LATEST NEWS AND PROJECTS
(Further information on Research pages)
POPULATION ECOLOGY: Demographic variation in spatially-structured seasonally-mobile populations. NERC Standard Grant (2017-2020).
EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY: Co-evolutionary quantitative genetics of polyandry and inbreeding. ERC Starting Grant (2013-2018).
CONSERVATION ECOLOGY: Ecological and genetic constraints on population viability in red-billed choughs, and application to conservation strategy. Scottish Natural Heritage research grants and NERC iCASE PhD studentship (2011-2021).
Elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (2017)
Zoological Society of London's Scientific Medal (2013)
Marsh Award for Ornithology (2013)
University of Aberdeen Principal's Prize for Public Engagement with Research (2013)
I did my degree in Natural Sciences (Zoology) at the University of Cambridge, and then a PhD in behavioural ecology at the University of Glasgow. I spent two years on a Killam Postdoctoral Fellowship at the University of British Columbia, followed by a Junior Research Fellowship at Jesus College, Cambridge. I joined the University of Aberdeen as a Royal Society University Research Fellow in 2006, and was awarded a personal research Chair in Population & Evolutionary Ecology in 2014.
My research aim is to understand the genetic and environmental causes of variation in individual life-histories, and to understand the consequences of such variation for population and evolutionary dynamics. I achieve these aims by applying sophisticated statistical, quantitative genetic and molecular genetic analyses to long-term data from wild populations, coupled with mathematical and simulation modelling, and thereby develop and test ecological and evolutionary theory. At present, my main interests are in mating system evolution (especially inbreeding and polyandry) and eco-evolutionary dynamics driven by seasonal migration.
I am committed to actively translating my research into public understanding and conservation management policy, and aim to foster processes that link science and policy outcomes.
I am excited to be moving (primarily) to the Centre for Biodiversity Dynamics, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway in October 2019, and also happy to retain a part-time position at University of Aberdeen.
New PhD position available in Norway - application deadline 20th May 2019:
Dynamics of immigration, inbreeding and fitness in song sparrows
For full details of publications see 'Further Info'.
My overall research aims are to understand how variation in individual life-histories arises as a function of ecological, environmental and genetic variation, and to understand the consequences of such variation for the structure and dynamics of natural populations. This work is key to understanding, predicting and managing population responses to environmental variation and change.
I have a broad, integrative approach to addressing these questions, in which I aim to harness and advance rigorous theory and analytical methods spanning evolutionary ecology, population ecology, conservation ecology and behavioural ecology and thereby utilise field data to elucidate ecological and evolutionary outcomes.
Summary of current major projects (further details are below):
1) Evolutionary ecology and quantitative genetics of polyandry, inbreeding and fitness: Mating systems provide one key mechanism that translates ecological and social interactions into evolution, yet we still do not understand the forces that drive and constrain mating system dynamics in nature. I am developing and applying sophisticated quantitative genetic analyses to an amazing long-term, multi-generation, dataset from song sparrows, alongside simulation modelling, to identify drivers and constraints on fitness in interacting females and males, and thereby test key hypotheses regarding (co)evolution of mating systems involving polyandry (female multiple mating) and inbreeding (matings among relatives). Current funding: European Research Council Starting Grant.
2) Eco-evolutionary dynamics in spatially-structured seasonally-mobile populations: The ability of populations to persist in the face of rapid environmental change will depend on the joint potentials for phenotypic plasticity and rapid micro-evolutionary change in key traits that mediate environment-demography interactions and hence shape population dynamics. Yet, such processes have scarcely been considered with respect to a critical trait that directly links population and evolutionary dynamics in seasonally-varying environments: reversible seasonal migration. Consequently, I am investing considerable effort in building a major large-scale multi-year dataset on European shags that will allow me to quantify environmental and quantitative genetic (co)variation across migration, dispersal, survival and reproduction, and thereby identify eco-evolutionary causes and consequences of the variable occurrence of seasonal migration. Current funding: UK Natural Environment Research Council.
3) Ecological and genetic constraints on population demography and viability, and application to conservation strategy: One ultimate objective of theoretical and empirical developments in fundamental population ecology is to provide a rigorous science base with which to inform population management policy: but such science-policy translation is still relatively rarely enacted. I am quantifying temporal and spatial environmental and genetic variation in life-history in a protected population of red-billed choughs, and working with conservation practitioners to achieve science-policy translation. We can thereby provide a case study that highlights opportunities and constraints on application of rigorous population science to conservation policy. Current funding: Scottish Natural Heritage and UK Natural Environment Research Council.
I'm currently working on three major research projects, addressing diverse novel questions in population, evolutionary and conservation ecology. For full details of publications see 'Further Info'.
Project 1: Evolutionary ecology of polyandry, inbreeding and fitness.
Understanding the causes and consequences of variation in reproductive strategies among population members is key to understanding mating system evolution and population dynamic outcomes. Yet key selective forces that could drive the evolution of reproductive strategies and resulting mating systems, and key quantitative genetic parameters that could shape evolutionary responses, have still not been elucidated theoretically or quantified empirically. Consequently, I am using a long-term study of a wild population of song sparrows on Mandarte Island, British Columbia, Canada, alongside individual-based simulation modelling, to identify the causes and consequences of polyandry (and resulting extra-pair reproduction) and inbreeding as individual reproductive strategies.
Recent key papers: Wolak, Reid et al. (2018) Evolution, in press; Reid & Wolak (2018) Evolution Letters, online.
A song sparrow and Mandarte in all its glory...
