The Aberdeen Bestiary

Folio 92r - the age of man, continued.


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Commentary, Translation and Transcription

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It is not part of the project to provide a definitive edition of the text of the Bestiary, but to help readers by providing a transcription and translation of the text. Currently the following editorial conventions obtain:

Text

  1. The original capitalisation is retained, but capitals have been added for personal and place names, excluding deus and diabolus.
  2. The original punctuation, including a point and inverted semi-colon (both serving as commas), and a point (serving as a full stop), is represented by comma, full stop and question-mark; a colon has been inserted before quotations.
  3. Suggested readings are in [ ].
  4. Variants from other Bestiary texts (eg Ashmole 1511 and Patrologia Latina 176) are added where they indicate a corruption, elucidate a meaning and replace excised text. They are represented as [A: PL:]

Translation

  1. Direct quotations from the Bible, where identified, are cited from the Authorised Version in ( ).
  2. Paraphrased quotations are identified where possible and indicated as: (see Job, 18:22).
  3. Suggested translations of corrupt words are in [ ].
  4. Capitalisation is sparing; additional punctuation has been used where necessary to give the sense. Paragraphs have been created to break up the text.
as also in the psalm where it says: 'Thou art the helper of the fatherless' (Psalms, 10: 14). The Greek text has orphano. The pubescent are so called from pubis, that is, they get their name from the private parts of the body because these first show the down of puberty. Some think of puberty as a specific age, that is, they call 'pubescent' someone who has reached the end of his fourteenth year, even though the signs of puberty may appear much later. It is certain, however, that a child has reached puberty when it shows the physical signs and can generate children. The word puerpure refers to women who give birth during the years of puberty. In this context Horace says: 'The young mother is praised for her firstborn male' (Odes, 4, 5, 23). The word is also used of those who are pregnant with their first child, or those who bear sons for the first time. The adolescent, adolescens, is so called because he is old enough to beget children, or because he grows in maturity and size. A young man, iuvenis, is so called because he begins to be able to help, as among oxen bullocks, iuvencus, are so named when they have withdrawn from the calves. For a young man is at that particular growth period and is ready to be of help. For it is incumbent on a man to devote himself to helping others. Just as the thirtieth year is that of perfect age in men, so the third is that of greatest strength among cattle and beasts of burden. Man, vir, is so called because there is greater virtue, virtus, in him than in women. It is for that reason that he takes the name, or because he acts with force in his relationship with woman. Woman, mulier, however, gets her name from her softness, mollicia, as if mollior, softer, with the letter l removed or changed, giving mulier. There are differences between men and women in physical strength and weakness. But because the man's strength is greater, the woman's is less and she is subject to him, lest rejected by women, lust should drive men to seek something else, or to fall on their own sex. Woman gets her name, therefore, from her female sex, not as a result of her corruption of man's integrity, as the words of the holy scripture show. For Eve was made directly from her husband's side, and was called 'woman' before she had been touched by a man, as the scripture says: 'He made the rib a woman' (see Genesis, 2: 22). A virgin, virgo, is so called because she is in the green, viridus, or blooming age of her life

Text

Isidore on the etymology of each age.

Transcription

et in psalmo ubi legitur: Pupillo tu eras adiutor. Grecus habet\ orphano. Puberes a pube vocati, id est a pudentia corporis nun\cupati, quod hec loca primo lanuginem dicunt. Quidam\ autem pubertatem existimant, id est c[e]um puberem esse qui xiiii\ annos expleverit, quamvis tardissime pubescat. Certissime\ autem c[e]um puberem esse qui et ex habitu corporis pubertatem\ ostendit, et generare iam possit. Puerpere sunt que annis pu\erilibus pariunt. Unde et Oracius: Laudatur primo iam prole\ puerpera nato. Et dicte puerpere vel quod primo partu gravantur\ vel quod primum pueros pariunt. Adolescens dictus eo quod\ sit ad gignendum adultus, sive accrescere et augere. Iuvenis\ vocatus quod iuvare possei [posse] incipit ut in bobus iuvenci cum\ a vitulis discesserint. Est enim iuvenis in ipso etatis incremen\to positus, et ad auxilium preparatus. Nam iuvare hominis\ est opus aliquod conferentis. Sicut autem tricesimus perfecte\ etatis est annus in hominibus, ita in pecudibus ac iumentis ter\cius robustissimus. Vir nuncupatus quia maior in eo virtus\ est quam in feminis. Unde et virtutis nomen accepit sive quod\ vi agat femina. Mulier vero a mollicia tanquam mollior r [l] de\tracta littera vel mutata, est mulier. Utrique enim fortitudine\ et imbecillitate corporum separantur. Sed ideo viri maxima\ virtus, mulieris minor ut paciens viro esset, scilicet ne femi\nis repugnantibus libido cogeret viros aliud appetere, aut\ in alium sexum proruere. Dicitur mulier igitur secundum femineum sex\um, non secundum corruptionem integritatis, et hec est lingua\ sacre scripture. Nam Eva statim facta de latere viri sui, non\ dum contacta a viro mulier appellata est, dicente scriptura:\ Et formavit eam in mulierem. Virgo a viridiori etate dicta\

