The Aberdeen Bestiary

Folio 9v - Panther, continued


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Commentary, Translation and Transcription

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It is not part of the project to provide a definitive edition of the text of the Bestiary, but to help readers by providing a transcription and translation of the text. Currently the following editorial conventions obtain:

Text

  1. The original capitalisation is retained, but capitals have been added for personal and place names, excluding deus and diabolus.
  2. The original punctuation, including a point and inverted semi-colon (both serving as commas), and a point (serving as a full stop), is represented by comma, full stop and question-mark; a colon has been inserted before quotations.
  3. Suggested readings are in [ ].
  4. Variants from other Bestiary texts (eg Ashmole 1511 and Patrologia Latina 176) are added where they indicate a corruption, elucidate a meaning and replace excised text. They are represented as [A: PL:]

Translation

  1. Direct quotations from the Bible, where identified, are cited from the Authorised Version in ( ).
  2. Paraphrased quotations are identified where possible and indicated as: (see Job, 18:22).
  3. Suggested translations of corrupt words are in [ ].
  4. Capitalisation is sparing; additional punctuation has been used where necessary to give the sense. Paragraphs have been created to break up the text.
'Thou art fairer than the children of men.' (Psalms, 45:2) The fact that the panther is a gentle animal [signifies Christ], as Isaiah also says: 'Rejoice and be glad, daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem; because your king comes to you, meek ...' (see Isaiah, 62:11; Zechariah, 9:9; Matthew, 21:5) When the panther is full, it hides [in its den and sleeps. When Christ] was sated with the mocking of the Jews, the scourgings, blows, insults, abuse, the crown of thorns, having been hung by his hands on the cross, transfixed with nails, forced to drink gall and vinegar, and pierced by a spear, falling asleep in death, he rested in the tomb and descended into hell, where he bound fast the great dragon. On the third day the panther rises from its sleep and gives a great cry, emitting a sweet odour, just like our Lord Jesus Christ, rising again from the dead; as David says: 'He awakened as one out of sleep and like a mighty man that shouteth by reason of wine.'(Psalms, 78:65) And Christ cried out in a loud voice, so that his sound was heard throughout the land and his words at the ends of the earth (see Romans, 10:18). And just as the odour of sweetness comes out of the panther's mouth, and all the beasts which are near and those which come from afar follow it, so the Jews, who had at some time the disposition of beasts, but were close to Christ through their observance of the law, and those from afar, that is, the races who were without the law, hearing the voice of Christ, follow him, saying with the prophet: 'How sweet are thy words unto my taste! yea, sweeter than honey to my mouth.' (Psalms, 119:103) And again of Christ: 'Grace is poured into thy lips; therefore God hath blessed thee for ever.' (Psalms, 45:2) And Solomon says: 'How much better is ... the smell of thine ointments than all spices!' (Song of Solomon, 4:10) And again: 'In the savour of thy good ointments ... we will run after thee.' (Song of Solomon, 1:3-4). And a little after that: 'The king hath brought me into his chambers.' (1:4) We ought to hurry after the scented ointment of Christ's commandments as quickly as we can, like young souls, that is, souls made new by baptism; to quit earthly for heavenly things, that the king may lead us into his palace in Jerusalem, the city of the Lord of righteousness, on the mountain of all the saints. The panther is a beast dabbed all over with very small circular spots, so that it is distinquished by its black and white colouring with eye-shaped circles of yellow. The female [gives birth] once only

Text

The panther.

Comment

Based on the parallel text in the Ashmole Bestiary, pages for the antelope, unicorn, lynx, griffon and the illustration of the elephant are missing between f.9v and f.10r. Pricking and ruling are visible.

Folio Attributes

  • Pricking

    Pricking

    Pricking
    Line pricking and ruling. Detail from f.7r

    Once the quires were arranged they had to be prepared for writing by drawing up the lines. Tiny parallel pinpricks were made on the outer and inner edges of each page and horizontal lines ruled between them. In a completed book these pinpricks should have been trimmed off during the final stages of production but in the Aberdeen Bestiary they have survived in 12 out of the 15 quires (only E , G and M are fully trimmed). Careful measuring shows that the holes were pricked with the quires folded up, using a long pointed pricker, because they are the same distance apart throughout an entire quire. In quires B and C there is a double hole on the penultimate line, indicating to the person ruling lines that the page is about to end. In these two quires the holes have a coarse triangular shape and are set up to 6mm in from the edge. Elsewhere the holes are smaller, circular and much closer to the edge. Pinpricks were also made at the top and bottom of the pages to provide vertical margins. These survive in every quire. In quires A.F,H,J,K,L,M and N there are single pricks for the vertical lines. In B and C there are double pricks and double margins while in G there are double pricks and a variety of single and double ruled lines. On f.48r (quire G) where there are double pricks for the margins, the wrong holes have been joined and the faulty diagonal line has been redrawn correctly.

