Professor Carol Munro
Rm 4:19 Institute of Medical Sciences Foresterhill Aberdeen AB25 2ZD
- PhD The Molecular Analysis of Chitin Synthesis in Candida albicans1997 - University of Aberdeen
- BSc Biochemistry1993 - University of AberdeenFirst Class Hons
Deputy Editor-In-Chief of FEMS Yeast Research.
FEMS delegate for the Microbiology Society
Microbiology Society Impact & Influence Committee
Honorary member of British Society for Medical Mycology
My research is focussed on investigating fungi that cause life-threatening and multi-drug resistant infections in humans with impaired immune function. I investigate the role of the fungal cell wall in interactions with the host and have built up expertise in cell wall biochemistry, proteomics and microscopy approaches to gain a deeper understanding of how the cell wall is built and maintained. My work has focused mainly on Candida albicans but I have also worked with a wider range of pathogens including several other Candida species, including Candida glabrata and Candida auris, Aspergillus fumigatus, Malassezia sympodialis, Exophilia, Fusarium, Trichophyton, Rhizopus and Sporothrix species.
The cell wall is an excellent target for new therapies containing many fungal-specific components that are not found in the human host. I am motivated to develop novel therapeutics that target the cell wall and in collaboration with Scottish Biologics Facility have developed fungal cell wall targeting antibodies that are protective in fungal infection models. We have recently filed a patent to protect IP of these reagents.
I also study antifungal drug resistance and tolerance and discovered that in response to treatment with the echinocandin class of antifungals, fungi can re-programme their cell walls, upregulating chitin production and reducing drug susceptibility. Alterations in cell wall composition, both polysaccharide and protein abundances can influence host interactions, which we study using live cell imaging of fungal:macrophage interactions. I am also interested in analysing genetic variability amongst clinical fungal isolates in order to understand how genetic variability impacts on cell surface variability and hence interactions with the host and other virulence properties, including host niche-specific fitness. Over the last 4 years my group have developed and utilized novel infection models, for example a skin ex-plant model, a catheterized lab-grown skin model for biofilm -associated infections, a gut epithelium model and tissue organoids. These models allow us to mimic the host environment to study fungal:host interactions and fungal pathogenicity. My group have also constructed genomic platforms to study functional genomics of Candida albicans, providing the wider community with powerful molecur tools to study fungal pathogenesis. At the end of 2020 I opened a Biological Containment Level 3 viral laboratory to work with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, in response to the ongoing pandemic and have set up assays to measure anti-viral activity of compounds and treatments.
I am a partner in the EU-funded HDM-Fun Horizon 2020 Framework Programme 2020-2024 Host directed medicine in invasive fungal infection. https://hdm-fun.eu/
I am a partner in the EU -funded Innovative Training Network FunHoMic (Deciphering the fungus-host-microbiota interplay to improve the management of fungal infections). ESR Ann Kristin Kaune with Dr Alan Walker and ESR Nate Cole https://www.funhomic.eu/en
Modelling Candida albicans infection of the human gut using human intestinal organoid cultures. NC3Rs Phd student Ed Devlin 2019-2022. Co-PI with Dr Silvia Gratz and Dr Donna MacCallum
Can echinocandin-induced tolerance mechanisms promote persistent, drug recalcitrant infections? Gilead Investigator Led Study 2020-2021 PI with Dr Louise Walker
Development of fungal surface targeting antibodies. PhD student Mark Mawer (funded by University of ABerdeen) and Tyng Tan (funded by the MRC Centre for Medical Mycology, University of Exeter) with Dr Soumya Palliyil and Professor Andy Porter (Scottish Biologics Facility)
Drug induced tolerance mechanisms: a driver for fungal persistence? PhD student Mark Peacock (funded by the MRC Centre for Medical Mycology, University of Exeter) with Professor Neil Gow and Dr Alessandra da Silva Dantas
I was a partner in the EU -funded Innovative Training Network OPATHY (From Omics to Patient: Improving Diagnostics of Pathogenic Yeasts) http://www.opathy.eu/ Within this network we developed antifungal drug resistance biomarkers using a proteomics approach.
