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Undergraduate Law 2022-2023

LS1020: CRIMINAL LAW

15 credits

Level 1

First Sub Session

This course is a compulsory course on the LLB degree introducing students to Scottish Criminal Law including its sources and current law.   It examines various aspects of substantive law including crimes against the person, crimes of dishonesty, crimes against property and criminal defences enabling students to understand and apply the law in these areas.  The course also develops student’s written, verbal and analytical skills utilising written course work and problem solving exercises in tutorial groups.  

LS1022: FOUNDATIONS OF PRIVATE LAW

15 credits

Level 1

First Sub Session

The course provides firstly a map of private law as drawn from the institutional scheme. It then progresses to an equivalent of the medical student’s study of anatomy in the sense that, concentrating on the law of property and obligations, it examines the main concepts of private law and how they operate together as a system to solve everyday legal problems.

LS1025: LEGAL SYSTEM

15 credits

Level 1

First Sub Session

This course introduces the fundamental components and characteristics of the Scottish legal system. It includes a study skills programme which covers different facets of the study of law along with a series of practical workshops which introduce key legal information sources (both electronic and paper) and appropriate search strategies. Lectures and tutorials will cover topics such as the Scottish legal tradition, formal sources of Scots law, the legislative process, organisation of the courts, judicial precedent, civil procedure, alternative dispute resolution, the European legal order, legal services and access to justice.

LS1026: CASE STUDIES ON LAW IN SOCIETY

15 credits

Level 1

First Sub Session

This module examines, through the use of current, high-profile case-studies, the varying role played by law in wider society. The course departs from the traditional ‘black letter’ approach to studying law and will focus primarily upon current legal problems facing society and the related ethical, economic and social arguments. It will be seen that law is not merely a static body of rules but a mechanism for facilitating and inspiring change in all aspects of our society. 

LS1520: CONTRACT

15 credits

Level 1

Second Sub Session

Contract is one of the central subjects of private law and is one of the main branches of the law of obligations, the other being Delict and Unjustified Enrichment. Contract Law covers obligations which are voluntary in nature. Every day we make contracts from buying a newspaper to buying a house. Contract Law is an area where Scots law and English law are very similar, and this course will cover Scots contract law but also highlight where English law differs with the aim of giving students a working knowledge of contract in both countries.

LS1523: ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF DISPUTE RESOLUTION

15 credits

Level 1

Second Sub Session

Alternative Methods of Dispute Resolution is a very practical course designed to give students a first-hand interaction with a number of the different structured ways to resolve disputes that exist.  The course is taught by way of a weekly lecture which focuses on an explanation of theory and rationale followed by role play tutorials, where students engage in negotiations and mediations in particular.

LS1527: ENGLISH CRIMINAL LAW

7.5 credits

Level 1

Second Sub Session

This course is a compulsory course on the LLB with English Law degree introducing students to English Criminal Law including its sources and current law.   It examines various aspects of substantive law including offences against the person, offences of dishonesty, offences against property and criminal defences enabling students to understand and apply the law in these areas.  The course also develops student’s written, verbal and analytical skills utilising written course work and problem solving in tutorial groups.

LS1528: INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH LEGAL SYSTEM

7.5 credits

Level 1

Second Sub Session

This 7.5 credit course builds on knowledge gained in Legal System. It covers key elements of the English legal system. This includes sources of law, key institutions and roles, criminal and civil processes. It includes topical areas of relevance such as access to justice, the future of legal aid, the composition of the judiciary and the present and developing nature of the different branches of the legal profession. Assessment is by research exercises.

LS1536: DELICT AND UNJUSTIFIED ENRICHMENT

15 credits

Level 1

Second Sub Session

This course introduces students to two of the key branches of the Scots law of obligations, namely Delict (which governs legal liability for situations such as the negligent infliction of harm upon others, or liability for breach of privacy) and Unjustified Enrichment (which is concerned with questions such as, if I pay you money in error, am I entitled to demand that you return it?).  

LS1537: UK CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

15 credits

Level 1

Second Sub Session

This course is an introduction to the laws and rules of the UK Constitution.  Major topics include the institutions of state, parliamentary sovereignty, the rule of law, the separation of powers, and devolution.  This area of law is fast-moving, and an effort is made to address current issues.

LS2026: EU INSTITUTIONS AND LAW

15 credits

Level 2

First Sub Session

This course examines the law of the European Union and its relationship with the legal systems of the United Kingdom. Lecture topics include the composition and function of the EU Institutions, sources and effects of EU Law, state liability and judicial review. Other topics covered include human rights in the EU, the fundamental freedoms, and competition law. Each lecture topic includes consideration of the evolving relationship between the legal systems of the United Kingdom and the European Union.

LS2031: THE LAW OF PROPERTY

15 credits

Level 2

First Sub Session

This compulsory LLB course is all about things. What items can you own? How do you become owner of property? What can you do as an owner of property? What can you do with the property of other people? And so on. An understanding of Scots property law is crucial to markets, commerce and domestic life. This course will give students a broad overview of the regulation of land, moveable items and incorporeal rights like intellectual property in Scotland.

LS2032: PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

15 credits

Level 2

First Sub Session

The course aims to systematically and critically introduce the foundations of Public International Law (PIL). The history, nature, legal personality, statehood and recognition, sources, the law of treaties and how PIL interacts with domestic law are considered in-depth. These are followed by topics such as jurisdiction, sovereignty, the role of the United Nations, the law of state responsibility and peaceful settlement of disputes between states. The contents of the course are designed to enable students to understand why and how international law regulates the behaviour of its actors with respect to some specific subject areas.

LS2033: ADMINISTRATIVE LAW AND CIVIL LIBERTIES

15 credits

Level 2

First Sub Session

This course will examine in detail both administrative law and civil liberties under the constitution of the United Kingdom.  Major topics include judicial review (scope, standing and grounds), the European Convention on Human Rights, the Human Rights Act 1998, voting rights, and common law rights.  This area is fast-moving, and an effort is made to address current issues.