The detailed long-term study of the song sparrow population means that complete pedigree (family tree) data exist for all sparrows alive on Mandarte back to 1975, based on the observed social mating system. Using these data, I quantified physiological and life-history causes and consequences of inbreeding. I showed that measures of immune reponse decrease dramatically with increasing inbreeding, as does male song repertoire size (a secondary sexual trait, Reid et al. Proc. R. Soc. B 2003, 2005, 2007). I showed that parent and offspring inbreeding coefficients are correlated, and therefore that females expressing directional mating preferences for males with larger song repertoires would on average produce relatively outbred offspring, providing an unexpected benefit of mate choice (Reid et al. Am. Nat. 2006; Proc. R. Soc. B 2007).
However, despite their social monogamy, song sparrows are genetically polygynandrous with frequent extra-pair reproduction. My PhD student Rebecca Sardell genotyped all sparrows on Mandarte since 1993, and assigned all offspring to their true genetic parents. This analyses revealed that 28% of offspring were sired by a male other than their mother's social mate (Sardell et al. Mol. Ecol. 2010). Now we have a shiny new pedigree that incorporates 28% of paternal links corrected for extrapair paternity. Thanks to hard work by Pirmin Nietlisbach (Nietlisbach et al. Proc. R. Soc. B 2017), the corrected pedigree is now complete up to 2016, and really is nearly perfect...
Rebecca Sardell sampling a song sparrow chick - who was this one's father? And the new song sparrow pedigree.
The comprehensive pedigree data allow us to answer many fascinating questions regarding the magnitudes of inbreeding depression and additive genetic variance in sex-specific fitness, and the quantitative genetic basis and consequences of extra-pair reproduction and inbreeding.
Contrary to expectation, Rebecca found that extra-pair offspring tend to be less fit than their within-pair half-sibs. More specifically, a polyandrous female's daughters that were sired by extra-pair males tend to be less fit than daughters that were sired by the females social mate, while the opposite is true for sons (Sardell et al. Proc. R. Soc. B 2011; Am. Nat. 2012). My postdoc Christophe Lebigre tested the hypothesis that extra-pair reproduction increases the variance in male fitness. Again contrary to widespread prediction, the increase in variance was relatively small (Lebigre et al. Evolution 2012).
Bringing in an explicit quantitative genetic angle, I showed that the proportion of a female's offspring that is sired by an extra-pair male is heritable, while a male's extra-pair reproductive success shows substantial inbreeding depression (Reid et al. Proc. R. Soc. B 2011; Am. Nat. 2011). Furthermore, and again opposite to expectation, I showed that polyandrous females have offspring of lower additive genetic value for survival by mating with an extra-pair male than by mating with their socially paired mate (Reid & Sardell Proc. R. Soc. B 2012). Recent quantitative genetic analyses showed that there are also male genetic effects on the probability of extra-pair paternity (Reid et al. Evolution 2014). However, there is no detectable cross-sex genetic correlation between female extra-pair reproduction and male reproductive fitness, negating the hypothesis that female multiple mating could be driven by cross-sex indirect selection (Reid & Wolak Evol. Let. 2018).
Alongside this work on extra-pair reproduction, I focussed again on the evolutionary ecology of inbreeding. Matthew Wolak used a heroic quantitative genetic analysis to show the the degree to which song sparrows pair with relatives is heritable (Wolak & Reid Am. Nat. 2016), but the sparrows do not substantially use extra-pair reproduction to avoid inbreeding (Reid et al. Evolution 2014). To rationalise this result, I integrated information on relatedness and reproductive success to show that the occurrence of strong inbreeding depression does not necessarily lead to selection against inbreeding (Reid et al. Evolution 2015). I then drew together the worlds of inbreeding and extra-pair reproduction, and calculated the degree to which parents are actually related to the brood of offspring that they rear. These analyses revealed substantial variation in relatedness among nuclear families, partly because males are commonly related to extra-pair offspring that they didn't sire but could rear (Reid et al. Evolution 2016).
Meanwhile, my postdocs Brad Duthie and Greta Bocedi used genetically explicit individual-based models to identify processes that can drive or constrain the evolutionary dynamics of inbreeding and polyandry. In a nutshell, these models show that, in systems with biparental reproduction, the conditions that drive evolution of inbreeding avoidance (or preference) are likely to be more restricted than is commonly assumed (Duthie et al. Evolution 2016; Am. Nat. 2016). However, sperm competition that results from polyandry might drive feedback loops that further increase polyandry (Bocedi & Reid Am. Nat. 2016), especially when there is inbreeding and hence inbreeding depression in male gametic traits (Bocedi & Reid Evolution 2017). Brad also combined mathematical models of kin selection and inbreeding to show that the optimal degree of parental investment in offspring increases with inbreeding (Duthie, Lee & Reid Proc. R. Soc. B 2016) and there is tantalising evidence that the predicted relationships are bourne out by patterns of parental care in the song sparrows...
More recently, Matthew Wolak and I used cutting-edge 'animal model genetic group' methods (Wolak & Reid J. Anim. Ecol. 2017) to quantify additive genetic variance in fitness in the song sparrows, while explicitly estimating additive genetic effects of immigrants. These new analyses reveal that there is non-zero additive genetic variance in fitness in both sexes with a positive cross-sex genetic correlation, but that natural immigrants have low mean additive genetic value for fitness (Wolak et al. Evolution 2018). Future analyses will focus on the role of immigrants in shaping local genetic and phenotypic variation, including involving inbreeding and extra-pair reproduction...
Project 2: Eco-evolutionary dynamics in spatially-structured seasonally-varying environments.
Despite burgeoning interest in understanding eco-evolutionary responses to environmental change, there is still substantial theoretical and empirical failure to consider population responses driven by variable expression of a critical trait that directly links population and evolutionary dynamics in seasonally-varying environments: reversible seasonal migration.
