The Aberdeen Bestiary

Folio 82r - the nature of man, continued.


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Commentary, Translation and Transcription

These sections are located below the image on each page, scroll down page and click on the tabs to view them. It is also possible to view the translation alongside the image by clicking the translation icon in the toolbar

It is not part of the project to provide a definitive edition of the text of the Bestiary, but to help readers by providing a transcription and translation of the text. Currently the following editorial conventions obtain:

Text

  1. The original capitalisation is retained, but capitals have been added for personal and place names, excluding deus and diabolus.
  2. The original punctuation, including a point and inverted semi-colon (both serving as commas), and a point (serving as a full stop), is represented by comma, full stop and question-mark; a colon has been inserted before quotations.
  3. Suggested readings are in [ ].
  4. Variants from other Bestiary texts (eg Ashmole 1511 and Patrologia Latina 176) are added where they indicate a corruption, elucidate a meaning and replace excised text. They are represented as [A: PL:]

Translation

  1. Direct quotations from the Bible, where identified, are cited from the Authorised Version in ( ).
  2. Paraphrased quotations are identified where possible and indicated as: (see Job, 18:22).
  3. Suggested translations of corrupt words are in [ ].
  4. Capitalisation is sparing; additional punctuation has been used where necessary to give the sense. Paragraphs have been created to break up the text.
these terms and the faculties they represent are united in the soul, so that it is a single thing. For different names are allocated to the soul in respect of its faculties. The memory, memoria, is also the intellect, mens; for this reason the forgetful are called 'mindless', amentes. When it gives life to the body, it is the soul, anima. When it wills something, it is the mind, animus. When it knows something, it is the intellect, mens. When it remembers, it is memory, memoria. When it judges what is right, it is reason, ratio. When it breathes, it is the life-giving spirit, spiritus. When it perceives or feels anything, it is sense, sensus. For the mind, animus, is called sense, sensus, on account of the things which it senses, sentire. For this reason, it is also known as the opinion, sententia. The body, corpus, is so called because it perishes in a state of corruption, corruptum. For it can be reduced and die and at some time will decompose. But flesh, caro, gets its name from creare, to create. For the semen of the male has the power of growth; the bodies of men and animals are conceived from it. For this reason parents are also referred to as 'creators'. Flesh is composed of four elements. There is earth in the flesh itself, air in the breath, water in the blood, and fire in the living heat. For the elements each have their own part in us; if any part is withheld, the whole dissolves. Flesh, caro, and the body, corpus, mean different things. There is always a body where there is flesh, but where there is a body there is not always flesh. For flesh is that which lives, the same as the body. But a body which is not alive is not the same as flesh. For we use the word 'body', corpus, to mean either something which, after life, is dead, or something which was created without life. Sometimes also a thing can have life yet be called a body, corpus, not flesh, caro, like grass or wood. The body has five senses: sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch. Of these, two are opened and closed to sensations, two are always open. The senses, sensus, are so called because through them the soul very delicately activates the whole body with the force of sensation, sentire. As a result we say things are 'present', presentia, because they are before, pre, the senses, as, for example, they are before the eyes. Sight, visus, is what philosophers call humor vitreus. For

Text

Isidore on the body and flesh.

Comment

Quire mark 'M' in top right corner. Folio mark * bottom left.

Folio Attributes

  • Gatherings, quire marks, folio marks

    Gatherings, quire marks, folio marks

    Gatherings, quire marks, folio marks
    Folio Marks

    To make a normal gathering, a sheet of vellum (the skin of a calf, lamb or kid) would be folded over twice and cut around the edges. This would make a gathering or quire of eight folios with sixteen sides. In the Bestiary there are fifteen quires, thirteen of which are made with the usual eight folios. The last two quires, added in the late thirteenth century, have six and four folios respectively. The folios are not precisely cut but in the most regular quires (B and C) they measure 300mm high and 210mm wide. In order to assemble the quires in the correct sequence they were labelled in lead point with letters of the alphabet. Some are missing with the result that the sequence runs -,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,K,-(folio missing),M,N. The last two quires (O and P) are the later additions and are not marked. The quire system was examined by MR James when the book was being rebound and he was able to produce the following analysis of the gatherings: A8 (wants folio 2, 8); B8 (4,5); C8 (4,8); D8 (4,5); E8-L8 (1); M8; N8; O6; P4 (4). Individual sheets in the quire needed to be marked. Although there were eight folios only the first four needed marking because they were folded with the last four. Each sheet was distinctively marked to make sure the quires could not get muddled up. The asterisk sign is repeated in quires B and M but they remain distinct because the B sign is in the top right corner while the M signs are all in the bottom left corner.