LS2034: THE HISTORY OF SCOTS LAW IN A EUROPEAN CONTEXT

15 credits

Level 2

First Sub Session

This course will introduce students to the main points of Scottish legal history from the fourteenth to the eighteenth centuries. In weeks one to eight, lectures and tutorials will provide a general overview as well as more detailed coverage on particular topics e.g. the legal literature and notable jurists, the development of the courts and procedure, and periods of flux and reform of the law. Workshops held in weeks nine and ten allow students to work on a (non-counting) group project charting the history of a legal rule.

LS2525: COMMERCIAL ORGANISATIONS AND INSOLVENCY

15 credits

Level 2

Second Sub Session

This course is compulsory for LLB students. It consists of various elements split broadly into three parts: (1) the law of agency and the law of partnership; (2) company law; and (3) debt and insolvency law. The lectures will focus on the creation of agency, partnership and companies of different types; the rules that enable these commercial organisations to function; and the law concerning the termination of these commercial organisations, particularly due to insolvency.

LS2526: FAMILY LAW

15 credits

Level 2

Second Sub Session

This course is divided into two principal parts.  In the first part, students will be introduced to the key facets of the law governing the formation of adult relationships, including the constitution of marriage and civil partnership, legal rights and duties of spouses and civil partners, same sex marriage, the grounds for divorce and the financial aspects of breakdown of marriage and relationships of cohabitation.  The second part focuses on the relationship between children and adults and the legal rights of children, including parental rights and responsibilities, court orders relating to children and the welfare principle.

LS2527: INTRODUCTION TO LEGAL THEORY

7.5 credits

Level 2

Second Sub Session

This course aims to provide student with an accessible introduction to some of the central themes of legal theory. The material will be organised around broad themes that will enable students to understand the basic concepts of legal theory. The themes include: the authority of law; the theoretical foundations of legal reasoning and the explanation of judicial decisions.

LS2528: SUCCESSION AND TRUSTS

7.5 credits

Level 2

Second Sub Session

Students studying for the Aberdeen LLB are required to take this course if they wish to use their degree to enter the Scottish legal profession. The course will examine both testate and intestate succession, in the context of the general principles of the law of succession, including legal rights. Furthermore, it will introduce the functions of trusts, the rights of beneficiaries and the powers and duties of trustees. The course is available only to LLB students in Programme year 2 or above and graduates on the 2 year degree.

LS2532: PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW

15 credits

Level 2

Second Sub Session

The course introduces the student to the way in which foreign legal issues affect the domestic litigation and legal practice of selected issues of private law. We examine issues such as establishing and defending jurisdiction, deciding what law should be applied to a given matter, and how to enforce or otherwise use any resulting judgment or settlement across borders in other legal systems. We will look at how Scotland, England & Wales and the EU use private international law to address these issues. Not less importantly, we examine relevant international conventions that have been adopted under the auspices of the Hague Conference on Private International Law.

This is an exempting course for the Faculty of Advocates exam on private international law.

LS2533: BUSINESS LAW

15 credits

Level 2

Second Sub Session

This course is designed to provide non-LLB students with an understanding of the main issues in business law. Topics will cover elements of the Scottish law and legal system concerning Contract Law (including the unfair contract terms), Agency, Delict, Employment Law, Partnership, Bribery Act and Company Law.

LS2536: INTRODUCTION TO COMPARATIVE LAW

7.5 credits

Level 2

Second Sub Session

This is a foundational course that introduces students to the basics of comparative law. The first part of the course focuses on the various methods to analyse differences and similarities between legal rules across nations and cultures. It also introduces students to various efforts to map and explain legal diversity. The second half of the course includes a range of case studies to showcase how the comparative method can be used in different areas of the law and across nations and regions. 

LS2537: TORT IN A COMPARATIVE CONTEXT

7.5 credits

Level 2

Second Sub Session

The aim of this course, open to students who have already studied the Scots law of delict (and compulsory for those on the ‘Law with English Law’ programme), is to extend their knowledge of the law governing civil liability. More particularly, it aims to provide knowledge and understanding of the conceptual structure of the English law of torts in comparison with the corresponding branch of Scots law, and deals in detail with a few specific areas of tort liability, such as trespass, occupiers’ liability and nuisance.

LS2540: COMPARATIVE LAW II: THE ROMANO-GERMANIC TRADITION

7.5 credits

Level 2

Second Sub Session

This course introduces students to the constitutional features of jurisdictions in the Romano-Germanic tradition, focusing on legal systems which have been imitated elsewhere in the world, namely those of Germany, France and Spain. The course complements LS2536 Introduction to Comparative Law, and is a compulsory component of the LLB with German Law, the LLB with French Law and the LLB with Spanish Law.

LS2541: CRIME THEORIES AND CONCEPTS (LAW)

15 credits

Level 2

Second Sub Session

This course will introduce students to key criminological theories and perspectives to understand e.g. why some people are more likely to commit or be victims of crime than others and examine the learning and insight to be taken from those theories.

LS3025: EVIDENCE

15 credits

Level 3

First Sub Session

This course deals with the rules of evidence as they apply in the courtroom. The rules in both criminal and civil cases will be analysed. The legal requirements for leading real evidence, documentary evidence and witness testimony are considered. Topics include: relevancy, the corroboration rule, hearsay evidence, expert evidence, confession evidence and search evidence. The subject is highly topical and practically important to all lawyers

LS3030: THE LAW OF EQUITY AND TRUSTS OF ENGLAND AND WALES

15 credits

Level 3

First Sub Session

This course considers Equity and Trusts, which in its content, teaching, and nature of its development makes clear key differences between Scots law and English law.  We will consider the history of Equity and its relationship with the common law; the meaning, creation and practical impact of trusts (express, implied, resulting and constructive) with both family disputes and commercial issues having a key role; charitable and non-charitable purpose trusts; rights of beneficiaries; appointment and responsibilities of trustees; fiduciary relationships, and equitable remedies (in particular injunctions, and freezing and search and seize orders).