  • Ruling

    Ruling

    Ruling
    Ruling continues under the illustration. Detail from f.16r

    After the leaves had been pricked, they were ready for ruling. Most pages up to quire F have 29 lines (except for the heavily illustrated quire A). The remaining quires use 28, 30 or 31 lines. The most regular ruling is found in B and C: the two top and bottom lines extend across the whole page. The lines in A, B and C are ruled in a grey colour. From D onwards the lines are a darker brown. The horizontal lines here are also neater, not overlapping the vertical margins. This would suggest that the ruling in A,B and C was done by a different person from the rest. In D and E there is a triple spaced double line across the top and bottom of the page but thereafter the ruling patterns become somewhat arbitrary. Sometimes there are double spaced top and bottom lines, sometimes the number of lines varies. On f.18v, the normal pattern of 29 lines is inadequate. It would appear that the scribe himself had to add two additional lines below the bottom margin, in order to complete his tale. Generally, the written space is 185 x 110/115mm. The ruling appears to have been made without any plan for the illuminations: on f.14r and f.16r the ruled lines pass under the illustration. Two pairs of leaves were left blank. F.3v-f.4r were probably intended to be glued together in order to support the weight of paint and gold leaf on f.4v. f.6r and f.6v precede the Lion story. In the Ashmole Bestiary, the lion has two full page illustrations, which were probably intended here. Two pairs of leaves are glued together. F.56r has a hole in it, which is concealed by being glued to the next page, f.56v. F.93r is glued to f.93v, probably because of the gilded double illumination on f.93v.

Transcription

Speciosus forma pre filiis hominum. Mansuetum autem animal Ysa\ias quoque dicit: Gaude et letare filia Syon, predica filia Ierusalem,\ quia rex tuus venit tibi mansuetus. Cum saturatus fuerit recondit\ se in Iudaicis illusionibus, flagris, alapis, iniuriis, contume\liis, spinis, manibus in cruce suspensus, clavis confixus, fel\le et aceto potatus, et lancea perforatus, obdormiens requievit\ in sepulchro, et descendit in infernum, illic magnum draco\nem ligans. Die autem tercio surgit a sompno et emittit mag\num clamorem, flagrans suavitatem, sicut et dominus noster Iesus Christus\ tercia die resurgens a mortuis, sicut David dicit. Excitatus est tan\quam dormiens dominus, tanquam potens crapulatus a vino. Et excla\mavit voce magna ita ut audire [A: audiretur] in omni terra sonus eius et in\ fines orbis terre verba eius. Et sicut de ore pantere odor suavitatis\ exit, et omnes bestie que prope sunt, et que longe conveniunt\ eam sequuntur; ita Iudei qui aliquando sensum habuerunt\ bestiarum, sed prope erant per legem, et que longe, id est gentes que\ sine lege erant, audientes vocem Christi, sequuntur eum cum\ propheta dicentes: Quam dulcia faucibus meis eloquia tua; super \ mel et favum ori meo. Item de eodem: Diffusa est gratia in la\biis tuis propterea benedixit te [dominus] in eternum. Et Salomon: Odor\ unguentorum tuorum super omnia aromata. Item: In odore un\guentorum tuorum curremus. Et paulo post: Introduxit me rex\ in cubiculum suum. Oportet nos quam citius sicut adolescentu\las, id est renovatas baptismo animas, post unguentum man-datorum Christi currere; de terrenis ad celestia migrare ut nos\ introducat rex in palatium suum, in Ierusalem civitatem domini vir\tutum, et in monte omnium sanctorum. Pantera est bestia mi\nutis orbiculis superpicta, ita ut oculatis ex fulvo circu\lis nigra vel alba distinguatur varietate. Hec semel omnino\