Translation

as also in the psalm where it says: 'Thou art the helper of the fatherless' (Psalms, 10: 14). The Greek text has orphano. The pubescent are so called from pubis, that is, they get their name from the private parts of the body because these first show the down of puberty. Some think of puberty as a specific age, that is, they call 'pubescent' someone who has reached the end of his fourteenth year, even though the signs of puberty may appear much later. It is certain, however, that a child has reached puberty when it shows the physical signs and can generate children. The word puerpure refers to women who give birth during the years of puberty. In this context Horace says: 'The young mother is praised for her firstborn male' (Odes, 4, 5, 23). The word is also used of those who are pregnant with their first child, or those who bear sons for the first time. The adolescent, adolescens, is so called because he is old enough to beget children, or because he grows in maturity and size. A young man, iuvenis, is so called because he begins to be able to help, as among oxen bullocks, iuvencus, are so named when they have withdrawn from the calves. For a young man is at that particular growth period and is ready to be of help. For it is incumbent on a man to devote himself to helping others. Just as the thirtieth year is that of perfect age in men, so the third is that of greatest strength among cattle and beasts of burden. Man, vir, is so called because there is greater virtue, virtus, in him than in women. It is for that reason that he takes the name, or because he acts with force in his relationship with woman. Woman, mulier, however, gets her name from her softness, mollicia, as if mollior, softer, with the letter l removed or changed, giving mulier. There are differences between men and women in physical strength and weakness. But because the man's strength is greater, the woman's is less and she is subject to him, lest rejected by women, lust should drive men to seek something else, or to fall on their own sex. Woman gets her name, therefore, from her female sex, not as a result of her corruption of man's integrity, as the words of the holy scripture show. For Eve was made directly from her husband's side, and was called 'woman' before she had been touched by a man, as the scripture says: 'He made the rib a woman' (see Genesis, 2: 22). A virgin, virgo, is so called because she is in the green, viridus, or blooming age of her life
  • Commentary

    Text

    Isidore on the etymology of each age.

  • Translation
    as also in the psalm where it says: 'Thou art the helper of the fatherless' (Psalms, 10: 14). The Greek text has orphano. The pubescent are so called from pubis, that is, they get their name from the private parts of the body because these first show the down of puberty. Some think of puberty as a specific age, that is, they call 'pubescent' someone who has reached the end of his fourteenth year, even though the signs of puberty may appear much later. It is certain, however, that a child has reached puberty when it shows the physical signs and can generate children. The word puerpure refers to women who give birth during the years of puberty. In this context Horace says: 'The young mother is praised for her firstborn male' (Odes, 4, 5, 23). The word is also used of those who are pregnant with their first child, or those who bear sons for the first time. The adolescent, adolescens, is so called because he is old enough to beget children, or because he grows in maturity and size. A young man, iuvenis, is so called because he begins to be able to help, as among oxen bullocks, iuvencus, are so named when they have withdrawn from the calves. For a young man is at that particular growth period and is ready to be of help. For it is incumbent on a man to devote himself to helping others. Just as the thirtieth year is that of perfect age in men, so the third is that of greatest strength among cattle and beasts of burden. Man, vir, is so called because there is greater virtue, virtus, in him than in women. It is for that reason that he takes the name, or because he acts with force in his relationship with woman. Woman, mulier, however, gets her name from her softness, mollicia, as if mollior, softer, with the letter l removed or changed, giving mulier. There are differences between men and women in physical strength and weakness. But because the man's strength is greater, the woman's is less and she is subject to him, lest rejected by women, lust should drive men to seek something else, or to fall on their own sex. Woman gets her name, therefore, from her female sex, not as a result of her corruption of man's integrity, as the words of the holy scripture show. For Eve was made directly from her husband's side, and was called 'woman' before she had been touched by a man, as the scripture says: 'He made the rib a woman' (see Genesis, 2: 22). A virgin, virgo, is so called because she is in the green, viridus, or blooming age of her life
  • Transcription
    et in psalmo ubi legitur: Pupillo tu eras adiutor. Grecus habet\ orphano. Puberes a pube vocati, id est a pudentia corporis nun\cupati, quod hec loca primo lanuginem dicunt. Quidam\ autem pubertatem existimant, id est c[e]um puberem esse qui xiiii\ annos expleverit, quamvis tardissime pubescat. Certissime\ autem c[e]um puberem esse qui et ex habitu corporis pubertatem\ ostendit, et generare iam possit. Puerpere sunt que annis pu\erilibus pariunt. Unde et Oracius: Laudatur primo iam prole\ puerpera nato. Et dicte puerpere vel quod primo partu gravantur\ vel quod primum pueros pariunt. Adolescens dictus eo quod\ sit ad gignendum adultus, sive accrescere et augere. Iuvenis\ vocatus quod iuvare possei [posse] incipit ut in bobus iuvenci cum\ a vitulis discesserint. Est enim iuvenis in ipso etatis incremen\to positus, et ad auxilium preparatus. Nam iuvare hominis\ est opus aliquod conferentis. Sicut autem tricesimus perfecte\ etatis est annus in hominibus, ita in pecudibus ac iumentis ter\cius robustissimus. Vir nuncupatus quia maior in eo virtus\ est quam in feminis. Unde et virtutis nomen accepit sive quod\ vi agat femina. Mulier vero a mollicia tanquam mollior r [l] de\tracta littera vel mutata, est mulier. Utrique enim fortitudine\ et imbecillitate corporum separantur. Sed ideo viri maxima\ virtus, mulieris minor ut paciens viro esset, scilicet ne femi\nis repugnantibus libido cogeret viros aliud appetere, aut\ in alium sexum proruere. Dicitur mulier igitur secundum femineum sex\um, non secundum corruptionem integritatis, et hec est lingua\ sacre scripture. Nam Eva statim facta de latere viri sui, non\ dum contacta a viro mulier appellata est, dicente scriptura:\ Et formavit eam in mulierem. Virgo a viridiori etate dicta\
Folio 92r - the age of man, continued. | The Aberdeen Bestiary | The University of Aberdeen