LS3032: COMMERCIAL AND CONSUMER CONTRACTS

15 credits

Level 3

First Sub Session

This course examines, through a series of lectures and tutorials, a number of important areas of Scots commercial and consumer law, including the sale and supply of goods and services, insurance, cautionary obligations,  consumer credit and consumer protection. It also, through lectures, workshops and a presentation, introduces students to the skills and techniques of advocacy in the context of a commercial and/or consumer dispute.

LS3527: JURISPRUDENCE

15 credits

Level 3

Second Sub Session

Jurisprudence is a course in legal theory. The course looks into the major theoretical traditions that shaped legal thinking in the 20th century: legal positivism, the natural law doctrine, legal realism, the economic analysis of law, etc. It is designed to help students develop a self-conscious and reflective attitude to some of the hotly contested issues of modern law, like the relationship between law and morality, or the ways in which legal education is related to the legal practice.

LS3529: ENGLISH PROPERTY LAW

15 credits

Level 3

Second Sub Session

This course will explore and critically evaluate the concepts of land and property in the law of England and Wales; estates and interests in land (freehold, leasehold, licence, mortgage and easement); freehold covenants; registered and unregistered land and conveyancing of registered land; trusts in land (including co-ownership); adverse possession; landlord and tenant relationships, leasehold covenants, leasehold enfranchisement, and commonhold. 

LS3531: ENERGY LAW

15 credits

Level 3

Second Sub Session

The energy industry is a particularly important sector of the economy. Fossil fuel sources provide a state with a source of financial revenue and potential to secure energy supplies. This comes at a cost: health and safety risk or environmental degradation.  A regulatory and commercial framework has to be provided to facilitate and control these developments. Alternatives to fossil fuels exist, such as hydropower, wind, solar and nuclear. These are preferable from a climate change perspective but these, too, present legal and regulatory challenges, as does the process of providing a secure and affordable energy supply to end-point consumers.



 

LS4011: LAW OF SALES HONOURS

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course examines the law of sales in both a Scottish and international context. Seminar topics will give students a good working knowledge of issues that occur when a difficulty arises (e.g., non-conformity of goods, passing of risk, damages, exemption, avoidance) and the role of important European law as well as international treaties and conventions. The precise focus of the course varies from year to year and depending on the teaching staff involved there may be a greater or lesser focus on Scots law, and in some instances the students will be asked to analyse and compare the legal solutions in English law as well.   

LS4019: CRIMINAL JUSTICE

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course looks in depth at the main aspects of the Scottish criminal justice process, focussing upon its mainly adversarial nature. Topics addressed include: prosecution systems; the position of the accused; the status of the victim; plea-bargaining; the trial process; and appeals. The emphasis is not so much on ‘black-letter law’ but on the principles and policies, often clashing, which underlie the detailed legal rules and regulations governing the relevant institutions and processes.

LS401E: GENDER, LAW AND SOCIETY

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The issue of how gender impacts upon and interrelates with law and legal processes is topical and socially important, with questions relating to gender equality and gender-based violence currently attracting a high degree of academic, media and government attention. Through examining topics connected to the themes of criminal justice and family law, this course will introduce students to current legal dilemmas and legal responses in the area of gender and the law, in addition to sociolegal and feminist approaches to law.

LS401F: INTERNATIONAL LAW: A TIME OF CHALLENGES

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The course analyses recent developments in public international law. It first considers the sources of public international law. The question is then asked whether traditional public international law can regulate pressing issues on the international plane. Examples of these problems are international terrorism, nuclear weapons proliferation, protection of human rights, ethnic conflicts, and climate change. The course encourages the student to think creatively as an international lawyer to resolve contemporary international dilemmas. Teaching will be delivered through lectures and discussion-based seminars. 

LS401H: ABORTION LAW HONOURS

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The course examines abortion law in Scotland, the wider UK, Europe, countries beyond Europe, and international law. It is non-partisan and welcomes students of all viewpoints. Topics will be chosen annually to reflect current legal debates but might include: concepts of ‘rights’ with respect to abortion; roles of fathers; factors which affect access to legal abortion; regulation of the medical profession; or case-studies on legal systems where abortion law has become topical.

LS401P: INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The course is intended to offer insights into the dynamics of the development of international human rights law. It provides advanced instruction in several key aspects of international human rights law (freedom from torture, freedom of religion, social rights, right to self-determination, etc.) in order to develop a critical understanding of the protection of human rights at the global level. It also seeks to shed light on the way the forces of globalisation and global civil society activism shape the conditions under which human rights law can be created and maintained.

LS401Q: PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW OF COMMERCIAL LAW (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The course will provide a clear overview of the commercial law aspects of private international law in international commercial litigation and arbitration. The course will cover issues of jurisdiction, applicable law, recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments in international commercial litigation, and private international law matters in international commercial arbitration.

LS401R: UK CONSTITUTIONALISM: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The UK Constitution has long been shrouded in controversy and uncertainty. Through an exploration of some of some of the key aspects of, and issues arising under, the UK Constitution, this course will seek to evaluate critically the nature of the contemporary constitution, with a particular emphasis on the desirability of its arrangements in the twenty-first century.

LS401V: FAMILY LAW (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course considers a number of important topics in contemporary Scots family law. An underlying theme is whether the law in these areas is satisfactory or in need of reform, and what shape reform might take. Topics include: domestic violence, the welfare test, divorce law, assisted reproduction, adoption, and international family relocation. There is a comparative element to some of the seminar topics as relevant Scots law is compared with the position in England and/or other jurisdictions. The effects on Scots family law of the European Convention of Human Rights are also explored.

LS4021: AMERICAN CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The aim of this course is to introduce students to American constitutional law through the study of landmark Supreme Court decisions on controversial moral issues. The material on the course will be organised in relation to broad themes that will enable students to develop and refine their understanding of major issues in American Constitutional Law. The themes include abortion; homosexuality and same-sex marriage; freedom of religion; affirmative action. The course will also help students to familiarise themselves with the main approaches to constitutional interpretation.  

