

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Chitin and glucan, the yin and yang of the fungal cell wall, implications for antifungal drug discovery and therapy

    Munro, C. A.

    Advances in Applied Microbiology, vol. 83, pp. 145-172

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Differential adaptation of Candida albicans in vivo modulates immune recognition by dectin-1

    Marakalala, M. J., Vautier, S., Potrykus, J., Walker, L. A., Shepardson, K. M., Hopke, A., Mora-Montes, H. M., Lee, K., Kerrigan, A., Netea, M. G., Murray, G. I., Maccallum, D. M., Wheeler, R., Munro, C. A., Gow, N. A. R., Cramer, R. A., Brown, A. J. P., Brown, G. D.

    PLoS Pathogens, vol. 9, no. 4, e1003315

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • The evolutionary rewiring of ubiquitination targets has reprogrammed the regulation of carbon assimilation in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans

    Sandai, D., Yin, Z., Selway, L., Stead, D., Walker, J., Leach, M. D., Bohovych, I., Ene, I. V., Kastora, S., Budge, S., Munro, C. A., Odds, F. C., Gow, N. A. R., Brown, A. J. P.

    mBio, vol. 3, no. 6, e00495-12

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Carbon source-induced reprogramming of the cell wall proteome and secretome modulates the adherence and drug resistance of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans

    Ene, I. V., Heilmann, C. J., Sorgo, A. G., Walker, L. A., de Koster, C. G., Munro, C. A., Klis, F. M., Brown, A. J. P.

    Proteomics, vol. 12, no. 21, pp. 3164-3179

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Echinocandin resistance due to simultaneous FKS mutation and increased cell wall chitin in a Candida albicans bloodstream isolate following brief exposure to caspofungin

    Imtiaz, T., Lee, K. K., Munro, C. A., Maccallum, D. M., Shankland, G. S., Johnson, E. M., Macgregor, M. S., Bal, A. M.

    Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 1330-1334

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Isolation and functional characterization of Sporothrix schenckii ROT2, the encoding gene for the endoplasmic reticulum glucosidase II

    Robledo-Ortiz, C. I., Flores-Carreón, A., Hernández-Cervantes, A., Álvarez-Vargas, A., Lee, K. K., Díaz-Jiménez, D. F., Munro, C. A., Cano-Canchola, C., Mora-Montes, H. M.

    Fungal Biology, vol. 116, no. 8, pp. 910-918

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Modular gene over-expression strategies for Candida albicans

    Cabral, V., Chauvel, M., Firon, A., Nesseir, A., Bachellier-Bassi, S., Chaudhari, Y., Munro, C. A., d'Enfert, C.

    Host-Fungus Interactions. Brand, A., MacCallum, D. (eds.). Humana Press, pp. 227-244, 18 pages

    Chapters in Books, Reports and Conference Proceedings: Chapters

  • Elevated Cell Wall Chitin in Candida albicans Confers Echinocandin Resistance In Vivo

    Lee, K. K., Maccallum, D. M., Jacobsen, M. D., Walker, L. A., Odds, F. C., Gow, N. A. R., Munro, C. A.

    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 208-217

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Cool Tools 5: The Candida albicans ORFeome Project

    Legrand, M., Munro, C. A., d'Enfert, C.

    Candida and Candidiasis. Calderone, R. A., Clancy, C. J. (eds.). 2 edition. ASM Press

    Chapters in Books, Reports and Conference Proceedings: Chapters

  • The Cell Wall: Glycoproteins, Remodeling, and Regulation

    Munro, C. A., Richard, M. L.

    Candida and Candidiasis. Calderone, R. A., Clancy, C. J. (eds.). 2 edition. ASM Press

    Chapters in Books, Reports and Conference Proceedings: Chapters

  • Recognition and blocking of innate immunity cells by Candida albicans chitin

    Mora-Montes, H. M., Netea, M. G., Ferwerda, G., Lenardon, M. D., Brown, G. D., Mistry, A. R., Kullberg, B. J., O'Callaghan, C. A., Sheth, C. C., Odds, F. C., Brown, A. J. P., Munro, C. A., Gow, N. A. R.

    Infection and Immunity, vol. 79, no. 5, pp. 1961-1970

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Fungal echinocandin resistance

    Munro, C. A.

    F1000 Biology Reports, vol. 2, 66

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Reverse genetics in Candida albicans predicts ARF cycling is essential for drug resistance and virulence

    Epp, E., Vanier, G., Harcus, D., Lee, A. Y., Jansen, G., Hallett, M., Sheppard, D. C., Thomas, D. Y., Munro, C. A., Mullick, A., Whiteway, M.

    PLoS Pathogens, vol. 6, no. 2, e1000753

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Fungal echinocandin resistance

    Walker, L. A., Gow, N. A. R., Munro, C. A.