Seasonal migration is a critical trait that can allow individuals to increase their reproductive success and/or survival by exploiting seasonal resource peaks while avoiding seasonal ecological and environmental risks. It is increasingly clear that the expression of seasonal migration (versus year-round residence) is a highly variable individual trait in many systems, generating diverse forms of 'partial migration'. Yet the degree to which the expression of seasonal migration could show rapid plastic and/or micro-evolutionary responses to environmental variation and change, and hence drive profound population dynamic responses and forms of 'evolutionary rescue' that radically change seasonal population distributions, has scarcely been considered, either theoretically or empirically.
Accordingly, my current aims are to provide new theoretical and empirical understanding of how eco-evolutionary dynamics arising in spatially-structured seasonally-mobile populations can drive population dynamics and persistence in the face of seasonal environmental change.
Recent key prospective review paper: Reid et al. (2018) Biological Reviews, online.
Schematic overview of the central role of the variable expression of seasonal migration in shaping eco-evolutionary outcomes:
Individual variation in the expression of reversible seasonal migration versus year-round residence both directly links seasonal environmental variation and change with spatio-temporal (circannual) population dynamics, and could affect reproduction, survival and dispersal and thereby drive major eco-evolutionary feedbacks. Yet, the potential for evolving seasonal migration to drive rapid and radical forms of 'evolutionary rescue' has not been considered theoretically, and key forms of plasticity, selection, gene flow and assortative mating and genetic variation involving seasonal migration have not been quantified empirically in any systems.
Progress towards achieving these empirical ambitions requires multi-year, large-scale, field studies that quantify seasonal migration versus residence, and associated reproduction, survival, dispersal and assortative mating in huge numbers of individuals across multiple locations, years and generations: but this has not previously been achieved. Accordingly, since 2009, I have invested huge effort in collecting the required data in a partially-migratory meta-population of European shags, in close collaboration with Francis Daunt's research group (UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology).
With the huge help and enthusiasm of numerous bird ringing groups and volunteer observers, since 2009, we have ringed ~17,800 shags at colonies along the east coasts of Scotland and northern England. We have amassed ~54,000 winter resightings and ~9,700 breeding recorded of ringed individuals, and are compiling extensive pedigree data for quantitative genetic analyses. With just a couple more years of fieldwork (honest!), these data should allow us to quantify key components of demographic, environmental and quantitative genetic (co)variation spanning seasonal migration, reproduction, survival, dispersal and mating in females and males of all ages.
Migrant shags from the Isle of May wintering at Peterhead and Fraserbrugh. If you've seen one please let us know (firstname.lastname@example.org)! Photos by Ed Duthie & Ruud Altenburg.
Colour-ringing and field resighting might seem like 'old technology' in these days of amazing tracking devices, but as yet it still provides the best route to rigorous evolutionary demography and quantitative genetics. We can mark huge numbers of individuals soon after hatch, and then non-invasively collect substantial life-long data on reproductive success, survival, dispersal and mating. Shags provide an excellent model system for such work because they breed in known, observable, colonies and are restricted to coastal environments, meaning that individuals can be readily observed all year round.
Our initial analyses of small data subsets (from 2009-2012) prove that there is huge among-individual variation in winter location; some individuals remain resident at their breeding colony all year round while other individuals migrate several hundred kilometres along the Scottish coast, providing a fascinating example of 'partial migration' (Grist et al. PLoS One 2014). Furthermore, resident shags breeding on the Isle of May had higher breeding success than migrants in these years, indicating that seasonal migration is not neutral (Grist et al. J. Anim. Ecol. 2017 - joournal's 'In Focus' featured paper).
Our new NERC grant will allow us to quantify demographic variation in the occurrence of seasonal migration and start to build some new population dynamic theory for partially-migratory populations - watch this space for the first big results!
Resighting efforts for winter 2018-2019 are now underway - any observations from anywhere along the east coast will be hugely appreciated, please get in touch for further information!
Project 3: Ecological and genetic constraints on population demography and viability, and application to conservation strategy.
One ultimate objective of theoretical and empirical developments in fundamental population ecology is to provide a rigorous science base with which to inform population management policy: but such science-policy translation is still relatively rarely enacted. I am quantifying temporal and spatial environmental and genetic variation in life-history in a protected population of red-billed choughs, and working with conservation practitioners to achieve science-policy translation. We can thereby provide a case study that highlights opportunities and constraints on application of rigorous population science to conservation strategy.
Recent key papers: Trask, Reid et al. (2016) J. Anim. Ecol.; Trask, Reid et al. (2017) J. Anim. Ecol.
Red-billed choughs are of high conservation concern in Scotland and Europe more widely. Since 1980, the Scottish Chough Study Group (led by Eric & Sue Bignal and Davy McCracken) has monitored the breeding success and survival of individually colour-ringed choughs on the Scottish island of Islay, generating a really fantastic long-term demographic dataset. We're using these data to quantify temporal and spatial variation in individual life-histories, identify environmental causes of demographic variation and understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of this population. We are also now incorporating genetic effects, and specifically inbreeding and genetic drift, into population models. We are working with Scottish Natural Heritage and other stakeholders to apply this rigorous population ecology to conservation strategy for choughs in Scotland.
Choughs being ringed and observed on Islay.