Translation

'Thou art fairer than the children of men.' (Psalms, 45:2) The fact that the panther is a gentle animal [signifies Christ], as Isaiah also says: 'Rejoice and be glad, daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem; because your king comes to you, meek ...' (see Isaiah, 62:11; Zechariah, 9:9; Matthew, 21:5) When the panther is full, it hides [in its den and sleeps. When Christ] was sated with the mocking of the Jews, the scourgings, blows, insults, abuse, the crown of thorns, having been hung by his hands on the cross, transfixed with nails, forced to drink gall and vinegar, and pierced by a spear, falling asleep in death, he rested in the tomb and descended into hell, where he bound fast the great dragon. On the third day the panther rises from its sleep and gives a great cry, emitting a sweet odour, just like our Lord Jesus Christ, rising again from the dead; as David says: 'He awakened as one out of sleep and like a mighty man that shouteth by reason of wine.'(Psalms, 78:65) And Christ cried out in a loud voice, so that his sound was heard throughout the land and his words at the ends of the earth (see Romans, 10:18). And just as the odour of sweetness comes out of the panther's mouth, and all the beasts which are near and those which come from afar follow it, so the Jews, who had at some time the disposition of beasts, but were close to Christ through their observance of the law, and those from afar, that is, the races who were without the law, hearing the voice of Christ, follow him, saying with the prophet: 'How sweet are thy words unto my taste! yea, sweeter than honey to my mouth.' (Psalms, 119:103) And again of Christ: 'Grace is poured into thy lips; therefore God hath blessed thee for ever.' (Psalms, 45:2) And Solomon says: 'How much better is ... the smell of thine ointments than all spices!' (Song of Solomon, 4:10) And again: 'In the savour of thy good ointments ... we will run after thee.' (Song of Solomon, 1:3-4). And a little after that: 'The king hath brought me into his chambers.' (1:4) We ought to hurry after the scented ointment of Christ's commandments as quickly as we can, like young souls, that is, souls made new by baptism; to quit earthly for heavenly things, that the king may lead us into his palace in Jerusalem, the city of the Lord of righteousness, on the mountain of all the saints. The panther is a beast dabbed all over with very small circular spots, so that it is distinquished by its black and white colouring with eye-shaped circles of yellow. The female [gives birth] once only
  • Commentary

    Text

    The panther.

    Comment

    Based on the parallel text in the Ashmole Bestiary, pages for the antelope, unicorn, lynx, griffon and the illustration of the elephant are missing between f.9v and f.10r. Pricking and ruling are visible.

    Folio Attributes

    • Pricking

      Pricking

      Pricking
      Line pricking and ruling. Detail from f.7r

      Once the quires were arranged they had to be prepared for writing by drawing up the lines. Tiny parallel pinpricks were made on the outer and inner edges of each page and horizontal lines ruled between them. In a completed book these pinpricks should have been trimmed off during the final stages of production but in the Aberdeen Bestiary they have survived in 12 out of the 15 quires (only E , G and M are fully trimmed). Careful measuring shows that the holes were pricked with the quires folded up, using a long pointed pricker, because they are the same distance apart throughout an entire quire. In quires B and C there is a double hole on the penultimate line, indicating to the person ruling lines that the page is about to end. In these two quires the holes have a coarse triangular shape and are set up to 6mm in from the edge. Elsewhere the holes are smaller, circular and much closer to the edge. Pinpricks were also made at the top and bottom of the pages to provide vertical margins. These survive in every quire. In quires A.F,H,J,K,L,M and N there are single pricks for the vertical lines. In B and C there are double pricks and double margins while in G there are double pricks and a variety of single and double ruled lines. On f.48r (quire G) where there are double pricks for the margins, the wrong holes have been joined and the faulty diagonal line has been redrawn correctly.

    • Ruling

      Ruling

      Ruling
      Ruling continues under the illustration. Detail from f.16r

      After the leaves had been pricked, they were ready for ruling. Most pages up to quire F have 29 lines (except for the heavily illustrated quire A). The remaining quires use 28, 30 or 31 lines. The most regular ruling is found in B and C: the two top and bottom lines extend across the whole page. The lines in A, B and C are ruled in a grey colour. From D onwards the lines are a darker brown. The horizontal lines here are also neater, not overlapping the vertical margins. This would suggest that the ruling in A,B and C was done by a different person from the rest. In D and E there is a triple spaced double line across the top and bottom of the page but thereafter the ruling patterns become somewhat arbitrary. Sometimes there are double spaced top and bottom lines, sometimes the number of lines varies. On f.18v, the normal pattern of 29 lines is inadequate. It would appear that the scribe himself had to add two additional lines below the bottom margin, in order to complete his tale. Generally, the written space is 185 x 110/115mm. The ruling appears to have been made without any plan for the illuminations: on f.14r and f.16r the ruled lines pass under the illustration. Two pairs of leaves were left blank. F.3v-f.4r were probably intended to be glued together in order to support the weight of paint and gold leaf on f.4v. f.6r and f.6v precede the Lion story. In the Ashmole Bestiary, the lion has two full page illustrations, which were probably intended here. Two pairs of leaves are glued together. F.56r has a hole in it, which is concealed by being glued to the next page, f.56v. F.93r is glued to f.93v, probably because of the gilded double illumination on f.93v.

