Professor Irene Couzigou
Professor Irène Couzigou researches in the field of general Public International Law, including International Human Rights Law. Her current research focuses on International Law on Peace and Security, especially International Law on Cybersecurity, International Law on the Use of Force and United Nations Law. Having been trained up to her doctoral degree at the University of Paris II, Professor Couzigou keeps a strong research interest in French Public Law.
Professor Couzigou belongs to the Steering Committee of the Scottish Law and Innovation Network. She advised the Scottish government on its cyber resilience strategy, as well as the United Arab Emirates and the UN Office on Drugs and Crime on the use of the Internet by terrorists. Furthermore, she is a rapporteur for the Oxford University Press database on the Law of International Organizations. She serves as a monograph and textbook reviewer for Cambridge University Press, Oxford University Press, and Routledge.
Professor Couzigou teaches general and specialised courses in Public International Law, at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Furthermore, she acts as the Law School LLM Director and a Law School senator. She is also the Law School research liaison officer: she represents the Society of Legal Scholars, convenes the Law School Research Seminar Series and welcomes visiting scholars.
Before coming to Aberdeen, Professor Couzigou researched and taught at the Universities of Paris II (France), Heidelberg (Germany), and Mannheim (Germany). Professor Couzigou was a Research Fellow of the University of Paris II, the German Academic Exchange Service, and the Max Planck Institute for Public Comparative Law and International Law. She can read, speak, and write at academic level in English, French, and German.
Memberships and Affiliations
- Internal Memberships
LLM Director: oversees all Law School postgraduate programmes
Senator: Law School representative at the Senate of the University of Aberdeen
Convenor of the Research Seminar Series of the Law School
External Liaison Officer of the Law School: welcomes visiting scholars
Member of the Research Committee of the Law School
Member of the Research Centre for Constitutional and Public International Law
Member of the Law and Computer Science Group
Associate member of the Centre for Global Security and Governance (https://www.abdn.ac.uk/global-security/about/expertsassociates/)
Affiliated member of the Institute of Conflict, Transition, and Peace Research of the University of Aberdeen
- External Memberships
Representative of the University of Aberdeen in the Steering Committee of the Scottish Law and Innovation Network (SCOTLIN)
Referent for Scotland of the French Association of Doctors in Law (AFDD)
Representative of the University of Aberdeen in the European academic network 'Study of movements of the international and European legal orders'
Representative of the Law School in the Society of Legal Scholars
Member of the International Law Association (British and French Branches)
Member of the European Society of International Law
Member of the French International Law Society
Rapporteur for the Oxford University Press database on the Law of International Organizations (http://opil.ouplaw.com/home/OXIO)
Member of board of editors of Geopolitics, History, and International Relations, Addleton Academic Publishers, New York
External reviewer of the Fund for Scientific Research of Belgium
Reviewer of monographs and textbooks for Cambridge University Press, Oxford University Press, Routledge, and Chatham House
Public International Law, especially:
- The Law of Peace and Security
- International Cybersecurity Law
- The Law of International Organisations
- International and European Human Rights Law
Comparative Public Law, especially:
- French Public Law
- German Public Law
L’évolution du statut international de l’Allemagne depuis 1945 (The Evolution of the International Status of Germany since 1945), Bruxelles, Editions Bruylant, 2011, 732pp.
- ‘The French Legislation against Digital Information Manipulation in Electoral Campaigns: A Scope Limited by Freedom of Expression', Election Law Journal, 2021, 98-115pp.
- 'A necessary harmonised criminalisation of online acts precursor of terrorism', Internet Law Bulletin, 2020, no. 3, pp. 46-51.
- ‘Hacking-back by Non-State Actors and the Rule of Law’, Heidelberg Journal of International Law, 2020, pp. 479-507.
- ‘The Criminalization of Online Terrorism Preparatory Acts under International Law’, online Special Volume for Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, Crime-Terror Nexus, 2019, 20pp.