Dr Neil McCarthy, QMUL - Candida albicans:gut interactions
Dr Christophe D'Enfert Pasteur Institute, France, - C. albicans ORFeome and over-expression library.
Dr Campbell Gourlay, University of Kent - Investigating the role of mitochondrial electron transport chain function in fungal pathogenicity and drug resistance.
Dr Donna MaCallum, University of Aberdeen - Human skin models to study fungal infections.
Dr Silvia Gratz & Donna MacCallum, University of Aberdeen - Gut epithelium and organoid models to study fungal invasion
Dr Soumya Palliyl, Professor Andy Porter, Scottish Biologics Facility - Developing fungal cell surface targeting antibodies.
Dr Annika Scheynius, Karolinska Institute - Malassezia sympodialis interactions with the host.
Funding and Grants
EU FunHoMic Innovative Training Network 2019-2023 “Deciphering the fungus-host-microbiota interplay to improve the management of fungal infections” PI with Dr Alan Walker and Prof Al Brown.
NC3Rs Phd studentship 2019-2022. Modelling Candida albicans infection of the human gut using human intestinal organoid cultures. Co-PI with Dr Silvia Gratz and Dr Donna MacCallum
Gilead Investigator Led Study 2020-2021 Can echinocandin-induced tolerance mechanisms promote persistent, drug recalcitrant infections? PI with Dr Louise Walker
Leverhulme Trust/Royal Society Senior Research Fellowship 2019-2020 Unbiased functional genomics screens for the molecular dissection of Candida albicans pathobiology and cellular morphology.
SULSA Antimicrobial Resistance Seed Funding 2018-2019 Antifungal potential of compounds produced by thermophilic Actinobacteria from compost, upon strains of azole resistant Aspergillus fumigatus. Co-Pi with Dr Gillian Halket, University of Strathclyde.
Wellcome Trust Strategic Award International PhD Scholarship 2014-2018 Investigating the role of mitochondrial electron transport chain function in fungal pathogenicity and drug resistance. Co-PI with Dr Campbell Gourlay, University of Kent.
MRC Case studentship with NovaBiotics Ltd 2013-2017 Novel combination strategies to combat complex respiratory polymicrobial infections associated with cystic fibrosis.
Wellcome Trust Strategic Award Cross-disciplinary PDRA Project Award 2013-2017 Evaluating clinical outcomes to Candida albicans biofilm formation in candidaemia patients. Co-PI with Prof Ramage, University of Glasgow.
EU OPATHY Innovative Training Network 2015-2019 fungal diagnostics.
Wellcome Trust ISSF award 2016-2017 barcode sequencing.
MRC Confidence in Concepts grant 2015-2017 Development of novel biologics-based antifungal therapeutics and diagnostics targeted towards Candida albicans cell surface glycoproteins.
SULSA MSD Postdoctoral grant with Dundee Drug Disovery Unit 2013-2015. Developing chitin synthase inhibitors.
BBSRC Case studentship with NovaBiotics, Prof. Ruth Ross, Prof Tony Ormerod. 2011-2015 Development of a bacterial-skin infection model to optimise the treatment and improve our understanding of persistent infections.