My PhD student Amanda Trask (funded by NERC and Scottish Natural Heritage) recently used a combination of demographic and molecular genetic data to show that the occurrence of blindness in chough nestlings probably represents the phenotypic expression of a single-locus lethal recessive allele, manifested under inbreeding. Moreover this allele is likely to be relatively widespread in the population, and possibly maintained by overdominance (Trask et al. J. Anim. Ecol. 2016, featured 'In Focus' paper, and highly commended for the Elton Prize). Amanda subsequently used state-of-the-art demographic analyses to estimate the effective size of Islay's chough population, and found that it is critically small... (Trask et al. J. Anim. Ecol. 2017).
My Honours student Marius Wenzel genotyped choughs from several European populations to establish the degree of genetic differentiation among populations. His results show strong genetic structuring across the species' current range, and show that the choughs that recently recolonised Cornwall most probably originated in Ireland (Wenzel et al. Cons. Gen. 2012)! Marius won the Charles Darwin Award (from the Zoological Society of London) for the best Zoology Honours thesis in the UK - well done Marius!
Meanwhile, a collapse in first-year survival rates prompted the introduction of a programme of emergency supplementary feeding on Islay. My new PhD student Sarah Fenn (also funded by NERC and SNH) is working out how effective this programme has been...
Sub-adult choughs and their emergency mealworms...
Amanda is now working on a population viability analysis that combines ecological and genetic effects, with the aim of informing Scottish Natural Heritage on the possible effects of continued supplementary feeding and/or potential translocations to alleviate inbreeding. Policy decisions to be taken shortly!
2017-2020 NERC Standard Research Grant. ‘Linking demographic theory and data for spatially-structured seasonally-mobile populations’.
2013-2018 European Research Council Starting Grant. ‘Co-evolutionary quantitative genetics of polyandry and inbreeding in the wild: new theory and test’.
2011-2019 Scottish Natural Heritage Research Grant. ‘Supplementary feeding and population viability analysis for red-billed choughs’.
2017-2021 NERC iCASE PhD Studentship. ‘Quantitative assessment of supplementary feeding and adaptive management strategy for red-billed choughs’.
2013-2015 Marie-Curie Intra-European Fellowship. Scientist-in-charge on fellowship for Dr Sylvain Losdat.
2013-2016 Marie-Curie International Outgoing Fellowship. Scientist-in-charge on fellowship for Dr Aline Lee.
2014-2015 NERC Urgency Research Grant. 'Impact of extreme weather on meta-population processes in European shags'. Co-Investigator, with Dr Francis Daunt (CEH).
2006-2013 Royal Society University Research Fellowship. 'Individual variation in a population context'.
2008-2011 Philip Leverhulme Prize for Zoology.
2010 Royal Society Kavli International Workshop. 'Sexual selection and kin selection in structured populations'.
2006-2009 NERC Knowledge Transfer Grant (co-funded by Scottish Natural Heritage and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds). 'Turning population ecology into conservation strategy: population structure, dynamics and conservation of red-billed choughs' with Prof P. Monaghan and the Scottish Chough Study Group.
2003-2006 Junior Research Fellowship, Jesus College, Cambridge.
2005 Phyllis & Eileen Gibbs Travelling Fellowship (Newnham College, Cambridge) 'Humoral immunity and inbreeding in song sparrows'.
2001-2003 Killam Postdoctoral Fellowship, University of British Columbia, Canada.
2001-2003 Britsh Ecological Society Early Career Project Grant. 'Inbreeding and immunity in song sparrows'.
I contribute to undergraduate and MSc courses in behavioural ecology, population ecology and wildlife management.
- Further Info
Reid, JM, Nietlisbach, P, Wolak, ME, Keller, LF, Arcese, P (2019) Individuals’ expected genetic contributions to future generations, reproductive value, and short-term metrics of fitness in free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Evolution Letters, in press.
Nietlisbach, P., Muff, S., Reid, J.M., Whitlock, M.C,. Keller, L.F. (2018) Nonequivalent lethal equivalents: Statistical approaches for comparable estimation of inbreeding depression with pedigree-based and genomic metrics of inbreeding. Evolutionary Applications, online.
Wolak, M.E., Arcese, P., Keller, L.F., Nietlisbach, P., Reid, J.M. (2018) Sex-specific additive genetic variances and correlations for fitness in a song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) population subject to natural immigration and inbreeding. Evolution, 72, 2057-2075.
Reid, J.M., Travis, J.M.J., Daunt, F., Burthe, S.J., Wanless, S., Dytham, C. (2018) Population and evolutionary dynamics in spatially-structured seasonally-varying environments. Biological Reviews, 93, 1578-1603.
Reid, J.M., Wolak, M.E. (2018) Is there indirect selection on female extra-pair reproduction through cross-sex genetic correlations with male reproductive fitness? Evolution Letters, 2, 159-168.
Hendry, A.P., Schoen, D.J., Wolak, M.E., Reid, J.M. (2018) The contemporary evolution of fitness. Annual Reviews in Ecology, Evolution & Systematics, 49, 457-465.
Germain, R.R., Wolak, M.E., Reid, J.M. (2018) Individual repeatability and heritability of divorce in a wild population. Biology Letters, 14, 20180061.
Germain, R.R., Arcese, P., Reid, J.M. (2018) The consequences of polyandry for sibship structures, distributions of relationships and relatedness, and potential for inbreeding in a wild population. American Naturalist, 191, 638-657.
Duthie, A.B., Bocedi, G., Germain, R., Reid, J.M. (2018) Evolution of pre-copulatory and post-copulatory strategies of inbreeding avoidance and associated polyandry. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 31, 31-45.
Losdat, S., Arcese, P., Germain, R., Nietlisbach, P., Reid, J.M. (2018) No evidence of inbreeding depression in sperm performance traits in wild song sparrows. Ecology & Evolution, 8, 1842-1852.