LS4025: DISSERTATION

25 credits

Level 4

Full Year

This course, taken over both half sessions by final year honours students, and available only to those students, allows you to write a 10,000 word piece on an aspect of law that you choose with the help of a consultee. Once your topic and plan are approved by the law school you work independently and hand in the dissertation shortly before the Easter Break.

LS402F: COMPANY LAW (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course seeks to guide students through the core aspects of company law and corporate governance including, inter alia, corporate legal personality, directors’ duties, the protection of minority shareholders, and the basics of corporate finance. The legal study will be combined with commercial and strategical scenarios such as private equity deals, initial public offerings (IPOs), and corporate control battles   Major policy debates will also be engaged. There are numerous career opportunities associated with this course.

LS402G: CIVIL LAW HONOURS

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course focuses on selected areas of Roman law including some in which there has been considerable influence on modern legal systems like that of Scots law.  Part of the purpose of the course is to introduce participants to the neo-humanistic textual study of Roman law but also to evaluate its continuing importance as exemplified in, for example, a leading case like Donoghue v Stevenson. 

LS402Q: PRIVACY AND DATA PROTECTION LAW

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The course aims to introduce students to the core aspects of privacy and data protection law, exploring its international, European, and national dimension.

The course addresses the role of data privacy regulation in the digital environment, critically discussing key global challenges, such as: international data transfers; the balance between the right to data protection and other fundamental interests; the explainability of artificial intelligence.

LS402T: LAW AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The course aims to introduce students to the legal challenges raised by Artificial Intelligence. It aims at offering an overview of the applicable legal framework, critically discussing its potential shortcomings in concrete case scenarios. The course will focus on the UK context, but – given the cross-border nature of the topics involved - it will be open to a comparative perspective.

LS402V: LAW AND ECONOMICS: SELECTED TOPICS

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course engages students with the economic underpinnings of different aspects of the law. Why and when should property be privately, communally, or publicly owned? How can a legal system minimise the social costs of accidents? Why and to what extent do we need the law to regulate contracts? These are some of the questions that the course will address. Each seminar will focus on a legal topic that will be analysed through an economic lens. No prior knowledge of economics is needed.

LS402X: DELICT

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course builds upon the introduction to Delict provided in LS2025 and LS1536 examines a number of aspects of the law of delict in greater detail.  Topics will be discussed in a comparative, historical and/or theoretical context.  The specific topics covered will vary on a year-by-year basis as the course aims to examine issues of topical interest.  Some of the topics covered in previous years include: causation; product liability; liability for breach of privacy; liability for pure economic loss; psychiatric injury; advocates' immunity and the liability of the police for negligently-conducted investigations.

LS4035: CRIMINAL LAW

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The course builds upon the basic understanding of criminal law acquired in LS1020 although it is very important to understand that the topics are approached from a much more theoretical perspective. The course examines in detail selected principles of criminal liability, including the role and limits of the criminal law, the defence of mental disorder, murder, rape, provocation and the limits of excusability. Comparative material from a variety of jurisdictions is included. 

LS4037: SCOTTISH LEGAL HISTORY (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course provides students with a knowledge and understanding of certain key points in Scottish legal history. Seminar topics have been chosen to show students how to evaluate primary material as well as to engage with academic debate. Students will also in some seminars engage with research projects based at Aberdeen.

LS4050: EUROPEAN ECONOMIC LAW

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

Historically, markets of the EEC/EU were integrated mainly on the basis of the ECJ case law of using fundamental freedoms as a tool for integration. Today, these freedoms are still an important pillar of the economic constitution, but free trade and competition between Member States’ undertakings have to be supported by other policies and the creation of competition in markets that suffer from market failure. This course looks at the integrating function of fundamental freedoms and fundamental rights. And develops further insights into policies creating the common market (state aids, regulating network industries). 

LS4067: CORPORATE FINANCE LAW

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This is an optional course at honours level for students interested in how companies finance their business activities and would be suitable for those students seeking to specialise in finance or corporate law. The course examines the law concerning the financing of companies of all sizes, from small and medium-sized companies to the largest public limited companies. Various forms of debt and equity finance will be considered, including share capital and raising finance on stock markets, unsecured borrowing, securitisations and secured finance.

LS4069: HONOURS CONTRACT LAW

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The course builds upon the basic understanding of contract law acquired in Contract (LS1520), although it is  important to understand that the topics are approached from a more theoretical perspective, and will critically evaluate at an advanced level, a number of themes introduced in LS1520. The course approaches a selection of current problems in contract law doctrine from the theoretical, comparative and philosophical perspectives. The topics  will vary annually but will include the philosophical basis of contract law, contractual formation, good faith, promise,  contractual remedies, factors vitiating consent, contractual interpretation and risk management through contract (exclusion clauses, penalty clauses etc).

LS4501: SUCCESSION

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

The course examines in detail complex areas of the law of succession and trusts with an emphasis being placed on discursive reasoning. The topics considered will include vesting in an executor and beneficiary, the absence of beneficiaries, the nature and roles of an executor and trustee, survivorship of beneficiaries and common calamities, formal and essential validity of wills (including the issue of execution of wills by adults with incapacity), updating out of date wills by means of the various conditiones applied by Scots law and similar rules in other legal systems, limitations on testamentary freedom, forfeiture and unworthiness of heirs.

LS451L: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

The course explores patents (right to control an invention) and trade marks (right to control the use of a sign, commonly, but not necessarily, a logo).  We will consider  theoretical arguments for and against them, thresholds which must be met for them to exist and be infringed, the relevant international, regional and UK frameworks and limits on the rights conferred. Particular attention will be paid to contemporary controversies.  We will also consider the various avenues by which these registered rights can be obtained and the relevance of other legal fields to the power conferred.  Assessment is by essay and exam.  