Transcription

hec nomina adiuncta sunt anime ut una res sit. Pro effi\cientiis enim causarum diversa nomina sortita est anima.\ Nam et memoria mens est. Unde et immemores amen\tes. Dum ergo vivificat corpus anima est. Dum vult\ animus est. Dum scit mens est. Dum recolit memoria est.\ Dum rectum iudicat, ratio est. Dum spirat spiritus est. Dum\ aliquid sentit sensus est. Nam inde animus sensus dicitur,\ pro his que sentit. Unde et sententia nomen accepit. Cor\pus dictum eo quod corruptum perit. Solubile enim atque\ mortale est, et aliquando solvendum. Caro enim a crean\do est appellata. Crementum enim semen est masculi,\ unde animalium et hominum corpora concipiuntur.\ Hinc et parentes creatores vocantur. Caro enim ex quatuor\ elementis compacta est. Nam terra in carne est, aer in alitu,\ humor in sanguine, ignis in calore vitali. Habent enim\ in nobis elementa queque suam partem, cuius quid debetur\ compage resoluta. Caro enim et corpus diversa significant.\ In carne semper corpus, non semper in corpore caro. Nam caro\ est quod vivit, idem et corpus. Corpus quod non vivit\ idem nec caro. Nam corpus dicitur aut quod post vitam est\ mortuum, aut sine vita est conditum. Interdum et eum [etiam]\ vita et corpus et non caro, ut herba et lignum. Sensus cor\poris quinque sunt, visus, auditus, gustus, odoratus et tac\tus. Ex quibus duo aperiuntur et clauduntur, duo semper\ patentes sunt. Sensus dicti, quia per eos anima subtilissime\ totum corpus agitatur, vigore sentiendi. Unde et presentia nun\cupantur quod sint pre sensibus sicut pre oculis. Visus est qui\ a philosophis humor vitreus appellatur. Visum enim\

Translation

these terms and the faculties they represent are united in the soul, so that it is a single thing. For different names are allocated to the soul in respect of its faculties. The memory, memoria, is also the intellect, mens; for this reason the forgetful are called 'mindless', amentes. When it gives life to the body, it is the soul, anima. When it wills something, it is the mind, animus. When it knows something, it is the intellect, mens. When it remembers, it is memory, memoria. When it judges what is right, it is reason, ratio. When it breathes, it is the life-giving spirit, spiritus. When it perceives or feels anything, it is sense, sensus. For the mind, animus, is called sense, sensus, on account of the things which it senses, sentire. For this reason, it is also known as the opinion, sententia. The body, corpus, is so called because it perishes in a state of corruption, corruptum. For it can be reduced and die and at some time will decompose. But flesh, caro, gets its name from creare, to create. For the semen of the male has the power of growth; the bodies of men and animals are conceived from it. For this reason parents are also referred to as 'creators'. Flesh is composed of four elements. There is earth in the flesh itself, air in the breath, water in the blood, and fire in the living heat. For the elements each have their own part in us; if any part is withheld, the whole dissolves. Flesh, caro, and the body, corpus, mean different things. There is always a body where there is flesh, but where there is a body there is not always flesh. For flesh is that which lives, the same as the body. But a body which is not alive is not the same as flesh. For we use the word 'body', corpus, to mean either something which, after life, is dead, or something which was created without life. Sometimes also a thing can have life yet be called a body, corpus, not flesh, caro, like grass or wood. The body has five senses: sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch. Of these, two are opened and closed to sensations, two are always open. The senses, sensus, are so called because through them the soul very delicately activates the whole body with the force of sensation, sentire. As a result we say things are 'present', presentia, because they are before, pre, the senses, as, for example, they are before the eyes. Sight, visus, is what philosophers call humor vitreus. For
  • Commentary

    Text

    Isidore on the body and flesh.

    Comment

    Quire mark 'M' in top right corner. Folio mark * bottom left.

