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Undergraduate Law 2015-2016

LS1020: CRIMINAL LAW

15 credits

Level 1

First Sub Session

This course is a compulsory course on the LLB degree introducing students to Scottish Criminal Law including its sources and current law.   It examines various aspects of substantive law including crimes against the person, crimes of dishonesty, crimes against property and criminal defences enabling students to understand and apply the law in these areas.  The course also develops student’s written, verbal and analytical skills utilising written course work and problem solving exercises in tutorial groups.  

LS1022: FOUNDATIONS OF PRIVATE LAW

15 credits

Level 1

First Sub Session

The course provides firstly a map of private law as drawn from the institutional scheme. It then progresses to an equivalent of the medical student’s study of anatomy in the sense that, concentrating on the law of property and obligations, it examines the main concepts of private law and how they operate together as a system to solve everyday legal problems.

LS1025: LEGAL SYSTEM

15 credits

Level 1

First Sub Session

This course introduces the fundamental components and characteristics of the Scottish legal system. It includes a study skills programme which covers different facets of the study of law along with a series of practical workshops which introduce key legal information sources (both electronic and paper) and appropriate search strategies. Lectures and tutorials will cover topics such as the Scottish legal tradition, formal sources of Scots law, the legislative process, organisation of the courts, judicial precedent, civil procedure, alternative dispute resolution, the European legal order, legal services and access to justice.

LS1026: CASE STUDIES ON LAW IN SOCIETY

15 credits

Level 1

First Sub Session

This module examines, through the use of current, high-profile case-studies, the varying role played by law in wider society. The course departs from the traditional ‘black letter’ approach to studying law and will focus primarily upon current legal problems facing society and the related ethical, economic and social arguments. It will be seen that law is not merely a static body of rules but a mechanism for facilitating and inspiring change in all aspects of our society. 

LS1520: CONTRACT

15 credits

Level 1

Second Sub Session

Contract is one of the central subjects of private law and is one of the main branches of the law of obligations. Contract Law covers obligations which are voluntary in nature. Every day we make contracts from buying a newspaper to buying a house. Contract Law is an area where Scots law and English law are very similar and this course will cover Scots contract law but also highlight where English law differs with the aim of giving students a working knowledge of contract in both countries. 

LS1521: PUBLIC LAW AND HUMAN RIGHTS

15 credits

Level 1

Second Sub Session

This course is an introduction to the law about government. The course covers three main areas of law: constitutional law; human rights law; and, to a lesser extent, administrative law. Major topics include parliamentary sovereignty, Britain's membership in the European Union, the rule of law, the separation of powers, devolution (especially in Scotland), the Human Rights Act, freedom of expression, and the right to protest. This area of law is fast-moving, and an effort is made to address current issues such as prisoner voting, the deployment of armed forces, and the impact of the referendum on Scottish independence.

LS1522: LEGAL METHOD

15 credits

Level 1

Second Sub Session

This course develops key legal research skills by taking students through a research project from initial conception to final written product, including: research design; research ethics; identifying and locating primary sources; interpreting and evaluating primary sources; identifying and locating secondary sources; critically analysing secondary sources; use and interpretation of data, statistics and other (non-legal) evidence; and effective writing. It will teach students the comparative and doctrinal-historical legal methods critical to legal research. Students will develop their own research project throughout the semester in light of this learning, building their project step by step under the guidance of the teaching team.

LS1523: ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF DISPUTE RESOLUTION

15 credits

Level 1

Second Sub Session

Alternative Methods of Dispute Resolution is a very practical course designed to give students a first-hand interaction with a number of the different structured ways to resolve disputes that exist.  The course is taught by way of a weekly lecture which focuses on an explanation of theory and rationale followed by role play tutorials, where students engage in negotiations and mediations in particular.

LS1527: ENGLISH CRIMINAL LAW

7.5 credits

Level 1

Second Sub Session

This course is a compulsory course on the LLB with English Law degree introducing students to English Criminal Law including its sources and current law.   It examines various aspects of substantive law including offences against the person, offences of dishonesty, offences against property and criminal defences enabling students to understand and apply the law in these areas.  The course also develops student’s written, verbal and analytical skills utilising written course work and problem solving in tutorial groups.

LS1528: INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH LEGAL SYSTEM

7.5 credits

Level 1

Second Sub Session

This 7.5 credit course introduces key elements of the English legal system, building on points considered in the Legal System course. It considers sources of law (with a focus on the common law and doctrine of precedent), key institutions and personalities (eg police, jury, Lord Chancellor), criminal and civil processes, key controversies (eg the future of legal aid, the place of social media and the diversity of judges) and the present and developing nature of the different branches of the legal profession, particularly in the face of evolving technologies. Assessment is by research exercises OR an exam at the student’s choice. 