- ‘Respect for State Sovereignty: Primacy of Intervention by Invitation over the Right to Self-Defence’, Heidelberg Journal of International Law, 2019/75, pp. 695-698
- Headnote, ‘United Nations Security Council Resolution 1390 (2002) on continuation of measures against the Taliban and Al-Qaida, 16th January 2002 (UN Doc S/RES/1390/2002)’, 23 July 2018, Oxford International Organization 254
- ‘Le respect des droits de l’homme dans les actions du Conseil de sécurité des Nations Unies’ (‘Respect for Human Rights in the Conduct of the United Nations Security Council’), Civitas Europa, 2018, pp. 67-92
- ‘Securing Cyber Space: The Obligation of States to Prevent Harmful International Cyber Operations’, International Review of Law, Computer & Technology, 2018/1, pp. 37-57
- Headnote, ‘United Nations Security Council Resolution 2253 (2015) on threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts, 17th December 2015 (UN Doc S/RES/2253/2015)’, 4 July 2017, Oxford International Organization 103
- ‘The Right to Self-Defence against Non-State Actors: Criteria of the ‘‘Unwilling or Unable’’ Test’, Heidelberg Journal of International Law, 2017/1, pp. 53-55
- ‘The Fight against the ‘‘Islamic State’’ in Syria: Towards the Modification of the Right to Self-Defence?’, Geopolitics, History, and International Relations, 2017/2, pp. 80-106
- Headnote, ‘United Nations Security Council Resolution 2249 (2015) on threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts, 20th November 2015 (UN Doc S/RES/2249/2015)’, 20 July 2016, Oxford International Organization 54
- ‘The United Nations Security Council Sanctions and International Human Rights’, Vienna Journal on International Constitutional Law, 2016/3, pp. 277-311
- ‘The Fight against the ‘Islamic State’ in Syria and the Right to Self-Defence’, E-International Relations, 2016, 7pp.
- ‘International Organisations and States Within an Agency Relationship: The Distribution of Responsibility’, Netherlands International Law Review, 2014/3, pp. 335-364
- ‘L’incidence du droit à la vie sur le droit à un procès équitable dans la jurisprudence du Comité des droits de l’homme’ (‘Impact of the Right to Life on the Right to a Fair Trial in the Case-Law of the Human Rights Committee’), Revue générale de droit international public (General Review of Public International Law), 2010/2, pp. 343-365
- ‘Le référendum français et la construction européenne’ (‘French Referendums and European Integration’), Revue de droit international et de droit comparé (Review for International and Comparative Law), 2010/1, pp. 30-72
- ‘Le référendum obligatoire sur l’Europe en France’ (Obligatory Referendums on Europe in France), Revue de la Recherche Juridique - Droit prospectif (‘Review of Legal Research - Prospective Law’), 2010/2, pp. 953-971
- ‘Le droit à la réunification des nations des Etats divisés’ (‘The Right to Reunification of the Nations of the Divided States’), Revue de droit international (International Law Review), 2008/3, pp. 1-30
- ‘La lutte du Conseil de sécurité contre le terrorisme international et les droits de l’homme’ (‘The Security Council’s Fight against International Terrorism and Human Rights’), Revue générale de droit international public (General Review of Public International Law), 2008/1, pp. 49-84
- ‘Le Conseil de sécurité doit-il respecter les droits de l’homme dans son action coercitive de maintien de la paix?’ (‘Must the Security Council Respect Human Rights in its Coercive Peace-Keeping Action?’), Quebec Review of International Law, 2007/1, pp. 107-136
- ‘Les droits de l’homme et les Nations Unies’ (‘Human Rights and the United Nations’) (7.522 words), published by the journal Peace, Development and Democratization, an Agenda for the Future, editing in 1995 during the study training on the United Nations activities
Refereed Book Chapters:
- ‘Enforcement of UN Security Council Resolutions and of International Court of Justice Judgments: the Unreliability of Political Enforcement Mechanisms’ in Andras Jakab and Dimitry Kochenov (eds), The Enforcement of EU Law and Values: Ensuring Member States’ Compliance, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2017, pp. 363-378
- ‘Yalta, Conference’ in Frauke Lachenmann-Rüdiger Wolfrum (eds), The Law of Armed Conflict and the Use of Force, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2016, pp. 1422-1427
- ‘The Challenges Posed by Cyberattacks to the Law on Self-defence’ in August Reinisch, Mary Footer, Christina Binder (eds), International Law and…, Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2016, pp. 245-260
- ‘The Use of Force as a Response to Cyberterrorism’ in Lee Jarvis, Stuart Macdonald and Tome Chen (eds), Terrorism Online: Politics, Law, Technology and Unconventional Violence, London, Routledge, 2015, pp. 173-189
- ‘La relation de mandat entre Etats et organisations internationales et ses conséquences sur la responsabilité des organisations internationales’ (‘The Agency Relationship between States and International Organisations and its Consequences for the Responsibility of International Organisations’) in Dan Sarooshi (ed), Remedies and Responsibility for the Actions of International Organizations, Leiden/Boston, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2014, pp. 147-184
- ‘Territorial Decentralisation in France: Towards Autonomy and Democracy’ in Carlo Panara and Michael R Varney (eds), Local Government in Europe. The 'Fourth Level' in the EU Multi-Layered System of Governance, London, Routledge, 2013, pp. 73-96
- ‘Kehler Hafen Case’ (decision of the Constitutional Court of the Federal Republic of Germany)’ in Rüdiger Wolfrum (ed), [Max Planck] Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012, vol. 6, pp. 575-578