  • Translation
    'Thou art fairer than the children of men.' (Psalms, 45:2) The fact that the panther is a gentle animal [signifies Christ], as Isaiah also says: 'Rejoice and be glad, daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem; because your king comes to you, meek ...' (see Isaiah, 62:11; Zechariah, 9:9; Matthew, 21:5) When the panther is full, it hides [in its den and sleeps. When Christ] was sated with the mocking of the Jews, the scourgings, blows, insults, abuse, the crown of thorns, having been hung by his hands on the cross, transfixed with nails, forced to drink gall and vinegar, and pierced by a spear, falling asleep in death, he rested in the tomb and descended into hell, where he bound fast the great dragon. On the third day the panther rises from its sleep and gives a great cry, emitting a sweet odour, just like our Lord Jesus Christ, rising again from the dead; as David says: 'He awakened as one out of sleep and like a mighty man that shouteth by reason of wine.'(Psalms, 78:65) And Christ cried out in a loud voice, so that his sound was heard throughout the land and his words at the ends of the earth (see Romans, 10:18). And just as the odour of sweetness comes out of the panther's mouth, and all the beasts which are near and those which come from afar follow it, so the Jews, who had at some time the disposition of beasts, but were close to Christ through their observance of the law, and those from afar, that is, the races who were without the law, hearing the voice of Christ, follow him, saying with the prophet: 'How sweet are thy words unto my taste! yea, sweeter than honey to my mouth.' (Psalms, 119:103) And again of Christ: 'Grace is poured into thy lips; therefore God hath blessed thee for ever.' (Psalms, 45:2) And Solomon says: 'How much better is ... the smell of thine ointments than all spices!' (Song of Solomon, 4:10) And again: 'In the savour of thy good ointments ... we will run after thee.' (Song of Solomon, 1:3-4). And a little after that: 'The king hath brought me into his chambers.' (1:4) We ought to hurry after the scented ointment of Christ's commandments as quickly as we can, like young souls, that is, souls made new by baptism; to quit earthly for heavenly things, that the king may lead us into his palace in Jerusalem, the city of the Lord of righteousness, on the mountain of all the saints. The panther is a beast dabbed all over with very small circular spots, so that it is distinquished by its black and white colouring with eye-shaped circles of yellow. The female [gives birth] once only
  • Transcription
    Speciosus forma pre filiis hominum. Mansuetum autem animal Ysa\ias quoque dicit: Gaude et letare filia Syon, predica filia Ierusalem,\ quia rex tuus venit tibi mansuetus. Cum saturatus fuerit recondit\ se in Iudaicis illusionibus, flagris, alapis, iniuriis, contume\liis, spinis, manibus in cruce suspensus, clavis confixus, fel\le et aceto potatus, et lancea perforatus, obdormiens requievit\ in sepulchro, et descendit in infernum, illic magnum draco\nem ligans. Die autem tercio surgit a sompno et emittit mag\num clamorem, flagrans suavitatem, sicut et dominus noster Iesus Christus\ tercia die resurgens a mortuis, sicut David dicit. Excitatus est tan\quam dormiens dominus, tanquam potens crapulatus a vino. Et excla\mavit voce magna ita ut audire [A: audiretur] in omni terra sonus eius et in\ fines orbis terre verba eius. Et sicut de ore pantere odor suavitatis\ exit, et omnes bestie que prope sunt, et que longe conveniunt\ eam sequuntur; ita Iudei qui aliquando sensum habuerunt\ bestiarum, sed prope erant per legem, et que longe, id est gentes que\ sine lege erant, audientes vocem Christi, sequuntur eum cum\ propheta dicentes: Quam dulcia faucibus meis eloquia tua; super \ mel et favum ori meo. Item de eodem: Diffusa est gratia in la\biis tuis propterea benedixit te [dominus] in eternum. Et Salomon: Odor\ unguentorum tuorum super omnia aromata. Item: In odore un\guentorum tuorum curremus. Et paulo post: Introduxit me rex\ in cubiculum suum. Oportet nos quam citius sicut adolescentu\las, id est renovatas baptismo animas, post unguentum man-datorum Christi currere; de terrenis ad celestia migrare ut nos\ introducat rex in palatium suum, in Ierusalem civitatem domini vir\tutum, et in monte omnium sanctorum. Pantera est bestia mi\nutis orbiculis superpicta, ita ut oculatis ex fulvo circu\lis nigra vel alba distinguatur varietate. Hec semel omnino\
Folio 9v - Panther, continued | The Aberdeen Bestiary | The University of Aberdeen