FM2001: FORENSIC MEDICINE 1

10 credits

Level 2

First Sub Session

FM2502: FORENSIC MEDICINE 2

10 credits

Level 2

Second Sub Session

LS2025: DELICT AND UNJUSTIFIED ENRICHMENT

15 credits

Level 2

First Sub Session

This course introduces students to two of the key branches of the Scots law of obligations, namely Delict (which governs legal liability for situations such as the negligent infliction of harm upon others, or liability for breach of privacy) and Unjustified Enrichment (which is concerned with questions such as, if I pay you money in error, am I entitled to demand that you return it?).  The course will be taught primarily by means of lecture and tutorial.  There will also be one compulsory interactive workshop illustrating how to quantify the amount of damages payable for personal injury.

LS2026: EU INSTITUTIONS AND LAW

15 credits

Level 2

First Sub Session

This course examines the composition and function of the EU Institutions (including preliminary rulings), sources and supremacy, direct effect of EU Law, state liability and judicial review. Other topics covered include human rights in the EU, persons and citizenship, establishment and services, free movement of goods, and competition law.

LS2028: SCOTTISH LEGAL HISTORY

15 credits

Level 2

First Sub Session

This course will introduce students to the main points of Scottish legal history from the fourteenth to the eighteenth centuries. In weeks one to eight, lectures and tutorials will provide a general overview as well as more detailed coverage on particular topics e.g. the legal literature and notable jurists, the development of the courts and procedure, and periods of flux and reform of the law. Workshops held in weeks nine and ten allow students to work on a (non-counting) group project charting the history of a legal rule.

LS2031: THE LAW OF PROPERTY

15 credits

Level 2

First Sub Session

This compulsory LLB course is all about things. What items can you own? How do you become owner of property? What can you do as an owner of property? What can you do with the property of other people? And so on. An understanding of Scots property law is crucial to markets, commerce and domestic life. This course will give students a broad overview of the regulation of land, moveable items and incorporeal rights like intellectual property in Scotland.

LS2032: PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

15 credits

Level 2

First Sub Session

The course aims to systematically and critically introduce the foundations of PIL, and is taught by teachers with diverse background and expertise in the field.  The history, nature, legal persons and how PIL interacts with domestic law are considered in-depth. These are followed by more serious topics such as jurisdiction, sovereignty, the role of the United Nations, the law of state responsibility and pacific settlement of disputes between states.  Some substantive areas such as law on the use of force and self-defence are covered to enable students fully understand why and how war is banned/regulated under international law.

LS2525: COMMERCIAL ORGANISATIONS AND INSOLVENCY

15 credits

Level 2

Second Sub Session

This is a second level course, which is compulsory for LLB students planning to become professional lawyers. The course consists of four elements: the law of agency, the law of partnership, company law and insolvency law. The lectures will focus on the creation of agency, partnership and companies of different types; the rules that enable these commercial organisations to function; and the law concerning the termination of these commercial organisations. One reason for these organisations coming to an end is that they become insolvent. The rules on insolvency and bankruptcy will be a significant element of the course.

LS2526: FAMILY LAW

15 credits

Level 2

Second Sub Session

This course is divided into two principal parts.  In the first part, students will be introduced to the key facets of the law governing the formation of adult relationships, including the constitution of marriage and civil partnership, legal rights and duties of spouses and civil partners, same sex marriage, the grounds for divorce and the financial aspects of breakdown of marriage and relationships of cohabitation.  The second part focuses on the relationship between children and adults and the legal rights of children, including parental rights and responsibilities, court orders relating to children and the welfare principle.

LS2527: INTRODUCTION TO LEGAL THEORY

7.5 credits

Level 2

Second Sub Session

This course aims to provide student with an accessible introduction to some of the central themes of legal theory. The material will be organised around broad themes that will enable students to understand the basic concepts of legal theory. The themes include: the authority of law (including the obligation to obey the law, civil disobedience, the limits of law); the structure and function of rights; the fundamental values of law (justice, rule of law); the theoretical foundations of legal reasoning (including deductive reasoning, the limits of rule-based decision-making, the institutional aspects of legal reasoning and the explanation of judicial decisions).