Johnson, K.M., Germain, R.R., Tarwater, C.E., Reid, J.M., Arcese, P. (2018) Demographic consequences of invasion by a native, controphic competitor to an insular bird population. Oecologia, 187, 155-165.
Kroeger, S., Blumstein, D., Armitage, K., Reid, J.M., Martin, J.G.A. (2018) Age, state, environment and season dependence of senescence in body mass. Ecology & Evolution, 8, 2050-2061.
Bocedi, G., Reid, J.M. (2017) Feed-backs among inbreeding, inbreeding depression in sperm traits and sperm competition can drive evolution of costly polyandry. Evolution, 71, 2786-2802.
Nietlisbach, P., Keller, L.F., Camenisch, G., Guillaume, F., Arcese, P., Reid, J.M., Postma, E. (2017) Pedigree-based inbreeding coefficient explains more variation in fitness than heterozygosity at 160 microsatellites in a wild bird population. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 284, 20162763.
Miles, W.T.S., Bolton, M., Davis, P., Dennis, R., Broad, R., Robertson, I., Riddiford, N.J., Harvey, P.V., Riddington, R., Shaw, D.N., Parnaby, D., Reid, J.M. (2017) Quantifying full phenological event distributions reveals simultaneous advances, stationarity and delays in spring and autumn migration timing in long-distance migratory birds. Global Change Biology, 23, 1400-1414.
Trask, A.E., Bignal, E., McCracken, D.I., Piertney, S.B., Reid, J.M. (2017) Estimating demographic contributions to effective population size in an age-structured wild population experiencing environmental and demographic stochasticity. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 1082-1093.
Grist, H., Daunt, F., Wanless, S., Burthe, S.J., Newell, M.A., Harris, M.P., Reid, J.M. (2017) Reproductive performance of resident and migrant males, females and pairs in a partially migratory bird. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 1010-1021. Featured 'In Focus' paper.
Wolak, M.E., Reid, J.M. (2017) Accounting for genetic differences among unknown parents in microevolutionary studies: How to include genetic groups in quantitative genetic animal models. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 7-20.
Lee, A.M., Reid, J.M., Beissinger, S.R. (2017) Modelling effects of nonbreeders on population growth estimates. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 75-87.
Duthie, A.B., Lee, A.M., Reid, J.M. (2016) Inbreeding parents should invest more resources in fewer offspring. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 283, 20161845.
Christensen, L.L., Selman, C., Blount, J.D., Pilkington, J.G., Watt, K.A., Pemberton, J.M., Reid, J.M.ª, Nussey, D.H.ª (2016) Marker-dependent associations among oxidative stress, growth and survival during early life in a wild mammal. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 283, 20161407. ªEqual author contributions.
Duthie, A.B., Reid, J.M. (2016) Evolution of inbreeding avoidance and inbreeding preference through mate choice among interacting relatives. American Naturalist, 188, 651-667.
Duthie, A.B., Bocedi, G., Reid, J.M. (2016) When does female multiple mating evolve to adjust inbreeding? Effects of inbreeding depression, direct costs, mating constraints, and polyandry as a threshold trait. Evolution, 70, 1927-1943.
Reid, J.M., Bocedi, G., Nietlisbach, P., Duthie, A.B., Wolak, M.E., Gow, E.A., Arcese, P. (2016) Variation in parent-offspring kinship in systems with inbreeding and extra-pair reproduction: metrics and empirical estimates in song sparrows. Evolution, 70, 1512-1529.
Trask, A*., Bignal, E., McCracken, D.I., Monaghan, P., Piertney, S.B., Reid, J.M. (2016) Evidence of the phenotypic expression of a lethal recessive allele under inbreeding in a wild population of conservation concern. Journal of Animal Ecology, 85, 879-891. Featured 'In Focus' paper. *Highly commended, Elton prize.
Wolak, M.E., Reid, J.M. (2016) Is inbreeding heritable? Sex-specific genetic effects on the degree of biparental inbreeding in song sparrow (Melospiza melodia). American Naturalist, 187, 334-350.
Bocedi, G., Reid, J.M. (2016) Evolution of polyandry by co-evolutionary feedback with male sperm allocation: decreasing sperm viability and increasing sperm limitation. American Naturalist, 187, 334-350.
Germain, R., Wolak, M.E., Arcese, P., Losdat, S., Reid, J.M. (2016) Direct and indirect genetic and fine-scale environmental effects on breeding date in song sparrows. Journal of Animal Ecology, 85, 1613-1624.
Losdat, S., Arcese, P., Sampson, L., Villar, N., Reid, J.M. (2015) Additive genetic variance and effects of inbreeding, sex and age on heterophil to lymphocyte ratio in song sparrows. Functional Ecology, 30, 1185-1195.
Reid, J.M., Arcese, P., Bocedi, G., Duthie, A.B., Wolak, M.E., Keller, L.F. (2015) Resolving the conundrum of inbreeding depression but no inbreeding avoidance: estimating sex-specific selection on inbreeding by song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Evolution, 69, 2846-2861.
Reid, J.M., Duthie, A.B., Wolak, M.E., Arcese, P. (2015) Demographic mechanisms of inbreeding adjustment through extra-pair reproduction. Journal of Animal Ecology, 84, 1029-1040.
Reid, J.M., Arcese, P., Keller, L.F., Germain, R.R., Duthie, A.D., Losdat, S., Wolak, M.E., Nietlisbach, P. (2015) Quantifying inbreeding avoidance through extra-pair reproduction. Evolution, 69, 59-74.
Bocedi, G, Reid, J.M. (2015) Evolution of female multiple mating: a quantitative model of the ‘sexually-selected sperm’ hypothesis. Evolution, 69, 39-58.
