The Aberdeen Bestiary

Folio 43v - the ostrich, continued.


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Commentary, Translation and Transcription

These sections are located below the image on each page, scroll down page and click on the tabs to view them. It is also possible to view the translation alongside the image by clicking the translation icon in the toolbar

It is not part of the project to provide a definitive edition of the text of the Bestiary, but to help readers by providing a transcription and translation of the text. Currently the following editorial conventions obtain:

Text

  1. The original capitalisation is retained, but capitals have been added for personal and place names, excluding deus and diabolus.
  2. The original punctuation, including a point and inverted semi-colon (both serving as commas), and a point (serving as a full stop), is represented by comma, full stop and question-mark; a colon has been inserted before quotations.
  3. Suggested readings are in [ ].
  4. Variants from other Bestiary texts (eg Ashmole 1511 and Patrologia Latina 176) are added where they indicate a corruption, elucidate a meaning and replace excised text. They are represented as [A: PL:]

Translation

  1. Direct quotations from the Bible, where identified, are cited from the Authorised Version in ( ).
  2. Paraphrased quotations are identified where possible and indicated as: (see Job, 18:22).
  3. Suggested translations of corrupt words are in [ ].
  4. Capitalisation is sparing; additional punctuation has been used where necessary to give the sense. Paragraphs have been created to break up the text.
trample on them. The ostrich also forgets that the beast of the field will destroy its eggs, just as the hypocrite does not care at all if the Devil, raging in this world, snatches the young who are the product of edifying association. True teachers, therefore, by virtue of the love with which they are endowed, have the deepest fears for their pupils; hypocrites are as unconcerned for their charges as they are unable to grasp for themselves what indeed there is to be feared. Because hypocrites are hard of heart, they do not recognise their children in a dutiful fashion with love. Again, this is illustrated by the image of the ostrich: 'She is hardened against her young ones, as though they were not hers' (Job, 39:16). For the man who is not imbued with the grace of charity, sees his neighbour, even though he is born of God, as a stranger, exactly as all hypocrites do. As hypocrites continually seek external things, their minds inwardly lose all capacity for feeling, and in everything they do, as they strive on their own behalf, their hearts are unmoved by any loving compassion towards their neighbour. Because they do not know love at its deepest level, their mind is hardened by their self-love on the inside to the same extent that it is opened up, through their worldly longing, on the outside. Their mind grows cold and insensitive on the inside, because it grows soft with the love that brings condemnation on the outside. The mind of the hypocrite lacks the capacity to examine itself, because it has not the least desire to do so. It cannot reflect upon itself because it is not in full control of itself; nor indeed has it the power so to be, because it is fragmented by as many imaginings as the desires which seize it. The hypocrite's mind lies scattered in the depths; yet it could, if it were it whole and if it so wished, rise to the heights. That is why the mind of the righteous, because it is restrained by the observance of discipline from desiring transient, visible things, is renewed and kept inwardly whole. It sees clearly what its attitude should be towards God or a neighbour, because it leaves nothing of itself outwith its control. The more it is restrained from external things, the more its capacity is increased to burn with a deep fire. The more it burns, the more it illuminates the vices that are to be detected. The result is that holy men, when they are whole within, with marvellously keen sight

Text

The ostrich and its eggs.

Comment

in margin, 'dampnabili '[correcting ‘dominabili’], 'damnable love'.

Folio Attributes

  • Scribal Corrections

    Scribal Corrections

    Scribal Corrections
    The Bestiary scribe ends, the Lapidary scribe begins. Detail from f.94r

    When the ruling was complete the quires were ready to receive the text. At this point the scribe had a clear idea about the precise layout of each page. He had to leave the correct amount of space for the rubrics, capitals and illuminations to be added. The scribal hand is fairly uniform throughout, though Clark (2006, 223) observes the Gothic textura formata (the type of lettering) changes on f.19r, becoming ‘somewhat more compact and rounded’. There is a marked change of hand, below the illustration of the dove and hawk on f.26r, for only 5 lines. The quill is broader and the letters larger but less steady or uniform. Another scribe, with a later thirteenth-century hand, writes the lapidary section of the book, beginning on f.94r. Sometimes the scribe made mistakes or omissions which were picked up by a contemporary editor. On f.17r you can see corrections written lightly in the margin with part of the text erased and corrected accordingly. Most of the corrections occur in the Aviarium section, f.25r-f.63r.