SULSA BioSkape industrial studentship with NovaBiotics Ltd 2010-2014
Antifungal peptide drugs. Knowledge Transfer Partnership with NovaBiotics Ltd 2010-2012
The Candida albicans ORFeome project .Wellcome Trust Biomedical Resources grant 2009-2013 (Lead PI with Dr d'Enfert, Institut Pasteur)
Gilead Sciences sponsored industrial studentships 2006-2010, 2009-2012 (with Professor Gow)
Regulation of the biosynthesis of the cell wall skeleton of Candida albicans. Wellcome Trust project grant 2009-2012 (Co-PI with Professor Gow and Odds)
Antifungal drug screening programme. University of Aberdeen Commercialisation Award 2010
The role of fungal cell wall composition and remodelling in echinocandin drug tolerance and resistance. British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy research grant 2010
Page 1 of 2 Results 1 to 50 of 100
An integrated transcriptomic and metabolomic approach to investigate the heterogeneous Candida albicans biofilm phenotype.Biofilm, vol. 5, 100112Contributions to Journals: Articles
- [ONLINE] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioflm.2023.100112
Yeast pathogenesis and drug resistance: the beauty of the BYeastFEMS Yeast Research, vol. 22, no. 1, foac029Contributions to Journals: Articles
- [ONLINE] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/femsyr/foac029
A Human Ex Vivo Skin Model to Study Candida auris BiofilmsMethods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), vol. 2517, pp. 259-267Contributions to Journals: Articles
- [ONLINE] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-2417-3_21
Biomarkers of caspofungin resistance in Candida albicans isolates: A proteomic approachVirulenceContributions to Journals: Articles
- [ONLINE] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/21505594.2022.2081291
Population genetics and microevolution of clinical Candida glabrata reveals recombinant sequence types and hyper-variation within mitochondrial genomes, virulence genes and drug-targetsGenetics, vol. 221, no. 1, iyac031Contributions to Journals: Articles
Monoclonal antibodies targeting surface exposed epitopes of Candida albicans cell wall proteins confer in vivo protection in an infection modelAntimicrobial Agents and ChemotherapyContributions to Journals: Articles
- [ONLINE] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/aac.01957-21
Complement-Mediated Differential Immune Response of Human Macrophages to Sporothrix Species Through Interaction With Their Cell Wall PeptidorhamnomannansFrontiers in Immunology, vol. 12, 749074Contributions to Journals: Articles
Monoclonal Human Antibodies That Recognise the Exposed N and C Terminal Regions of the Often-Overlooked SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a Transmembrane ProteinViruses, vol. 13, no. 11, 2201Contributions to Journals: Articles
Neutralisation of SARS-CoV-2 by anatomical embalming solutionsJournal of Anatomy, vol. 239, no. 5, pp. 1221-1225Contributions to Journals: Articles
Fungal Cell Wall Proteins and Signaling Pathways Form a Cytoprotective Network to Combat StressesJournal of Fungi, vol. 7, no. 9, 739Contributions to Journals: Articles
Preliminary Characterisation of NP339, a Novel Polyarginine Peptide with Broad Antifungal ActivityAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 65, no. 8, e02345-20Contributions to Journals: Articles
The impact of the Fungus-Host-Microbiota interplay upon Candida albicans infections: current knowledge and new perspectivesFEMS Microbiology Reviews, vol. 45, no. 3, fuaa060Contributions to Journals: Review articles
Fungal cell wall: An underexploited target for antifungal therapiesPLoS Pathogens, vol. 17, no. 4, e1009470Contributions to Journals: Articles
Host responses in an ex-vivo human skin model challenged with Malassezia sympodialisFrontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, vol. 10, 561382Contributions to Journals: Articles
Caspofungin induced cell wall changes of Candida species influences macrophage interactionsFrontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, vol. 10, 164Contributions to Journals: Articles
The potential of respiration inhibition as a new approach to combat human fungal pathogensCurrent Genetics, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 1347-1353Contributions to Journals: Review articles