Losdat, S., Arcese, P., Reid, J.M. (2015) Double decomposition: decomposing the variance in subcomponents of male extra-pair reproductive success. Journal of Animal Ecology, 84, 1384-1395.
Duthie, A.B., Reid, J.M. (2015) What happens after inbreeding avoidance? Inbreeding by rejected relatives and the inclusive fitness benefit of inbreeding avoidance. PLoS One, 10, e0125140.
Christensen, L.L., Selman, C., Blount, J.D., Pilkington, J.G., Watt, K.A., Pemberton, J.M., Reid, J.M.ª, Nussey, D.H.ª (2015) Plasma markers of oxidative stress are uncorrelated in a wild mammal. Ecology & Evolution, in press. ªEqual author contributions.
Brickhill, D., Evans, P.G.H., Reid, J.M. (2015) Spatio-temporal variation in European starling reproductive success at multiple small spatial scales. Ecology & Evolution, 5, 3364-3377.
Miles, W., Mavor, R., Riddiford, N., Harvey, P.V., Riddington, R., Shaw, D., Parnaby, D., Reid, J.M. (2015) Decline in an Atlantic Puffin population: evaluation of magnitude and mechanisms. PLoS One, 10, e0131527.
Reid, J.M. (2015) What can we really say about relatedness and extra-pair paternity? Behavioral Ecology, 26, 969-974. (Invited commentary).
Reid, J.M., Arcese, P., Keller, L.F., Losdat, S. (2014) Female and male genetic effects on offspring paternity: additive genetic (co)variances in female extra-pair reproduction and male paternity success in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Evolution, 68, 2357–2370.
Reid, J.M.ª, Keller, L.F.ª, Marr, A.B., Nietlisbach, P., Sardell, R.J., Arcese, P. (2014) Pedigree error due to extra-pair reproduction substantially biases estimates of inbreeding depression. Evolution, 68, 802-815. ªEqual author contributions.
Reid, J.M., Arcese, P., Losdat, S. (2014) Genetic covariance between components of male reproductive success: within-pair versus extra-pair paternity in song sparrows. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 27, 2046–2056.
Grist, H., Daunt, F., Wanless, S., Nelson, E.J., Harris, M.P., Newell, M., Reid, J.M. (2014) Site fidelity and individual variation in winter location in partially migratory European shags. PLoS One, 9, e98562.
Losdat, S., Cheng, S.M., Reid, J.M. (2014) Inbreeding depression in male gametic performance. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 27, 992-1011.
Reid, J.M. (2014) Quantitative genetic approaches to understanding sexual selection and mating system evolution in the wild. In Quantitative Genetics in the Wild. Oxford University Press.
Reid, J.M., Pemberton, J.M., Szulkin, M. (2013) Recombination and inbreeding strategy in sexually reproducing animals. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 28, 684-685.
Barlow, E.J., Daunt, F., Wanless, S. & Reid, J.M. (2013) Comprehensive estimation of within- and among-population dispersal rate, distance and direction in European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis). Ibis, 155, 762-778.
Lebigre, C., Arcese, P., Sardell, R.J., Keller, L.F. & Reid, J.M. (2013) Decomposing the variance in male reproductive success: age-specific variances and covariances through multiple reproductive routes. Journal of Animal Ecology, 82, 872-883.
Szulkin, M.ª, Stopher, K.V., Pemberton, J. & Reid, J.M.ª (2013) Inbreeding avoidance, tolerance and preference in animals? Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 28, 205-211. ªEqual author contributions.
Sutherland, W.J., Freckleton, R.P., Godfray, H.C.J., Reid, J.M., & 30 others (2013) Identification of 100 fundamental ecological questions. Journal of Ecology, 101, 58-67.
Sim, I.M.W., Ludwig, C.S., Grant, M.C., Loughrey, J.L., Rebecca, G.W. & Reid, J.M. (2013) Post-fledging survival, movements and dispersal of Ring Ouzels. Auk, 130, 69-77.
Reid, J.M. (2012) Predicting evolutionary responses to selection on polyandry in the wild: additive genetic covariances with female extra-pair reproduction. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 279, 4652-4660.
Sardell, R.J., Arcese, P. & Reid, J.M. (2012)Offspring fitness varies with parental extra-pair status in song sparrows, Melospiza melodia. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 279, 4078-4086.
Wenzel, M.A., Webster, L.M.I., Blanco, G., Burgess, M.D., Kerbiriou, C., Segelbacher, G., Piertney, S.B. & Reid, J.M. (2012) Pronounced genetic structure and low genetic diversity in European red-billed chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax) populations. Conservation Genetics, 13, 1213-1230.
Lebigre, C., Arcese, P., Sardell, R.J., Keller, L.F. & Reid, J.M. (2012) Extra-pair paternity and the variance in male fitness in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Evolution, 66, 3111-3129.
Sardell, R.J., Keller, L.F., Arcese, P. & Reid, J.M. (2012) Indirect benefits of extra-pair reproduction: lifetime reproductive success of within-pair and extra-pair offspring in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). American Naturalist, 179, 779-793. Featured in Nature Research Highlights
Reid, J.M. & Sardell, R.J. (2012) Indirect selection on female extra-pair reproduction? Comparing the additive genetic value of extra-pair versus within-pair offspring. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 279, 1700-1708.
Sardell, R.J., Keller, L.F., Arcese, P. & Reid, J.M. (2011) Sex-specific differential survival of extra-pair and within-pair young in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 278, 3251-3259.