    Fungal Genetics and Biology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 117-126

    Contributions to Journals: Literature Reviews

  • Comparative genomics of the fungal pathogens Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans

    Jackson, A. P., Gamble, J. A., Yeomans, T., Moran, G. P., Saunders, D., Harris, D., Aslett, M., Barrell, J. F., Butler, G., Citiulo, F., Coleman, D. C., De Groot, P. W. J., Goodwin, T. J., Quail, M. A., McQuillan, J., Munro, C. A., Pain, A., Poulter, R. T., Rajandream, M., Renauld, H., Spiering, M. J., Tivey, A., Gow, N. A. R., Barrell, B., Sullivan, D. J., Berriman, M.

    Genome Research, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 2231-2244

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Candida albicans cell wall mediated virulence

    Munro, C.

    Pathogenic Yeasts. Ashbee, H. R., Bignell, E. M. (eds.). Springer-Verlag, pp. 69-95, 27 pages

    Chapters in Books, Reports and Conference Proceedings: Chapters

  • Genome sequence and analysis of the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans

    Haas, B. J., Kamoun, S., Zody, M. C., Jiang, R. H. Y., Handsaker, R. E., Cano, L. M., Grabherr, M., Kodira, C. D., Raffaele, S., Torto-Alalibo, T., Bozkurt, T. O., Ah-Fong, A. M. V., Alvarado, L., Anderson, V., Armstrong, M. R., Avrova, A., Baxter, L., Beynon, J., Boevink, P. C., Bollmann, S. R., Bos, J. I. B., Bulone, V., Cai, G., Cakir, C., Carrington, J. C., Chawner, M., Conti, L., Costanzo, S., Ewan, R., Fahlgren, N., Fischbach, M. A., Fugelstad, J., Gilroy, E. M., Gnerre, S., Green, P. J., Grenville-Briggs, L., Griffith, J., Grünwald, N. J., Horn, K., Horner, N. R., Hu, C., Huitema, E., Jeong, D., Jones, A. M. E., Jones, J. D. G., Jones, R. W., Karlsson, E. K., Kunjeti, S. G., Lamour, K., Liu, Z., Ma, L., Maclean, D., Chibucos, M. C., McDonald, H., McWalters, J., Meijer, H. J. G., Morgan, W., Morris, P. F., Munro, C. A., O'Neill, K., Ospina-Giraldo, M., Pinzón, A., Pritchard, L., Ramsahoye, B., Ren, Q., Restrepo, S., Roy, S., Sadanandom, A., Savidor, A., Schornack, S., Schwartz, D. C., Schumann, U., Schwessinger, B., Seyer, L., Sharpe, T., Silvar, C., Song, J., Studholme, D. J., Sykes, S., Thines, M., van de Vondervoort, P. J. I., Phuntumart, V., Wawra, S. W., Weide, R., Win, J., Young, C., Zhou, S., Fry, W., Meyers, B. C., Van West, P., Ristaino, J., Govers, F., Birch, P. R. J., Whisson, S. C., Judelson, H. S., Nusbaum, C.

    Nature, vol. 461, no. 7262, pp. 393-398

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Evolution of pathogenicity and sexual reproduction in eight Candida genomes

    Butler, G., Rasmussen, M. D., Lin, M. F., Santos, M. A. S., Sakthikumar, S., Munro, C. A., Rheinbay, E., Grabherr, M., Forche, A., Reedy, J. L., Agrafioti, I., Arnaud, M. B., Bates, S., Brown, A. J. P., Brunke, S., Costanzo, M. C., Fitzpatrick, D. A., de Groot, P. W. J., Harris, D., Hoyer, L. L., Hube, B., Klis, F. M., Kodira, C., Lennard, N., Logue, M. E., Martin, R., Neiman, A. M., Nikolaou, E., Quail, M. A., Quinn, J., Santos, M. C., Schmitzberger, F. F., Sherlock, G., Shah, P., Silverstein, K. A. T., Skrzypek, M. S., Soll, D., Staggs, R., Stansfield, I., Stumpf, M. P. H., Sudbery, P. E., Srikantha, T., Zeng, Q., Berman, J., Berriman, M., Heitman, J., Gow, N. A. R., Lorenz, M. C., Birren, B. W., Kellis, M., Cuomo, C. A.

    Nature, vol. 459, no. 7247, pp. 657-662

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Functional analysis of Candida albicans GPI-anchored proteins: Roles in cell wall integrity and caspofungin sensitivity

    Plaine, A., Walker, L., Da Costa, G., Mora-Montes, H. M., McKinnon, A., Gow, N. A. R., Gaillardin, C., Munro, C. A., Richard, M. L.

    Fungal Genetics and Biology, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 1404-1414

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Generating cell surface diversity in Candida albicans and other fungal pathogens

    Nather, K., Munro, C. A.

    FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 285, no. 2, pp. 137-145

    Contributions to Journals: Literature Reviews

  • Gene expression and regulation

    Munro, C. A., Hube, B.

    Pathogenic fungi. San-Blas, G., Calderone, R. (eds.). Caister Academic Press, pp. 9-42

    Chapters in Books, Reports and Conference Proceedings: Chapters

  • Individual chitin synthase enzymes synthesize microfibrils of differing structure at specific locations in the Candida albicans cell wall

    Lenardon, M. D., Whitton, R., Munro, C. A., Marshall, D., Gow, N. A. R.