LS451P: VOLUNTARY SCOTLAND: SCOTTISH CHARITIES, CLUBS, COMMUNITY ORGANISATIONS

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

Many students will be members of clubs and societies, and will go on to become board members for clubs and charities, or community organisation chairpersons and secretaries. This course is for them.

Scottish Charities are regulated by OSCR. Rights of local communities to acquire land are enshrined in statute. Clubs flourish and community empowerment has been the subject of legislation in the Scottish Parliament. However, private clubs can exclude women members, and the law accepts this. The range of business model available to community organisations may seem bewildering. The legal status of unincorporated associations is unclear. These are our topics.

LS451T: INTERNATIONAL FAMILY LAW (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

The course will provide a clear overview of the successful family law conventions made at the Hague Conference on Private International Law, as well as an analysis of the working methods of the Hague Conference in making, reviewing and helping to ensure uniform interpretation of Conventions. Students will acquire a thorough knowledge of the Hague Conventions on child abduction (1980), intercountry adoption (1993) and child protection (1996); a good understanding of private international law relating to surrogacy with an international element, and an appreciation of the options for the legal regulation of family agreements at the global level.

LS451U: INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course considers aspects of international trade law and addresses the legal and practical difficulties that may arise in this context. It focuses on the law and practice relating to international sale of goods, international carriage of goods, insurance, financing of international trade, and international commercial dispute resolution by litigation and arbitration.

LS451V: CRIMINAL EVIDENCE (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

The course seminars will engage students with; understanding the rules of evidence and the regulation of the admissibility of evidence; the presumption of innocence and the right to a fair trial; issues surrounding evidence from vulnerable witnesses; issues with expert evidence; hearsay evidence and the reverse burdens of proof; corroboration and similar fact evidence.

LS451W: COMPETITION LAW

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course focuses on the complex problems of establishing a correct legal regulation of competitive conditions in the EU. We examine: the economic theory of competition and the difficulties of translating this into effective legal regulation; the operation of Art 101 TFEU in multi-level and other complex markets; current developments within Art 102 TFEU; reform of the public and the private enforcement of EU Competition law.

LS452C: CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course will discuss the trajectory of the development of corporate governance over the past three decades, especially in the UK and the US, with a view to understanding the extent to which underlying theoretical assumptions and policy decisions impact legislative, regulatory and self-regulatory arrangements as well as reform options. Students will gain an understanding of why the company as a legal entity has the shape and form that it does; why certain actors are regarded as internal to corporate governance arrangements and others external; and why ongoing (and sometimes apparently futile) reform efforts take the form that they do. 

LS452E: CONTEMPORARY LEGAL ISSUES IN EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

The course develops knowledge of EU law acquired at Level 2. Students are invited to engage with timeless questions of European integration which remain of current concern, such as the legitimacy of law-making and the appropriate means of achieving integration. Discussions will address contemporary issues in European Union law diagnosing the present state of the law and determining how the constitutional settlement of the EU should be developed. This will enable students to articulate their own views of what the EU is, and what it should be. Topics include economic law, family law, human rights law, institutional law and democratization.

LS452F: COMPANY LAW (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course seeks to guide students through the core aspects of company law and corporate governance including, inter alia, corporate legal personality, directors’ duties, the protection of minority shareholders, and the basics of corporate finance. The legal study will be combined with commercial and strategical scenarios such as private equity deals, initial public offerings (IPOs), and corporate control battles   Major policy debates will also be engaged. There are numerous career opportunities associated with this course.

LS452J: PLANNING LAW HONOURS

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

Planning Law in Scotland examines urban and rural land use. Set in the context of history, politics and international developments,  the law is considered in detail with examples of plans such as the National Planning Framework and topical and controversial planning applications used for  illustration. There is a body of case law and intricate legislative provisions and policy sources for all the key areas. This course mixes academic reflection with practical knowledge and application.

LS452L: INTERNATIONAL CYBERSECURITY LAW

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

The course addresses international legal issues raised by the increasing need to secure information and communication technology. It explores the modalities of international cyberattacks; discusses data protection in the EU and UK; questions the scope of the obligation of States to secure cyberspace; studies the role of private companies in monitoring online content and reacting to international cyberattacks; analyses how cyberoperations can be attributed to States; examines what cyberoperations violate international law and how States could react to unlawful international cyberoperations; and gives a comprehensive map of the governance and standards organisations in the cyberspace ecosystem.

LS452N: UNJUSTIFIED ENRICHMENT (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

Unjustified enrichment is a relatively new addition to Scots private law. In spite of its novelty, or perhaps because of it, the subject has attracted a significant degree of academic attention over the past thirty to forty years, having stirred up a number of academic debates, ranging from the national to the existential (i.e. ‘Does unjustified enrichment even need to exist in a modern legal system?’). This course aims to confront at least some of these debates.

LS452S: HISTORY OF CONTRACT LAW THEORY

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course will focus on how the basic theoretical concepts underpinning contract law have been developed historically, in both common law jurisdictions and continental Civilian tradition. Students will be shown how the historical development of these concepts continues to influence contemporary debates on contract law, such as the place of relational contracts and the extent to which courts should intervene in unequal exchanges.

LS452U: LAW OF THE DIGITAL ECONOMY

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

The course aims to introduce students to the legal aspects of the digital economy. The course will first explore the historical and economical dimension of the ‘platformisation’ of the digital market, to then dig into the relevant areas of law invested by the “disruptive” intervention of online platforms. The course will have a focus on domestic and European Law.

LS452W: SPACE LAW: PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course addresses the international legal rules and principles applicable to activities in outer space, including the UN-based space treaties and international customary (space) law, and also the many specialised regimes such as those applicable to the protection of the outer space environment, the regulation of military activities and the peaceful settlement of international space law disputes. 

LS4553: LAW AND MEDICAL ETHICS

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

Changes in medical technology frequently cause changes in ethical attitudes and in the content of the law. The purpose of this course is to explore the interaction between law, ethics and medicine with an emphasis on the ethical aspects.