- ‘La Bretagne, Arbitral Award’ in Rüdiger Wolfrum (ed), [Max Planck] Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012, vol. 6, pp. 619-621
- ‘Société Levant Express Transport Case’(decision of the French Court of Cassation) in Rüdiger Wolfrum (ed), [Max Planck] Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012, vol. 9, pp. 250-252
- ‘Yalta, Conference’ in Rüdiger Wolfrum (ed), [Max Planck] Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012, vol. 10, pp. 1049-1054
Refereed Book Reviews:
- Review of ‘Emmanuelle Tourme Jouannet, International Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2015, 126p’, Leiden Journal of International Law, 2016/2, pp. 605-608
- Review of ‘Jane McAdam, Climate Change, Forced Migration, and International Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012, 319p’, Environmental Law Review, 2012/4, pp. 334-336
- Review of ‘Theodor Schilling, Internationaler Menschenrechtsschutz, Tübingen, Mohr Siebeck, 2010, 398p’, Archiv des Völkerrechts, 2012/1, pp. 102-103 (in German)
- Review of ‘Olivier Corten, The Law Against War, Oxford and Portland, Hart, 2010, 569p’, European Journal of International Law, 2011/4, pp. 1193-1195
- Review of ‘Maelstaf G., Que faire de l’Allemagne? (1945-1955), Paris, Editions Imprimerie Nationale, 1999, pp. 740’ (‘What to Do With Germany ? (1945-1955), Paris, Editions Imprimerie Nationale, 1999, pp. 740’), Revue générale de droit international public (General Review of Public International Law), 2000, pp. 562-563
RECENT CONFERENCE PAPERS
- September 2021: Paper at the conference of the Society of Legal Scholars: 'Delegation of Public Functions to Digital Companies: An Opportunity more than a Threat'
- July 2021: Paper at the panel 'Foreign Interference, Elections, and Democratic Speech: Comparative Approaches to a Global Challenge’ at the conference of the International Society of Public Law: ‘The Limits of Law? The Multifaceted Approach of the French Legislation to Tackle Foreign Election Interference through Digital Disinformation’
- June 2021: Paper at the conference ‘Commercial Law in a Time of Crises’ by the Centre for Commercial Law of the University of Aberdeen: ‘The Right to Cyber Self-Defence: A Controversial Solution for the Protection of Companies against Cyber Attacks’
- May 2021: Paper at the conference 'International Law and Distribution' at the University of Glasgow: 'Securing Information Technology: The Need for Collaboration between States and Private Actors'
- April 2021: Paper at the panel ‘Political Campaigns: Perspectives from Abroad’ at the workshop ‘Democracy and Governance in the Internet Era’ organised by the American Branch of the International Law Association and South University of Georgia: 'The French Legislation on the Fight against the Manipulation of Information: Limited Means to Counter Digital Disinformation in Electoral Campaigns'
- March 2021: Paper at the conference 'Intelligence and Autonomous' at the Vytautas Magnus University (Lithuania): 'The Empowerment of Platforms' Users against Online Disinformation: The French Legislation on the Fight against the Manipulation of Information'
- September 2020: Paper at the conference of the Society of Legal Scholars: ‘Public-Private Partnership in Securing Cyberspace’
- June 2019: Active participation in the workshop at the University of Glasgow: 'Exploring Normative Gaps: Issues and Developments in Cyber-Security'
- Avril 2019: Paper at the Edinburgh-Glasgow International Law Workshop: ‘Towards a State-Private Actor Partnership in Securing Cyberspace’
- Avril 2019: Chair and discussant at the Workshop of the ESIL Interest Group on Peace and Security on ‘The Rule of Law in Cyberspace’
- Mars 2019: Paper at the conference organised by the East China University of Political Science and Law (Shanghai): ‘The Criminalization of Online Terrorism Preparatory Acts under International Law’
- November 2018: Research seminar at the University Halle-Wittenberg (Germany): ‘Unlawful State Cyber Operations under International Law’
- September 2018: Paper at the conference of the Society of Legal Scholars: 'Fundamental International Principles Challenged by the Use of the Internet by States'
- July 2018: Paper at the Forum on the Governance of the Internet in Paris: 'Reactions of States to Cyberattacks under International Law'
- June 2018: Paper at a conference organised by the University of Lorraine on the UN Security Council and Respect for Human Rights: 'Protection of Human Rights in Coercive Actions of the Security Council'
- April 2018: Paper at a conference organised by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime in collaboration with Qatar University College of Law: 'A Necessary Treaty on the Criminalisation of Online Terrorism Preparatory Acts'
- April 2018: Paper at the Bileta (British and Irish Law Education and Technology association) conference: ‘Towards a New Category of Cyber Crime: Online Terrorism Preparatory Offenses’
- November 2017: Paper at a workshop on International Law, Policy and Practice in Syria at the University of Glasgow: ‘The Right to Self-defence in Syria’
- September 2017: Paper at the conference of the Society of Legal Scholars: ‘An Old Tool for a New Practice: The Implementation of the Right to Self-Defence in Response to Cyber-Attacks by Non-State Actors’
- April 2017: Paper at the conference of BILETA (British and Irish Law Education and Technology association): ‘Securing Cyber Space: the Obligation of States to Prevent Harmful International Cyber Operations’
- July 2020: Participation in the EU consultation on the Digital Services Act package
- October 2019: Participation in the workshop 'Constructing a Digital Environment' organised by the Natural Environment Research Council.