Recent trends in molecular diagnostics of yeast infections: from PCR to NGSFEMS Microbiology Reviews, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 517-547Contributions to Journals: Review articles
- [ONLINE] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/femsre/fuz015
- [OPEN ACCESS] http://aura.abdn.ac.uk/bitstream/2164/12834/1/Consortium_FEMS_Recent_trends_VOR.pdf
- [ONLINE] View publication in Mendeley
- [ONLINE] View publication in Scopus
An ex-vivo human skin model to study superficial fungal infectionsFrontiers in Microbiology, vol. 10, 1172Contributions to Journals: Articles
Inhibition of Classical and Alternative Modes of Respiration in Candida albicans Leads to Cell Wall Remodeling and Increased Macrophage RecognitionmBio, vol. 10, no. 1, e02535-18Contributions to Journals: Articles
Hypoxia Promotes Immune Evasion by Triggering β-glucan Masking on the Candida albicans Cell Surface via Mitochondrial and cAMP-Protein Kinase A SignalingmBio, vol. 9, e01318-18Contributions to Journals: Articles
Systematic Gene Overexpression in Candida albicans identifies a Regulator of Early Adaptation to the Mammalian GutCellular Microbiology, vol. 20, no. 11, 12890Contributions to Journals: Articles
A High-Throughput Candida albicans Two-Hybrid SystemmSphere, vol. 3, no. 4, e00391-18Contributions to Journals: Articles
Generating genomic platforms to study Candida albicans pathogenesisNucleic Acids Research, vol. 46, no. 14, pp. 6935-6949Contributions to Journals: Articles
Methodologies for in vitro and in vivo evaluation of efficacy of antifungal and antibiofilm agents and surface coatings against fungal biofilmsMicrobial Cell, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 300-326Contributions to Journals: Review articles
Defects in intracellular trafficking of fungal cell wall synthases lead to aberrant host immune recognitionPLoS Pathogens, vol. 14, no. 6, e1007126Contributions to Journals: Articles
Cell walls of the dimorphic fungal pathogens Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis exhibit bilaminate structures and sloughing of extensive and intact layersPLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 12, no. 3, e0006169Contributions to Journals: Articles
Mitogen activated kinases (MAPK) and protein phosphatases are involved in Aspergillus fumigatus adhesion and biofilm formationThe Cell Surface, vol. 1, pp. 43-56Contributions to Journals: Articles
The fungal cell wall: Structure, biosynthesis, and functionThe Fungal Kingdom. Wiley, pp. 267-292, 26 pagesChapters in Books, Reports and Conference Proceedings: Chapters
- [ONLINE] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/9781555819583.ch12
- [ONLINE] View publication in Scopus
NP108, an Antimicrobial Polymer with Activity against Methicillin- and Mupirocin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureusAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 1-13Contributions to Journals: Articles
Sfp1 and Rtg3 reciprocally modulate carbon source-conditional stress adaptation in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicansMolecular Microbiology, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 620-636Contributions to Journals: Articles
Elevated catalase expression in a fungal pathogen is a double-edged sword of ironPLoS Pathogens, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1-25Contributions to Journals: Articles
The Fungal Cell Wall: Structure, Biosynthesis, and FunctionMicrobiology spectrum, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1-25Contributions to Journals: Articles
Rim Pathway-Mediated Alterations in the Fungal Cell Wall Influence Immune Recognition and InflammationmBio, vol. 8, no. 1, e02290-16Contributions to Journals: Articles
- [ONLINE] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02290-16
- [OPEN ACCESS] http://aura.abdn.ac.uk/bitstream/2164/8347/1/mBio_2017_Ost_.pdf
Unlocking the therapeutic potential of the fungal cell wall: Clinical implications and drug resistanceCandida albicans. Prasad, R. (ed.). Springer International Publishing AG, pp. 313-346, 34 pagesChapters in Books, Reports and Conference Proceedings: Chapters
- [ONLINE] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-50409-4_16
- [ONLINE] View publication in Scopus
Lactate signalling regulates fungal β-glucan masking and immune evasionNature Microbiology, vol. 2, 16238Contributions to Journals: Articles