LS4557: ADMINISTRATIVE LAW (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course examines the relationship between the law and the exercise of public power.  Topics covered include: the nature of public administration and administrative law; mechanisms by which public administrative power is regulated; the development, role and impact of judicial review in both Scotland and England.

LS4559: EUROPEAN LEGAL HISTORY (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

Great diversity can be traced in the historical development of the legal systems of modern Europe. Nonetheless, that diversity has been shaped by various common traditions of legal ideas and intellectual movements. These were influential across the continent at different times and in different ways. One aim of this course is to understand how such traditions of legal ideas, such as those found in the scholarship of the medieval Civilians and Canonists, helped to shape contemporary law as it conceptualised, practised and taught in many different jurisdictions. It will focus on the period ca.500 BC – 1800.  

LS4561: MEDIA LAW (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

Through a series of seminars, this course engages students with a body of ‘media law’ which covers topics such as the freedom of the press, freedom of expression, access to information, open justice principle on the one hand, and on the other hand,the right to fair trial, right to privacy, right of publicity, right against defamation, and the regulation of obscene publications.  The focus is on the regulation of media contents.  While the course follows the relevant current developments in the law, it also lays the foundation and the broader social and historical contexts within which these developments take place.

LS4573: CORPORATE INSOLVENCY LAW

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course explores various aspects of corporate insolvency law, which is an important area in practice. Among the topics that will be covered are theories of corporate insolvency law, types of insolvency process (including corporate rescue processes), creditors’ claims and security rights (especially floating charges), challengeable transactions, and liability of directors. While the principal focus will be law in the UK, references will also be made to other jurisdictions, including the USA.

LS4584: THE USE OF FORCE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

The course aims to develop an in-depth and critical appreciation of current issues in the area of the use of armed force in International Law.

The course will first analyse the fundamental principle of the prohibition of the use of force between States. It will then examine the current exceptions to this principle; further, what types of arguments States tend to use to “justify” the recourse to force - and how scholars of International Law have addressed this question. The course will also study how the international community has reacted to the most recent cases involving the use of force on the international plane (in particular, in Afghanistan, Iraq, Kosovo, Libya, Ukraine, and Syria) and what the implications are for the evolution of International Law in the field of recourse to force.

LS4591: CIVIL LIBERTIES POLITICAL RIGHTS AND HUMAN RIGHTS LAW

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

The course aims to provide students with knowledge and understanding of the constitutional principles and context relevant to the protection of civil liberties in the UK; and to provide knowledge and understanding of the detailed legal mechanisms relating to selected rights.

LX4011: LAW OF SALES HONOURS

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course examines the law of sales in both a Scottish and international context. Seminar topics will give students a good working knowledge of issues that occur when a difficulty arises (e.g., non-conformity of goods, passing of risk, damages, exemption, avoidance) and the role of important European law as well as international treaties and conventions. The precise focus of the course varies from year to year and depending on the teaching staff involved there may be a greater or lesser focus on Scots law. 

LX4019: CRIMINAL JUSTICE

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course looks in depth at the main aspects of the Scottish criminal justice process, focussing upon its mainly adversarial nature. Topics addressed include: prosecution systems; the position of the accused; the status of the victim; plea-bargaining; the trial process; and appeals. The emphasis is not so much on ‘black-letter law’ but on the principles and policies, often clashing, which underlie the detailed legal rules and regulations governing the relevant institutions and processes.

LX401E: GENDER, LAW AND SOCIETY

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The issue of how gender impacts upon and interrelates with law and legal processes is topical and socially important, with questions relating to gender equality and gender-based violence currently attracting a high degree of academic, media and government attention. Through examining topics connected to the themes of criminal justice and family law, this course will introduce students to current legal dilemmas and legal responses in the area of gender and the law, in addition to sociolegal and feminist approaches to law. 

LX401F: INTERNATIONAL LAW: A TIME OF CHALLENGES

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The course analyses recent developments in public international law. It first considers the sources of public international law. The question is then asked whether traditional public international law can regulate pressing issues on the international plane. Examples of these problems are international terrorism, nuclear weapons proliferation, protection of human rights, ethnic conflicts, and climate change. The course encourages the student to think creatively as an international lawyer to resolve contemporary international dilemmas. Teaching will be delivered through lectures and discussion-based seminars. 

LX401H: ABORTION LAW HONOURS

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The course examines abortion law in Scotland, the wider UK, Europe, countries beyond Europe, and international law. It is non-partisan and welcomes students of all viewpoints. Topics will be chosen annually to reflect current legal debates but might include: concepts of ‘rights’ to abortion; roles of fathers; factors which affect access to legal abortion, including poverty and race; regulation of the medical profession; or case-studies on legal systems where abortion law has become topical.

LX401P: INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The course is intended to offer insights into the dynamics of the development of international human rights law. It provides advanced instruction in several key aspects of international human rights law (freedom from torture, freedom of religion, social rights, right to self-determination, etc.) in order to develop a critical understanding of the protection of human rights at the global level. It also seeks to shed light on the way the forces of globalisation and global civil society activism shape the conditions under which human rights law can be created and maintained.

LX401Q: PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW OF COMMERCIAL LAW (HONOURS)

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The course will provide a clear overview of the commercial law aspects of private international law in international commercial litigation and arbitration. The course will cover issues of jurisdiction, applicable law, recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments in international commercial litigation, and private international law matters in international commercial arbitration.

LX401R: UK CONSTITUTIONALISM: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The UK Constitution has long been shrouded in controversy and uncertainty. Through an exploration of some of some of the key aspects of, and issues arising under, the UK Constitution, this course will seek to evaluate critically the nature of the contemporary constitution, with a particular emphasis on the desirability of its arrangements in the twenty-first century.