Reid, J.M., Bignal, E., Bignal, S., Bogdanova, M.I., Monaghan, P. & McCracken, D.I. (2011) Diagnosing the timing of demographic bottlenecks: sub-adult survival in red-billed choughs. Journal of Applied Ecology, 48, 797-805.
Reid, J.M., Arcese, P., Sardell, R.J. & Keller, L.F. (2011) Additive genetic variance, heritability and inbreeding depression in male extra-pair reproductive success. American Naturalist, 177, 177-187.
Reid, J.M., Arcese, P., Sardell, R.J. & Keller, L.F. (2011) Heritability of female extra-pair paternity rate in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 278, 1114-1120.
Sim, I.M.W., Rebecca, G.W., Ludwig, S., Grant, M.C. & Reid, J.M. (2011) Characterising demographic variation and contributions to population growth rate in a declining population. Journal of Animal Ecology, 80, 159-170. Recommended by Faculty of 1000.
Postma, E., Heinrich, F., Koller, U., Sardell, R.J., Reid, J.M., Arcese, P. & Keller, L.F. (2011) Disentangling the effect of genes, the environment and chance on sex ratio variation in a wild bird population. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 278, 2996-3002.
Sardell, R.J., Keller, L.F., Arcese, P., Bucher, T. & Reid, J.M. (2010) Comprehensive paternity assignment: genotype, spatial location and social status in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Molecular Ecology, 19, 4352-4364.
Taylor, S.S., Sardell, R.J., Reid, J.M., Bucher, T., Taylor, N.G., Arcese, P. & Keller, L.F. (2010) Inbreeding coefficient and heterozygosity-fitness correlations in unhatched and hatched song sparrow nestmates. Molecular Ecology, 19, 4454-4461.
Minderman, J., Reid, J.M., Hughes, M., Denny, M.J.H., Hogg, S., Evans, P.G.H. & Whittingham, M.J. (2010) Animal personality traits in an ecological context: exploration behaviour and home range size in wild starlings Sturnus vulgaris. Behavioral Ecology, 21, 1321-1329.
Reid, J.M., Bignal, E., Bignal, S., McCracken, D.I., Bogdanova, M.I. & Monaghan, P. (2010) Parent age, lifespan and offspring survival: structured variation in life-history in a wild population. Journal of Animal Ecology, 79, 851-862.
Reid, J.M. & Keller, L.F. (2010) Correlated inbreeding among relatives: occurrence, magnitude and implications. Evolution, 64, 973-985.
Cornulier, T., Elston, D.A., Arcese, P., Benton, T.G., Douglas, D.J.T., Lambin, X., Reid, J.M., Robinson, R.A. & Sutherland, W.J. (2009) Estimating annual breeding frequency from censused breeding dates: using mixture models to disaggregate overlapping distributions. Ecology Letters, 12, 1184-1193.
Minderman, J., Reid, J.M., Evans, P.G.H. & Whittingham, M.J. (2009) Personality traits in wild starlings: exploration behaviour and environmental sensitivity. Behavioral Ecology, 20, 830-837.
Fromhage, L., Kokko, H. & Reid, J.M. (2009) Evolution of mate choice for genome-wide heterozygosity. Evolution, 63, 684-694.
Reid, J.M., Arcese, P. & Keller, L.F. (2008) Individual phenotype, kinship and the occurrence of inbreeding in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Evolution, 62, 887-899.
Reid, J.M., Bignal, E., Bignal, S., McCracken, D.I., Bogdanova, M.I. & Monaghan, P. (2008) Investigating patterns and processes of demographic variation: environmental correlates of pre-breeding survival in red-billed choughs (Pyrrhocorrax pyrrhocorax). Journal of Animal Ecology, 77, 777-789.
Keller, L.F.ª, Reid, J.M.ª& Arcese, P. (2008) Testing evolutionary models of senescence in a natural population: age and inbreeding effects on fitness components in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 275, 597-604. ªEqual author contributions.
Reid, J.M. (2007) Secondary sexual ornamentation and non-additive genetic benefits of female mate choice. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 274, 1395-1402. Featured in Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 23, 1-3.
Reid, J.M., Arcese, P., Keller, L.F., Elliott, K.H., Sampson, L. & Hasselquist, D. (2007) Inbreeding effects on immune response in free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 274, 697-706.
Reid, J.M., Arcese, P., Keller, L.F. & Hasselquist, D. (2006) Long-term maternal effect on offspring immune response in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Biology Letters, 2, 573-576.
Marr, A.B., Arcese, P. Hochachka, W.M., Reid, J.M. & Keller, L.F. (2006) Interactive effects of environmental stress and inbreeding on reproductive traits in a wild bird population. Journal of Animal Ecology, 75, 1406-1425.
Reid, J.M., Arcese, P. & Keller, L.F. (2006) Intrinsic parent-offspring correlation in inbreeding level in a song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) population open to immigration. American Naturalist, 168, 1-13. Featured in Current Biology 16, 810-812.
Reid, J.M., Bignal, E.M., Bignal, S., McCracken, D.I. & Monaghan, P. (2006) Spatial variation in demography and population growth rate: the importance of natal location. Journal of Animal Ecology, 75, 1201-1211.
Reid, J.M., Arcese, P., Cassidy, A.L.E.V., Hiebert, S.M, Smith, J.N.M., Stoddard, P.K., Marr, A.B. & Keller, L.F. (2005) Fitness correlates of song repertoire size in free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). American Naturalist, 165, 299-310. Featured in Current Biology 15, 334-336.
Reid, J.M., Arcese, P., Cassidy, A.L.E.V., Marr, A.B., Smith, J.N.M. & Keller, L.F. (2005) Hamilton & Zuk meet heterozygosity? Song repertoire size signals inbreeding and immunity in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 272, 481-487.