    Folio Attributes

    • Gatherings, quire marks, folio marks

      Gatherings, quire marks, folio marks

      Gatherings, quire marks, folio marks
      Folio Marks

      To make a normal gathering, a sheet of vellum (the skin of a calf, lamb or kid) would be folded over twice and cut around the edges. This would make a gathering or quire of eight folios with sixteen sides. In the Bestiary there are fifteen quires, thirteen of which are made with the usual eight folios. The last two quires, added in the late thirteenth century, have six and four folios respectively. The folios are not precisely cut but in the most regular quires (B and C) they measure 300mm high and 210mm wide. In order to assemble the quires in the correct sequence they were labelled in lead point with letters of the alphabet. Some are missing with the result that the sequence runs -,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,K,-(folio missing),M,N. The last two quires (O and P) are the later additions and are not marked. The quire system was examined by MR James when the book was being rebound and he was able to produce the following analysis of the gatherings: A8 (wants folio 2, 8); B8 (4,5); C8 (4,8); D8 (4,5); E8-L8 (1); M8; N8; O6; P4 (4). Individual sheets in the quire needed to be marked. Although there were eight folios only the first four needed marking because they were folded with the last four. Each sheet was distinctively marked to make sure the quires could not get muddled up. The asterisk sign is repeated in quires B and M but they remain distinct because the B sign is in the top right corner while the M signs are all in the bottom left corner.

  • Translation
    these terms and the faculties they represent are united in the soul, so that it is a single thing. For different names are allocated to the soul in respect of its faculties. The memory, memoria, is also the intellect, mens; for this reason the forgetful are called 'mindless', amentes. When it gives life to the body, it is the soul, anima. When it wills something, it is the mind, animus. When it knows something, it is the intellect, mens. When it remembers, it is memory, memoria. When it judges what is right, it is reason, ratio. When it breathes, it is the life-giving spirit, spiritus. When it perceives or feels anything, it is sense, sensus. For the mind, animus, is called sense, sensus, on account of the things which it senses, sentire. For this reason, it is also known as the opinion, sententia. The body, corpus, is so called because it perishes in a state of corruption, corruptum. For it can be reduced and die and at some time will decompose. But flesh, caro, gets its name from creare, to create. For the semen of the male has the power of growth; the bodies of men and animals are conceived from it. For this reason parents are also referred to as 'creators'. Flesh is composed of four elements. There is earth in the flesh itself, air in the breath, water in the blood, and fire in the living heat. For the elements each have their own part in us; if any part is withheld, the whole dissolves. Flesh, caro, and the body, corpus, mean different things. There is always a body where there is flesh, but where there is a body there is not always flesh. For flesh is that which lives, the same as the body. But a body which is not alive is not the same as flesh. For we use the word 'body', corpus, to mean either something which, after life, is dead, or something which was created without life. Sometimes also a thing can have life yet be called a body, corpus, not flesh, caro, like grass or wood. The body has five senses: sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch. Of these, two are opened and closed to sensations, two are always open. The senses, sensus, are so called because through them the soul very delicately activates the whole body with the force of sensation, sentire. As a result we say things are 'present', presentia, because they are before, pre, the senses, as, for example, they are before the eyes. Sight, visus, is what philosophers call humor vitreus. For
  • Transcription
    hec nomina adiuncta sunt anime ut una res sit. Pro effi\cientiis enim causarum diversa nomina sortita est anima.\ Nam et memoria mens est. Unde et immemores amen\tes. Dum ergo vivificat corpus anima est. Dum vult\ animus est. Dum scit mens est. Dum recolit memoria est.\ Dum rectum iudicat, ratio est. Dum spirat spiritus est. Dum\ aliquid sentit sensus est. Nam inde animus sensus dicitur,\ pro his que sentit. Unde et sententia nomen accepit. Cor\pus dictum eo quod corruptum perit. Solubile enim atque\ mortale est, et aliquando solvendum. Caro enim a crean\do est appellata. Crementum enim semen est masculi,\ unde animalium et hominum corpora concipiuntur.\ Hinc et parentes creatores vocantur. Caro enim ex quatuor\ elementis compacta est. Nam terra in carne est, aer in alitu,\ humor in sanguine, ignis in calore vitali. Habent enim\ in nobis elementa queque suam partem, cuius quid debetur\ compage resoluta. Caro enim et corpus diversa significant.\ In carne semper corpus, non semper in corpore caro. Nam caro\ est quod vivit, idem et corpus. Corpus quod non vivit\ idem nec caro. Nam corpus dicitur aut quod post vitam est\ mortuum, aut sine vita est conditum. Interdum et eum [etiam]\ vita et corpus et non caro, ut herba et lignum. Sensus cor\poris quinque sunt, visus, auditus, gustus, odoratus et tac\tus. Ex quibus duo aperiuntur et clauduntur, duo semper\ patentes sunt. Sensus dicti, quia per eos anima subtilissime\ totum corpus agitatur, vigore sentiendi. Unde et presentia nun\cupantur quod sint pre sensibus sicut pre oculis. Visus est qui\ a philosophis humor vitreus appellatur. Visum enim\
Folio 82r - the nature of man, continued. | The Aberdeen Bestiary | The University of Aberdeen