LX4021: AMERICAN CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The aim of this course is to introduce students to American constitutional law through the study of landmark Supreme Court decisions on controversial moral issues. The material on the course will be organised in relation to broad themes that will enable students to develop and refine their understanding of major issues in American Constitutional Law. The themes include abortion; homosexuality and same-sex marriage; freedom of religion; affirmative action. The course will also help students to familiarise themselves with the main approaches to constitutional interpretation.  

LX4025: DISSERTATION

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course, that is only available to final year honours students, allows you to write a 10,000 word piece on an aspect of law that you choose with the help of a supervisor. Once your topic and plan are approved by the law school you work independently and hand in the dissertation shortly before the Easter Break.

LX402F: COMPANY LAW (HONOURS)

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course seeks to guide students through the core aspects of company law and corporate governance including, inter alia, corporate legal personality, directors’ duties, the protection of minority shareholders, and the basics of corporate finance. The legal study will be combined with commercial and strategical scenarios such as private equity deals, initial public offerings (IPOs), and corporate control battles. Major policy debates will also be engaged. There are numerous career opportunities associated with this course

LX402G: CIVIL LAW HONOURS

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course offers an introduction to study of the civil law tradition and may be taken by students with no prior knowledge of the subject.  The two seminars in the first part of the course examine the sources and literature through which the tradition has taken shape.  The two seminars in the second part examine selected topics from the law of property, and the two seminars in the third part selected topics from the law of obligations.  In each part some attention is paid to the relationship between Scots law and the civil law tradition.

LX402Q: PRIVACY AND DATA PROTECTION LAW

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The course aims to introduce students to the core aspects of privacy and data protection law, exploring its international, European, and national dimension.

The course addresses the role of data privacy regulation in the digital environment, critically discussing key global challenges, such as: international data transfers; the balance between the right to data protection and other fundamental interests; the explainability of artificial intelligence.

LX402X: DELICT

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course builds upon the introduction to Delict provided in LS2025 and LS1536 examines a number of aspects of the law of delict in greater detail.  Topics will be discussed in a comparative, historical and/or theoretical context.  The specific topics covered will vary on a year-by-year basis as the course aims to examine issues of topical interest.  Some of the topics covered in previous years include: causation; product liability; liability for breach of privacy; liability for pure economic loss; psychiatric injury; advocates' immunity and the liability of the police for negligently-conducted investigations.

LX4035: CRIMINAL LAW

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The course builds upon the basic understanding of criminal law acquired in LS1020 although it is very important to understand that the topics are approached from a much more theoretical perspective. The course examines in detail selected principles of criminal liability, including the role and limits of the criminal law, the defence of mental disorder, murder, rape, provocation and the limits of excusability. Comparative material from a variety of jurisdictions is included. 

LX4037: SCOTTISH LEGAL HISTORY (HONOURS)

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course provides students with a knowledge and understanding of certain key points in Scottish legal history. Seminar topics have been chosen to show students how to evaluate primary material as well as to engage with academic debate. Students will also in some seminars engage with research projects based at Aberdeen.

LX4050: EUROPEAN ECONOMIC LAW

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

Historically, markets of the EEC/EU were integrated mainly on the basis of the ECJ case law of using fundamental freedoms as a tool for integration. Today, these freedoms are still an important pillar of the economic constitution, but free trade and competition between Member States’ undertakings have to be supported by other policies and the creation of competition in markets that suffer from market failure. This course looks at the integrating function of fundamental freedoms and fundamental rights. And develops further insights into policies creating the common market (state aids, regulating network industries).

LX4067: CORPORATE FINANCE LAW

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This is an optional course at honours level for students interested in how companies finance their business activities and would be suitable for those students seeking to specialise in finance or corporate law. The course examines the law concerning the financing of companies of all sizes, from small and medium-sized companies to the largest public limited companies. Various forms of debt and equity finance will be considered, including share capital and raising finance on stock markets, unsecured borrowing, securitisations and secured finance.

LX451L: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

The course explores patents (right to control an invention) and trade marks (right to control the use of a sign, commonly, but not necessarily, a logo).  We will consider  theoretical arguments for and against them, thresholds which must be met for them to exist and be infringed, the relevant international, regional and UK frameworks and limits on the rights conferred. Particular attention will be paid to contemporary controversies.  We will also consider the various avenues by which these registered rights can be obtained and the relevance of other legal fields to the power conferred.  Assessment is by essay and exam.  

LX451P: VOLUNTARY SCOTLAND, SCOTTISH CHARITIES, CLUBS, COMMUNITY ORGANISATIONS

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

Many students will be members of clubs and societies and will go on to become board members for clubs and charities, or community organisation chairpersons and secretaries.

The aim of this course is to ensure that potential future practising lawyers can develop a good grounding in a commercially and socially important field of law.  In this respect it worth noting that the Third Sector is a growing area of specialism in law firms. 

LX451T: INTERNATIONAL FAMILY LAW (HONOURS)

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

The course will provide a clear overview of the successful family law conventions made at the Hague Conference on Private International Law, as well as an analysis of the working methods of the Hague Conference in making, reviewing and helping to ensure uniform interpretation of Conventions. Students will acquire a thorough knowledge of the Hague Conventions on child abduction (1980), intercountry adoption (1993), child protection (1996) and maintenance (2007); a good understanding of private international law relating to surrogacy with an international element, and an appreciation of the options for the legal regulation of family agreements at the global level.

LX451U: INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course considers aspects of international trade law and addresses the legal and practical difficulties that may arise in this context. It focuses on the law and practice relating to the international sale of goods, international carriage of goods, insurance, financing of international trade, and international commercial dispute resolution by litigation and arbitration.

LX451V: CRIMINAL EVIDENCE (HONOURS)

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

The course seminars will engage students with; understanding the rules of evidence and the regulation of the admissibility of evidence; the presumption of innocence and the right to a fair trial; issues surrounding evidence from vulnerable witnesses; issues with expert evidence; hearsay evidence and the reverse burdens of proof; corroboration and similar fact evidence.