Reid, J.M., Bignal, E.M., Bignal, S., McCracken, D.I. & Monaghan, P. (2004) Identifying the life-history determinants of population growth rate: a case study of red-billed choughs (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax). Journal of Animal Ecology, 73, 777-788.
Reid, J.M., Arcese, P., Cassidy, A.L.E.V., Hiebert, S.M. Marr, A.B., Smith, J.N.M., Stoddard, P.K. & Keller, L.F. (2004) Song repertoire size predicts initial mating success in male song sparrows Melospiza melodia. Animal Behaviour, 68, 1055-1063.
Cresswell, W., Holt, S., Reid, J.M., Whitfield, D.P., Mellanby, R.J., Norton, D. & Waldron, S.(2004)The energetic costs of egg heating constrain incubation attendance but do not determine daily energy expenditure in the pectoral sandpiper. Behavioral Ecology, 15, 498-507.
Hilton, G.M., Hansell, M.H., Ruxton, G.D., Reid, J.M. & Monaghan, P. (2004) Using artificial nests to test importance of nesting material and nest shelter for incubation energetic. Auk, 121, 777-787.
Reid, J.M.,Arcese, P. & Keller, L.F. (2003) Inbreeding depresses immune response in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia): direct and inter-generational effects. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 270, 2151-2157.
Reid, J.M., Bignal, E.M., Bignal, S., McCracken, D.I. & Monaghan, P. (2003) Age-specific reproductive performance in the red-billed chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax): patterns and processes in a natural population. Journal of Animal Ecology, 72, 765-776. Awarded the journal’s Elton Prize.
Reid, J.M., Bignal, E.M., Bignal, S., McCracken, D.I. & Monaghan, P. (2003) Environmental variability, life-history covariation and cohort effects in the red-billed chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax). Journal of Animal Ecology, 72, 36-46.
Cresswell, W., Holt, S., Reid, J.M., Whitfield, D.P. & Mellanby, R.J. (2003)Do energetic demands constrain incubation scheduling in a biparental species? Behavioral Ecology, 14, 97-102.
Reid, J.M., Cresswell, W., Holt, S., Mellanby, R.J., Whitfield, D.P. & Ruxton G.D. (2002) Heat loss and nest scrape design in pectoral sandpipers. Functional Ecology, 16, 305-312.
Reid, J.M., Monaghan, P. & Ruxton, G.D. (2002)Males matter: the occurrence and consequences of male incubation in starlings. Behavioural Ecology & Sociobiology, 51, 255-261.
Reid, J.M., Ruxton, G.D. Monaghan, P. & Hilton, G.M. (2002)The energetic consequences of clutch temperature and clutch size for a uniparental intermittent incubator. Auk, 119, 54-61.
Reid, J.M., Monaghan, P. & Ruxton, G.D. (2000) Resource allocation between reproductive phases: the importance of thermal conditions in determining the costs of incubation. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 267, 37-41.
Reid, J.M., Monaghan, P. & Ruxton, G.D. (2000) The consequences of clutch size for incubation conditions and hatching success in starlings. Functional Ecology, 14, 560-565.
Reid, J.M., Monaghan, P. & Ruxton, G.D. (1999) Effect of clutch cooling rate on starling incubation strategy. Animal Behaviour, 58, 1161-1167.
Research group members
Current research group members:
Dr Amanda Trask (SNH-funded Postdoctoral Research Fellow) - Population viability analysis for red-billed choughs.
Dr Ana Payo-Payo (NERC-funded Postdoctoral Research Fellow) - Population dynamic theory for partially-migratory populations.
Dr Paul Acker (NERC-funded Postdoctoral Research Fellow) - Demographic variation in partial migration.
Sarah Fenn (PhD student - funded by NERC and SNH) - Supplementary feeding and conservation policy in red-billed choughs.
Former research group members:
Dr Brad Duthie (ERC Postdoctoral Research Fellow) - Evolutionary theory of inbreeding. Now a Leverhulme Trust Research Fellow, University of Stirling (UK).
Dr Greta Bocedi (ERC Postdoctoral Research Fellow) - Evolutionary theory of polyandry. Now a Royal Society University Research Fellow, University of Aberdeen (UK).
Dr Matthew Wolak (ERC Postdoctoral Research Fellow) - Quantitative genetic analysis of inbreeding and fitness. Now an Assistant Professor, Auburn University (USA).
Dr Ryan Germain (ERC Postdoctoral Research Fellow) - Polyandry and population relatedness structure. Now an NSERC Research Fellow, Cornell University (USA).
Dr Aline Lee (Marie Curie Postdoctoral Research Fellow) - Population consequences of nonbreeders. Now a Senior Postdoctoral Researcher, NTNU (Norway).
Dr Sylvain Losdat (Marie Curie Postdoctoral Research Fellow) - Male reproductive strategies. Now a Postdoctoral Researcher (Switzerland).
Dr Will Miles (Postdoctoral Research Fellow) - Migration ecology. Now a Seabird Ecologist (UK).
Dr Christophe Lebigre (Leverhulme-funded Postdoctoral Research Fellow) - Variance in fitness. Now a Research Ecologist (France).
Dr Maria Bogdanova (NERC-funded Postdoctoral Research Fellow) - Conservation ecology. Now a Research Ecologist, Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (UK).
Former PhD students:
Rebecca Sardell; Jeroen Minderman; Daisy Brickhill; Emily Barlow; Jessica Walkup; Innes Sim; Hannah Grist; Amanda Trask; Jenny Strugeon; Louise Christensen; Svenja Kroeger.