LS2528: SUCCESSION AND TRUSTS

7.5 credits

Level 2

Second Sub Session

Students studying for the Aberdeen LLB are required to take this course if they wish to use their degree to enter the Scottish legal profession. The course will examine both testate and intestate succession, in the context of the general principles of the law of succession, including legal rights. Furthermore, it will introduce the functions of trusts, the rights of beneficiaries and the powers and duties of trustees. The course is available only to LLB students in Programme year 2 or above and graduates on the 2 year degree.

LS2531: INTRODUCTION TO SPANISH LAW

5 credits

Level 2

Second Sub Session

Introduction to Spanish Law is designed to introduce students to the institutional structure and some substantive principles of Spanish law. It involves a significant quantity of independent research and the aim of the five seminars is to give students direct help and instruction. The course covers Spanish law and its socio-political context, its sources, and the Spanish legal system. Knowledge of Spanish is desirable but not necessary.

LS2532: PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW

15 credits

Level 2

Second Sub Session

The course examines the relevant solutions to cross-border legal problems of jurisdiction and choice of law for contract, delict and family law.  It takes full account of the relevant international, EU, UK and Scottish sources. It is an exempting course for the Faculty of Advocates exam on private international law. Students will: (a) Acquire an understanding of characterisation, jurisdiction and choice of law with a view to identifying and solving problems that may arise in international cases; (b) Develop an understanding of the importance of connecting factors, eg domicile and habitual residence.

LS2533: BUSINESS LAW

15 credits

Level 2

Second Sub Session

This course is designed to provide non-LLB students with an understanding of the main issues in business law. Topics will cover elements of the Scottish law and legal system concerning Contract Law (including the unfair contract terms), Agency, Delict, Intellectual Property, Trusts, Partnership and Company Law.

LS2535: THE GOVERNANCE OF SCOTLAND

15 credits

Level 2

Second Sub Session

The focus of this level 2 course is the background to, and the significance of, recent developments in the governance of Scotland, together with the implications of proposals for further change. The topics studied include the historical background to the present position; the political factors which led to devolution; the Scotland Act 1998; developments since the implementation of the 1998 Act; the outcome of the referendum and the ongoing debate regarding the governance of Scotland. Because of the topicality of the course, the precise syllabus may be subject to change in the light of developing circumstances.

LS2536: INTRODUCTION TO COMPARATIVE LAW

7.5 credits

Level 2

Second Sub Session

This is a foundational course that introduces students to the two dominant legal traditions of the world - the civil law tradition and the common law tradition. The first half of the course provides an introduction to Comparative Law with a focus on the civil law tradition. The second part of the course is concerned with the common law tradition, whilst exploring also the differences between the Scots and English legal systems. In addition, the course examines the interaction between the civil law tradition and the common law tradition within the European Union.   

LS2537: TORT IN COMPARATIVE CONTEXT

7.5 credits

Level 2

Second Sub Session

The aim of this course, open to students who have already studied the Scots law of delict (and compulsory for those on the ‘Law with English Law’ programme), is to extend their expertise to embrace the English law of torts. More particularly, it aims to provide knowledge and understanding of the conceptual structure of this branch of English law in comparison with the corresponding branch of Scots law, and deals in detail with a few specific areas of tort liability, such as environmental torts, occupiers’ liability and trespass to land.

LS2539: INTRODUCTION TO FRENCH LAW

15 credits

Level 2

Second Sub Session

The course provides an introduction to French Law, both private and public law aspects. It outlines the study of the law in France, the French legal professions, the French court system, the structure of the French legal continental system, the territorial organisation of France, as well as key aspects of French constitutional law, administrative law, contract law and tort liability. Knowledge of French is not necessary. Teaching will be delivered through lectures and seminars. Attendance to both lectures and seminars is compulsory. Assessment is based on the drafting of an essay and an exam.

LS3025: EVIDENCE

15 credits

Level 3

First Sub Session

This course deals with the rules of evidence as they apply in the courtroom. The rules in both criminal and civil cases will be analysed. The legal requirements for leading real evidence, documentary evidence and witness testimony are considered. Topics include: relevancy, the corroboration rule, hearsay evidence, expert evidence, lawyer-client privilege, vulnerable witnesses, confession evidence and search evidence. Debate on the more controversial areas of the subject, such as sexual history evidence and admissibility of previous convictions, is encouraged. The subject is highly topical, controversial and practically important to all lawyers. Assessment is by a mixture of coursework and examination.