    Molecular Microbiology, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 1164-1173

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Immune Recognition of Candida albicans ß-glucan by Dectin-1

    Gow, N. A. R., Netea, M. G., Munro, C. A., Ferwerda, G., Bates, S., Mora-Montes, H. M., Walker, L., Jansen, T., Jacobs, L., Tsoni, V., Brown, G. D., Odds, F. C., Van der Meer, J. W. M., Brown, A. J. P., Kullberg, B. J.

    The journal of infectious diseases, vol. 196, no. 10, pp. 1565-1571

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Echinocandin antifungal drug resistance

    Rogers, T., Johnson, E., Munro, C. A.

    Journal of Invasive Fungal Infections, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 99-105

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Postgenomic approaches to analyse Candida albicans pathogenicity

    Munro, C. A., Fradin, C., Bader, O., Hube, B.

    Fungal Genomics. Brown, A. J. (ed.). Springer-Verlag, pp. 163-184

    Chapters in Books, Reports and Conference Proceedings: Chapters

  • A human-curated annotation of the Candida albicans genome

    Braun, B. R., Van Het Hoog, M., d'Enfert, C., Martchenko, M., Dungan, J., Kuo, A., Inglis, D. O., Uhl, A., Hogues, H., Berriman, M., Lorenz, M., Levitin, M., Oberholzer, U., Bachewich, K., Harcus, D., Marcil, A., Dignard, D., Iouk, T., Ziot, R., Frangeul, L., Takaia, F., Rutherford, K., Wang, E., Munro, C. A., Bates, S., Gow, N. A. R., Hoyer, L. L., Kohler, G., Morschhauser, J., Newport, G., Znaidi, S., Roymond, M., Turcottee, B., Sherlock, G., Constanza, M., Berman, J., Sanglard, D., Agabian, N., Mitchell, A. P., Johnson, A. D., Whiteway, M., Nantel, A.

    PLoS Genetics, vol. 1, no. 1, e1

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Mnt1p and Mnt2p of Candida albicans are partially redundant alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferases that participate in O-linked mannosylation and are required for adhesion and virulence

    Munro, C. A., Bates, S., Buurman, E. T., Hughes, H. B., MacCallum, D. M., Bertram, G., Atrih, A., Ferguson, M. A., Bain, J. M., Brand, A. C., Hamilton, S., Westwater, C., Thomson, L. M., Brown, A. J. P., Odds, F., Gow, N. A. R.

    The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 280, pp. 1051-1060

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Candida albicans BN14 mutants have reduced cell wall chitin and alterations in morphogenesis

    Rowbottom, L., Munro, C. A., Gow, N. A. R.

    Microbiology , vol. 150, no. 10, pp. 3243-3252

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Loss of cell wall mannosylphosphate in Candida albicans does not influence macrophage recognition

    Hobson, R. P., Munro, C. A., Bates, S., MacCallum, D. M., Cutler, J. E., Heinsbroek, S. E. M., Brown, G. D., Odds, F. C., Gow, N. A. R.

    The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 279, pp. 39628-39635

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Independent regulation of chitin synthase and chitinase activity in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Selvaggini, S., Munro, C. A., Paschoud, S., Sanglard, D., Gow, N. A. R.

    Microbiology , vol. 150, no. 4, pp. 921-928

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • CHS8-a fourth chitin synthase gene of Candida albicans contributes to in vitro chitin synthase activity, but is dispensable for growth

    Munro, C. A., Whitton, R. K., Hughes, H. B., Rella, M., Selvaggini, S., Gow, N. A. R.

    Fungal Genetics and Biology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 146-158

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Infection of chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) as a model for invasive hyphal growth and pathogenesis of Candida albicans

    Gow, N. A. R., Knox, Y., Munro, C. A., Thompson, W. D.

    Medical Mycology, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 331-338

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • The effectiveness of modified six-corner suspension in patients with paravaginal defect and stress urinary incontinence

    Munro, C. A., Whitton, R. K., Hughes, H. B., Rella, M., Selvaggini, S., Gow, N. A.

    International Urogynecology Journal and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 303-307

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Anti-fungal therapy at the HAART of viral therapy

    Munro, C. A., Hube, B.

    Trends in Microbiology, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 173-177

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Chitin synthesis in human pathogenic fungi

    Munro, C. A., Gow, N. A. R.

    Medical Mycology, vol. 39 Suppl 1, pp. 41-53

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Differential expression of chitin synthase genes during temperature-induced dimorphic transitions in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Nino-Vega, G. A., Munro, C. A., San-Blas, G., Gooday, G. W., Gow, N. A. R.

    Medical Mycology, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 31-39

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

  • Influence of the rumen anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis on the proteolytic activity of a defined mixture of rumen bacteria growing on a solid substrate

    Wallace, R. J., Munro, C. A.

    Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 23-26

    Contributions to Journals: Articles

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