Transcription

calcaret. Obliviscitur etiam quod bestia agri conterat quia nimirum\ si diabolus in hoc mundo seviens editos in bona conversatione\ filios rapiat, ypocrita omnino non curat. Habent ergo veraces magistri\ super discipulos suos timoris viscera, ex virtute caritatis, ypocrite\ tanto minus commissis sibi metuunt, quanto nec sibimetipsis quod timere\ debeant reprehendunt. Et quia obduratis cordibus vivunt, ipsos etiam\ quos generant filios nulla pietate amoris agnoscunt. Unde adhuc\ sub strucionis specie subditur: Ducatur [Duratur] ad filios qui quasi non sunt sui.\ Que enim caritatis gratia non infundit, proximum suum etiam si ipse\ hunc deo genuit extraneum respicit, ut profecto sunt omnes ypocrite.\ Quorum videlicet mentes dum semper exteriora appetunt, intus\ insensibiles fiunt, et in cunctis que agunt dum sua semper expe\ tunt, erga affectum proximi nulla caritatis compassione molles\ cunt. Et quia caritas viscera nesciunt, eorum mens quanto per mundi\concupiscentiam in exteriora resolvitur, tanto per affectionem suam\ interius obduratur. Et torpore insensibili frigescit intrinsecus quia\ amore dominabili [PL, damnabili] mollescit foris. Sed [PL, seque] ipsam considerare non\ valet, quia cogitare sese minime studet. Cogitare vero se non po\ test quia tota[m expuncted] apud semetipsam non est, tota vero esse apud semet\ ipsam non sufficit, quia per quot concupiscentias rapitur, per tot\ a semetipsa species dissipatur. Et sparsa in infimis iacet, que\ collecta si vellet ad summa consurgeret. Unde iustorum mens quando\ per custodiam discipline a cunctorum visibilium fluxus ap\ petitu constringitur, collecta apud semetipsam intrinsecus integratur.\ Qualisque deo vel proximo esse debeat plene conspicit, quia nichil su\ um exterius derelinquit. Et quanto ab exterioribus abstracta compes\ citur, tanto aucta in infimis inflammatur. Et quo magis ardet,\ eo ad deprehendenda vicia amplius lucet. Hinc est enim quod sancti\ viri dum se intra semetipsos colligunt, mira ac penetrabili acie\

Translation

trample on them. The ostrich also forgets that the beast of the field will destroy its eggs, just as the hypocrite does not care at all if the Devil, raging in this world, snatches the young who are the product of edifying association. True teachers, therefore, by virtue of the love with which they are endowed, have the deepest fears for their pupils; hypocrites are as unconcerned for their charges as they are unable to grasp for themselves what indeed there is to be feared. Because hypocrites are hard of heart, they do not recognise their children in a dutiful fashion with love. Again, this is illustrated by the image of the ostrich: 'She is hardened against her young ones, as though they were not hers' (Job, 39:16). For the man who is not imbued with the grace of charity, sees his neighbour, even though he is born of God, as a stranger, exactly as all hypocrites do. As hypocrites continually seek external things, their minds inwardly lose all capacity for feeling, and in everything they do, as they strive on their own behalf, their hearts are unmoved by any loving compassion towards their neighbour. Because they do not know love at its deepest level, their mind is hardened by their self-love on the inside to the same extent that it is opened up, through their worldly longing, on the outside. Their mind grows cold and insensitive on the inside, because it grows soft with the love that brings condemnation on the outside. The mind of the hypocrite lacks the capacity to examine itself, because it has not the least desire to do so. It cannot reflect upon itself because it is not in full control of itself; nor indeed has it the power so to be, because it is fragmented by as many imaginings as the desires which seize it. The hypocrite's mind lies scattered in the depths; yet it could, if it were it whole and if it so wished, rise to the heights. That is why the mind of the righteous, because it is restrained by the observance of discipline from desiring transient, visible things, is renewed and kept inwardly whole. It sees clearly what its attitude should be towards God or a neighbour, because it leaves nothing of itself outwith its control. The more it is restrained from external things, the more its capacity is increased to burn with a deep fire. The more it burns, the more it illuminates the vices that are to be detected. The result is that holy men, when they are whole within, with marvellously keen sight
  • Commentary

    Text

    The ostrich and its eggs.

    Comment

    in margin, 'dampnabili '[correcting ‘dominabili’], 'damnable love'.

    Folio Attributes

    • Scribal Corrections

      Scribal Corrections

      Scribal Corrections
      The Bestiary scribe ends, the Lapidary scribe begins. Detail from f.94r

      When the ruling was complete the quires were ready to receive the text. At this point the scribe had a clear idea about the precise layout of each page. He had to leave the correct amount of space for the rubrics, capitals and illuminations to be added. The scribal hand is fairly uniform throughout, though Clark (2006, 223) observes the Gothic textura formata (the type of lettering) changes on f.19r, becoming ‘somewhat more compact and rounded’. There is a marked change of hand, below the illustration of the dove and hawk on f.26r, for only 5 lines. The quill is broader and the letters larger but less steady or uniform. Another scribe, with a later thirteenth-century hand, writes the lapidary section of the book, beginning on f.94r. Sometimes the scribe made mistakes or omissions which were picked up by a contemporary editor. On f.17r you can see corrections written lightly in the margin with part of the text erased and corrected accordingly. Most of the corrections occur in the Aviarium section, f.25r-f.63r.