LS3027: LAND LAW

15 credits

Level 3

First Sub Session

The course will build upon student's existing knowledge of property law. The course will use the legal issues arising when land is to be commercially developed as a means of teaching a range of topics pertaining to title to land, land registration, the planning system and rights in land. The precise topics selected may vary from year to year.

LS3028: EMPLOYMENT LAW

15 credits

Level 3

First Sub Session

This is a comprehensive introduction to Employment law in the United Kingdom.  Students will examine the myriad of individual rights which have been created by successive governments and supplemented largely by laws from the European Union.   The course will be delivered by a series of 2 hour lectures and online formative assessment.  Each lecture will be recorded and a podcast will be available.   Assessment is by way of one essay and a 2 hour exam.

LS3030: THE LAW OF EQUITY AND TRUSTS OF ENGLAND AND WALES

15 credits

Level 3

First Sub Session

This course considers Equity and Trusts, which in its content,  teaching, and nature of its development makes clear key differences between Scots law and English law.  We will consider the history of Equity and its relationship with the common law;  the meaning,  creation and practical impact of trusts (express, implied, resulting and constructive) with both family disputes and commercial sagas having a key role; charitable and non-charitable purpose trusts; rights of beneficiaries;  appointment and responsibilities of trustees;  fiduciary relationships, and equitable remedies (in particular injunctions, and freezing and search and seize orders). Assessment is by an essay and an exam.   

LS3525: COMMERCIAL AND CONSUMER CONTRACTS

15 credits

Level 3

Second Sub Session

This course examines, through a series of lectures and tutorials, a number of important areas of Scots commercial and consumer law, including the sale and supply of goods and services, the hire of goods, consumer credit and insurance. It also, through lectures, workshops and a presentation, introduces students to the skills and techniques of advocacy in the context of a commercial and/or consumer dispute.

LS3527: JURISPRUDENCE

15 credits

Level 3

Second Sub Session

Jurisprudence is a course in legal theory. The course looks into the major theoretical traditions that shaped legal thinking in the 20th century: legal positivism, the natural law doctrine, legal realism, the economic analysis of law, etc. It is designed to help students develop a self-conscious and reflective attitude to some of the hotly contested issues of modern law, like the relationship between law and morality, or the ways in which legal education is related to the legal practice.

LS3528: CLINICAL LEGAL STUDIES

15 credits

Level 3

Second Sub Session

This level 3 course covers key aspects and challenges relating to the provision of pro bono publico (“for the public good”) legal advice by Scottish law students. It builds on voluntary activity already undertaken by students by encouraging them to reflect on those experiences and highlights legal, ethical and practical issues that may be faced as students and throughout legal practice.  This course can only be taken by students who have a minimum of one year's voluntary work experience with the Aberdeen Law Project.

LS3529: ENGLISH PROPERTY LAW

15 credits

Level 3

Second Sub Session

This course will explore and critically evaluate the concepts of land and property in the law of England and Wales; estates and interests in land (freehold, leasehold, licence, mortgage and easement); freehold covenants; registered and unregistered land and conveyancing of registered land; trusts in land (including co-ownership); adverse possession; landlord and tenant relationships, leasehold covenants, leasehold enfranchisement, and commonhold. 

LS3530: OIL AND GAS: LAW AND GOVERNANCE

15 credits

Level 3

Second Sub Session

Oil and gas are valuable commodities.  They provide a state - and the companies it permits to exploit these commodities - with a source of financial revenue, boost to local economies, potential to secure energy supplies and geo-political power.  This comes at a cost: development of oil and gas assets may be associated with health and safety risk or environmental degradation.  Burning hydrocarbons contributes to climate change.  Oil and gas are finite resources, so the state must face the prospect of decommissioning installations from which oil and gas was produced, and prepare for the time when these assets are gone.

LS4019: CRIMINAL JUSTICE (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course looks in depth at certain of the main aspects of the Scottish criminal justice process, focussing upon its mainly adversarial nature. Some comparisons are drawn with the inquisitorial processes of continental Europe. Topics addressed include: prosecution systems; the position of the accused; the status granted to the victim; plea-bargaining; the trial process; and appeals. The emphasis is not so much on ‘black-letter law’ but on the principles and policies, often clashing, which underlie the detailed legal rules and regulations governing the relevant institutions and processes. 

LS401C: ENVIRONMENTAL LAW (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

Humanity is confronted by an environmental crisis.  Local, regional and global environments are experiencing rapid and accelerating deterioration due to the negative impacts of human activities on them.  The eight seminar course considers the key legal principles that have been developed during the last forty years to address this situation, and looks at ways in which law is used to tackle specific sources of environmental harm including unsustainable uses of land and pollution.  The course will draw from international, European and UK/Scottish law as necessary to provide a comprehensive overview of the areas of law that it examines.