- February 2018: Feedback on 'Safe, secure and prosperous: a cyber-resilience strategy for Scotland. The Economic Opportunity. Key Actions 2018-2020 – Draft Document', prepared by the Scottish government.
- May 2017: Paper at the conference on cyberterrorism organised by the United Arab Emirates on Cyberterrorism: ‘The Necessity for an International Treaty on Cyberterrorism’
- November 2014: Paper at the conference organised by the London Centre of International Law Practice: ‘International Law on the Use of Force as a Response to Cyberterrorism’
Funding and Grants
Award from the Society of Legal Scholar (SLS)
Award from the British and Irish Law Education Technology Association (BILETA)
Fellow at Sciences Po Paris
Award of the Franco-British Lawyers Society
Fellow from the Hague Academy of International Law
Award by the Centre for Academic Development of the University of Aberdeen for good practice in teaching
Fellow of the German Academic Exchange Service
Fellow of the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law in Heidelberg (Germany)
Fellow of the German National Academic Foundation
Fellow of the University Panthéon-Assas (Paris 2)
Fellow of the French Ministry of Education
At the University of Aberdeen, Professor Irène Couzigou teaches general and specialised courses in Public International Law, including a new course on International Cybersecurity Law, both at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Furthermore, she taught French Law, Comparative Law, European Law, and UK Public Law.
Professor Couzigou also taught International Human Rights Law and the Law of International Organisations as an invited scholar at the University of Glasgow.
Before coming to Scotland, Professor Couzigou taught diverse courses in Public International Law and French Public Law at the University of Paris II (France), the University of Heidelberg (Germany), and the University of Mannheim (Germany).
Professor Couzigou supervises PhD students working in the field of Public International Law. She is particularly interested in PhD projects related to peace and security, especially cybersecurity.
Postgraduate courses taught at the University of Aberdeen:
- 'The Evolution of International Law in a World of Crises'
- 'International Law: A Time of Challenges'
- 'International Law'
- 'The Use of Force in International Law'
- 'International Cybersecurity Law'
- 'The Law of International Organisations'
- 'International Human Rights Law'
- 'Media Law'
- 'Law, Business, Security: Petroleum Data Management'
Undergraduate courses taught at the University of Aberdeen:
- The Evolution of International Law in a World of Crises'
- 'International Law: A Time of Challenges'
- 'International Law'
- 'The Use of Force in International Law'
- 'Public International Law'
- 'Politics and International Relations'
- 'Sustainable International Development'
- 'Introduction to French Law'
- 'Foundations of Public Law'
- 'Introduction to Comparative Law'
- 'EU Institutions and Law'
PhD thesis supervised at the University of Aberdeen:
- Benli Nurullah, Application of State Sovereignty over Cyberspace under International Law
- Enenu Okwori, An Analysis of the Right to Self-Defence against Non-State Actors in Cyberspace
- Ezgi Ediboglu, The Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies under the Auspices of International Institutions: Exploring the Necessity of a Trilateral Cooperation of the CoP of the UNFCCC, World Trade Organization and World Bank. Completed in 2020.
- Marianthi Pappa, The 'Butterfly Effect' in Maritime Boundary Dispute Resolution. Completed in 2018.
- Mohamad Janaby, The Legal Regime Applicable to Private Military and Security Company Personnel in Armed Conflicts. Completed in 2016. Published: Mohamad Janaby, The Legal Regime Applicable to Private Military and Security Company Personnel in Armed Conflicts, Springer, 2016, 237pp.
- Jing Qi, Britain’s Drug-Pushing Activities in China: The Two Opium Wars from the Perspective of their Lawyers and Legal Advisers. Completed in 2013.