  • Translation
    trample on them. The ostrich also forgets that the beast of the field will destroy its eggs, just as the hypocrite does not care at all if the Devil, raging in this world, snatches the young who are the product of edifying association. True teachers, therefore, by virtue of the love with which they are endowed, have the deepest fears for their pupils; hypocrites are as unconcerned for their charges as they are unable to grasp for themselves what indeed there is to be feared. Because hypocrites are hard of heart, they do not recognise their children in a dutiful fashion with love. Again, this is illustrated by the image of the ostrich: 'She is hardened against her young ones, as though they were not hers' (Job, 39:16). For the man who is not imbued with the grace of charity, sees his neighbour, even though he is born of God, as a stranger, exactly as all hypocrites do. As hypocrites continually seek external things, their minds inwardly lose all capacity for feeling, and in everything they do, as they strive on their own behalf, their hearts are unmoved by any loving compassion towards their neighbour. Because they do not know love at its deepest level, their mind is hardened by their self-love on the inside to the same extent that it is opened up, through their worldly longing, on the outside. Their mind grows cold and insensitive on the inside, because it grows soft with the love that brings condemnation on the outside. The mind of the hypocrite lacks the capacity to examine itself, because it has not the least desire to do so. It cannot reflect upon itself because it is not in full control of itself; nor indeed has it the power so to be, because it is fragmented by as many imaginings as the desires which seize it. The hypocrite's mind lies scattered in the depths; yet it could, if it were it whole and if it so wished, rise to the heights. That is why the mind of the righteous, because it is restrained by the observance of discipline from desiring transient, visible things, is renewed and kept inwardly whole. It sees clearly what its attitude should be towards God or a neighbour, because it leaves nothing of itself outwith its control. The more it is restrained from external things, the more its capacity is increased to burn with a deep fire. The more it burns, the more it illuminates the vices that are to be detected. The result is that holy men, when they are whole within, with marvellously keen sight
  • Transcription
    calcaret. Obliviscitur etiam quod bestia agri conterat quia nimirum\ si diabolus in hoc mundo seviens editos in bona conversatione\ filios rapiat, ypocrita omnino non curat. Habent ergo veraces magistri\ super discipulos suos timoris viscera, ex virtute caritatis, ypocrite\ tanto minus commissis sibi metuunt, quanto nec sibimetipsis quod timere\ debeant reprehendunt. Et quia obduratis cordibus vivunt, ipsos etiam\ quos generant filios nulla pietate amoris agnoscunt. Unde adhuc\ sub strucionis specie subditur: Ducatur [Duratur] ad filios qui quasi non sunt sui.\ Que enim caritatis gratia non infundit, proximum suum etiam si ipse\ hunc deo genuit extraneum respicit, ut profecto sunt omnes ypocrite.\ Quorum videlicet mentes dum semper exteriora appetunt, intus\ insensibiles fiunt, et in cunctis que agunt dum sua semper expe\ tunt, erga affectum proximi nulla caritatis compassione molles\ cunt. Et quia caritas viscera nesciunt, eorum mens quanto per mundi\concupiscentiam in exteriora resolvitur, tanto per affectionem suam\ interius obduratur. Et torpore insensibili frigescit intrinsecus quia\ amore dominabili [PL, damnabili] mollescit foris. Sed [PL, seque] ipsam considerare non\ valet, quia cogitare sese minime studet. Cogitare vero se non po\ test quia tota[m expuncted] apud semetipsam non est, tota vero esse apud semet\ ipsam non sufficit, quia per quot concupiscentias rapitur, per tot\ a semetipsa species dissipatur. Et sparsa in infimis iacet, que\ collecta si vellet ad summa consurgeret. Unde iustorum mens quando\ per custodiam discipline a cunctorum visibilium fluxus ap\ petitu constringitur, collecta apud semetipsam intrinsecus integratur.\ Qualisque deo vel proximo esse debeat plene conspicit, quia nichil su\ um exterius derelinquit. Et quanto ab exterioribus abstracta compes\ citur, tanto aucta in infimis inflammatur. Et quo magis ardet,\ eo ad deprehendenda vicia amplius lucet. Hinc est enim quod sancti\ viri dum se intra semetipsos colligunt, mira ac penetrabili acie\
Folio 43v - the ostrich, continued. | The Aberdeen Bestiary | The University of Aberdeen