The Aberdeen Bestiary

Folio 11v - Ibex, continued. De yena; the hyena.


Folio 12r - Hyena, continued. De bonnacon; the bonnacon.


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Commentary, Translation and Transcription

These sections are located below the image on each page, scroll down page and click on the tabs to view them. It is also possible to view the translation alongside the image by clicking the translation icon in the toolbar

It is not part of the project to provide a definitive edition of the text of the Bestiary, but to help readers by providing a transcription and translation of the text. Currently the following editorial conventions obtain:

Text

  1. The original capitalisation is retained, but capitals have been added for personal and place names, excluding deus and diabolus.
  2. The original punctuation, including a point and inverted semi-colon (both serving as commas), and a point (serving as a full stop), is represented by comma, full stop and question-mark; a colon has been inserted before quotations.
  3. Suggested readings are in [ ].
  4. Variants from other Bestiary texts (eg Ashmole 1511 and Patrologia Latina 176) are added where they indicate a corruption, elucidate a meaning and replace excised text. They are represented as [A: PL:]

Translation

  1. Direct quotations from the Bible, where identified, are cited from the Authorised Version in ( ).
  2. Paraphrased quotations are identified where possible and indicated as: (see Job, 18:22).
  3. Suggested translations of corrupt words are in [ ].
  4. Capitalisation is sparing; additional punctuation has been used where necessary to give the sense. Paragraphs have been created to break up the text.

COMMENTARY

Text

The hyena.

Illustration

The hyena should not be eaten because it is dirty and has two natures, male and female. Both sexual organs are clearly shown. It dwells in the tombs of the dead and devours human bodies. Its spine is rigid and it must move its whole body in order to turn.

Comment

Pricking and ruling visible.. Prick marks for pouncing are particularly dense around the man's body and the eyes and body of the hyena. Initial indicator 'e' in left margin. Initial type 2.

COMMENTARY

Text

The hyena. The bonnacon.

Illustration

The bonnacon is an Asian beast whose head is like a bull but his horns curl inwards so that they do not harm the victim. When the bonnacon is chased he expels dung which burns a wide area.

Comment

The illustration shows the wise hunter protecting himself with his shield, mentioned in other texts but not here.The hunter's axe extends beyond its frame and overlaps the text. Pricking and ruling are visible. The text is damaged by pricking for pouncing on f.12v. Initial indicator 'i' in the right margin. Initial type 2.