LX452C: CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course will discuss the trajectory of the development of corporate governance over the past three decades, especially in the UK and the US, with a view to understanding the extent to which underlying theoretical assumptions and policy decisions impact legislative, regulatory and self-regulatory arrangements as well as reform options. Students will gain an understanding of why the company as a legal entity has the shape and form that it does; why certain actors are regarded as internal to corporate governance arrangements and others external; and why ongoing (and sometimes apparently futile) reform efforts take the form that they do. 

LX452E: CONTEMPORARY LEGAL ISSUES IN EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

The course develops knowledge of EU law acquired at Level 2. Students are invited to engage with timeless questions of European integration which remain of current concern, such as the legitimacy of law-making and the appropriate means of achieving integration. Discussions will address contemporary issues in European Union law diagnosing the present state of the law, and determining how the constitutional settlement of the EU should be developed. This will enable students to articulate their own views of what the EU is, and what it should be. Topics include economic law, family law, human rights law, institutional law and democratization.

LX452F: COMPANY LAW (HONOURS)

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course seeks to guide students through the core aspects of company law and corporate governance including, inter alia, corporate legal personality, directors’ duties, the protection of minority shareholders, and the basics of corporate finance. The legal study will be combined with commercial and strategical scenarios such as private equity deals, initial public offerings (IPOs), and corporate control battles. Major policy debates will also be engaged. There are numerous career opportunities associated with this course

LX452J: PLANNING LAW HONOURS

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

Planning Law in Scotland examines urban and rural land use. Set in the context of history, politics and international developments, the law is considered in detail with examples of plans such as the National Planning Framework and topical and controversial planning applications used for illustration. There is a body of case law and intricate legislative provisions and policy sources for all the key areas. This course mixes academic reflection with practical knowledge and application.

LX452L: INTERNATIONAL CYBERSECURITY LAW

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

The course addresses international legal issues raised by the increasing need to secure information and communication technology. It explores the modalities of international cyberattacks; discusses data protection in the EU and UK; questions the scope of the obligation of States to secure cyberspace; studies the role of private companies in monitoring online content and reacting to international cyberattacks; analyses how cyberoperations can be attributed to States; examines what cyberoperations violate international law and how States could react to unlawful international cyberoperations; and gives a comprehensive map of the governance and standards organisations in the cyberspace ecosystem.

LX452N: UNJUSTIFIED ENRICHMENT (HONOURS)

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

Unjustified enrichment is a relatively new addition to Scots private law. In spite of its novelty, or perhaps because of it, the subject has attracted a significant degree of academic attention over the past thirty to forty years, having stirred up a number of academic debates, ranging from the national to the existential (i.e. ‘Does unjustified enrichment even need to exist in a modern legal system?’). This course aims to confront at least some of these debates.

 

LX452W: SPACE LAW: PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course addresses the international legal rules and principles applicable to activities in outer space, including the UN-based space treaties and international customary (space) law, and also the many specialised regimes such as those applicable to the protection of the outer space environment, the regulation of military activities and the peaceful settlement of international space law disputes. 

LX4553: LAW AND MEDICAL ETHICS

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

Changes in medical technology frequently cause changes in ethical attitudes and in the content of the law. The purpose of this course is to explore the interaction between law, ethics and medicine with an emphasis on the ethical aspects.

LX4557: ADMINISTRATIVE LAW (HONOURS)

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course examines the relationship between the law and the exercise of public power.  Topics covered include: the nature of public administration and administrative law; mechanisms by which public administrative power is regulated; the development, role and impact of judicial review in both Scotland and England.

LX4559: EUROPEAN LEGAL HISTORY (HONOURS)

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

Great diversity can be traced to the historical development of the legal systems of modern Europe. That diversity has been shaped by various common traditions of legal ideas and intellectual movements, influential across the continent at different times and in different ways. This course aims to understand how such traditions helped to shape contemporary law as it conceptualised, practised, and taught in many different jurisdictions. It will focus on the period ca.500 BC to 1800.

LX4561: MEDIA LAW (HONOURS)

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

Through a series of seminars, this course engages students with a body of ‘media law’ which covers topics such as the freedom of the press, freedom of expression, access to information, open justice principle on the one hand, and on the other hand,the right to fair trail, right to privacy, right of publicity, right against defamation, and the regulation of obscene publications.  The focus is on the regulation of media contents.  While the course follows the relevant current developments in the law, it also lays the foundation and the broader social and historical contexts within which these developments take place.

LX4573: CORPORATE INSOLVENCY LAW

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course explores various aspects of corporate insolvency law, which is an important area in practice. Among the topics that will be covered are theories of corporate insolvency law, types of insolvency process (including corporate rescue processes), creditors’ claims and security rights (especially floating charges), challengeable transactions, and liability of directors. While the principal focus will be law in the UK, references will also be made to other jurisdictions, including the USA.

LX4584: THE USE OF FORCE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

The course aims to develop an in-depth and critical appreciation of current issues in the area of the use of armed force in International Law.

The course will first analyse the fundamental principle of the prohibition of the use of force between States. It will then examine the current exceptions to this principle; further, what types of arguments States tend to use to “justify” the recourse to force - and how scholars of International Law have addressed this question. The course will also study how the international community has reacted to the most recent cases involving the use of force on the international plane (in particular, in Afghanistan, Iraq, Kosovo, Libya, Ukraine, and Syria) and what the implications are for the evolution of International Law in the field of recourse to force.

LX4591: CIVIL LIBERTIES POLITICAL RIGHTS AND HUMAN RIGHTS LAW

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This constitutional law course considers how core political freedoms are protected by human rights law in the UK.  The course takes the form of seminar discussion, based on prescribed reading, of civil liberties such as freedom of expression; freedom of thought; freedom to protest; and the right to vote.  Students are encouraged to reflect critically on how the law guarantees those rights. The broader context of class discussion includes the relationship between the law of the ECHR and domestic law on human rights; and the balance of power between courts, Parliament and government to determine the scope of civil liberties.

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