Integrating Candida albicans metabolism with biofilm heterogeneity by transcriptome mappingScientific Reports, vol. 6, 35436Contributions to Journals: Articles
- [ONLINE] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/srep35436
- [OPEN ACCESS] http://aura.abdn.ac.uk/bitstream/2164/7581/1/srep35436.pdf
Virulence profile: Carol MunroVirulence, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 729-731Contributions to Journals: Comments and Debates
- [ONLINE] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/21505594.2016.1190251
- [ONLINE] View publication in Scopus
A Prospective Surveillance Study of Candidaemia: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Antifungal Treatment and Outcome in Hospitalized PatientsFrontiers in Microbiology, vol. 7, pp. 1-8Contributions to Journals: Articles
- [ONLINE] DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00915
- [OPEN ACCESS] http://aura.abdn.ac.uk/bitstream/2164/6123/1/fmicb_07_00915.pdf
The dark side of yeast biologyFEMS Yeast Research, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 1-2Contributions to Journals: Editorials
- [ONLINE] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/femsyr/fow026
Biofilm formation is a risk factor for mortality in patients with Candida albicans bloodstream infection-Scotland, 2012-2013Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 87-93Contributions to Journals: Articles
Caspofungin Treatment of Aspergillus fumigatus Results in ChsG-Dependent Upregulation of Chitin Synthesis and the Formation of Chitin-Rich MicrocoloniesAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 5932-5941Contributions to Journals: Articles
Aspergillus fumigatus sitA phosphatase homologue is important for adhesion, cell wall integrity, biofilm formation and virulenceEukaryotic Cell, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 728-744Contributions to Journals: Articles
- [ONLINE] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/EC.00008-15
Contribution of Fdh3 and Glr1 to Glutathione Redox State, Stress Adaptation and Virulence in Candida albicansPloS ONE, vol. 10, no. 6, e0126940Contributions to Journals: Articles
- [ONLINE] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126940
- [OPEN ACCESS] http://aura.abdn.ac.uk/bitstream/2164/4604/1/PlosOne_0126940.pdf
Cell Wall Remodeling Enzymes Modulate Fungal Cell Wall Elasticity and Osmotic Stress ResistancemBio, vol. 6, no. 4, e00986-15Contributions to Journals: Articles
Targeted changes of the cell wall proteome influence Candida albicans ability to form single- and multi-strain biofilmsPLoS Pathogens, vol. 10, no. 12, e1004542Contributions to Journals: Articles
Extracellular DNA release confers heterogeneity in Candida albicans biofilm formationBioMed Central Microbiology, vol. 14, 303Contributions to Journals: Articles
- [ONLINE] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12866-014-0303-6
- [OPEN ACCESS] http://aura.abdn.ac.uk/bitstream/2164/4776/1/s12866_014_0303_6.pdf
Candida albicans Hypha Formation and Mannan Masking of β-Glucan Inhibit Macrophage Phagosome MaturationmBio, vol. 5, no. 6, e01874-14Contributions to Journals: Articles
- [ONLINE] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01874-14
- [OPEN ACCESS] http://aura.abdn.ac.uk/bitstream/2164/4124/1/e01874_14.full.pdf
The pH-responsive PacC transcription factor of Aspergillus fumigatus governs epithelial entry and tissue invasion during pulmonary aspergillosisPLoS Pathogens, vol. 10, no. 10, e1004413Contributions to Journals: Articles
- [ONLINE] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/
- [ONLINE] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004413
- [OPEN ACCESS] http://aura.abdn.ac.uk/bitstream/2164/4775/1/journal.ppat.1004413.pdf
Modulation of Alternaria infectoria cell wall chitin and glucan synthesis by cell wall synthase inhibitorsAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 2894-2904Contributions to Journals: Articles
- [ONLINE] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02647-13
O-mannosylation in Candida albicans enables development of interkingdom biofilm communitiesmBio, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. e00911-e009114Contributions to Journals: Articles
- [ONLINE] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00911-14
- [OPEN ACCESS] http://aura.abdn.ac.uk/bitstream/2164/4774/1/mBio_2014_Dutton_.pdf