LS401P: INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The course is intended to offer insights into the dynamics of the development of international human rights law. It provides advanced instruction in several key aspects of international human rights law (freedom from torture, freedom of religion, social rights, right to self-determination, etc.) in order to develop a critical understanding of the protection of human rights at the global level. It also seeks to shed light on the way the forces of globalisation and global civil society activism shape the conditions under which human rights law can be created and maintained.

LS4021: AMERICAN CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The aim of this course is to introduce students to American constitutional law through the study of landmark Supreme Court decisions on controversial moral issues. The material on the course will be organised in relation to broad themes that will enable students to develop and refine their understanding of major issues in American Constitutional Law. The themes include abortion; homosexuality and same-sex marriage; freedom of religion; affirmative action. The course will also help students to familiarise themselves with the main approaches to constitutional interpretation.  

LS4025: DISSERTATION

25 credits

Level 4

Both Sessions

This course, taken over both half sessions by final year honours students, and available only to those students, allows you to write a 10,000 word piece on an aspect of law that you choose with the help of a supervisor. Once your topic and plan are approved by the law school you work independently and hand in the dissertation shortly before the Easter Break.   

LS4028: MOVEABLE PROPERTY (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course involves a critical examination of the primary aspects of Scottish corporeal moveable property. The diverse sources reflect an intact historical continuity up to current reform and harmonisation proposals.  The course covers derivative and original acquisition, security and protection.  Douglas Bain, Andrew Simpson and Neil Curtis (cultural property) contribute.The approach to this course is ‘research led’.  Teachers engage with the class on projects they may be engaged in.  An important aim is to stimulate a critical law reform approach in an area in which unanswered questions and priority issues remain.

LS4032: UNJUSTIFIED ENRICHMENT

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The course focuses on the main features of Scots law viewed from a comparative and theoretical perspective. It engages with the recent “revolution” in this area of Scots law and engages critically with the problems that the recent changes have brought about in the case law.

LS4035: CRIMINAL LAW (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The course builds upon the basic understanding of criminal law acquired in LS1020 although it is very important to understand that the topics are approached from a much more theoretical perspective. The course examines in detail selected principles of criminal liability, including the role and limits of the criminal law, the defence of mental disorder, murder, rape, provocation and the limits of excusability. Comparative material from a variety of jurisdictions is included. There are six 2hour seminars, partly run in debate format. The assessment consists in an essay (33%) and an exam (67%).

LS4037: SCOTTISH LEGAL HISTORY (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course provides students with a knowledge and understanding of certain key points in Scottish legal history. Seminar topics have been chosen to show students how to evaluate primary material as well as to engage with academic debate. Students will also in some seminars engage with research projects based at Aberdeen.

LS4039: ANIMAL WELFARE LAW (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course examines the way in which the law regulates the treatment of animals in Britain. Topics include: historical development; legal and moral status of animals; the basis and nature of regulation; the legal and political framework, including the impact of the WTO and the EU; the legal meaning of unnecessary suffering; the scientific concept of animal welfare; enforcement; and legislation relating to animals in specific contexts. Consideration is also given to relevant political, scientific, ethical and commercial issues which influence the substantive law. Students are expected to undertake significant personal research focused on the coursework and pre-released examination questions.

LS4045: RURAL LAW (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This honours course studies aspects of Scots law that are of particular interest to rural and peri-urban Scotland, including private law concerns such as agricultural holdings and crofting law, public law concerns like planning and national parks, and cross-cutting issues like public access to private land and land reform.

LS4047: GOVERNMENT AND LAW (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course concerns the relationship between law and politics in United Kingdom. In view of the highly topical nature of the subject-matter, the specific issues which are focused upon each year are determined by the members of the course, in consultation with the course co-ordinator. Recent examples include: devolution; response to terrorism; the role of the Prime Minister; reform of the House of Lords. In addition to developing an understanding of particular topics, the course places considerable emphasis on developing research and analytical skills.  Students are expected to undertake significant personal research focused on the coursework and pre-released examination questions.

LS4050: EUROPEAN ECONOMIC LAW

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

Historically, markets of the EEC/EU were integrated mainly on the basis of the case law of ECJ/CJEU using fundamental freedoms as a tool. Today, these freedoms are still an important pillar of the economic constitution, but free trade and competition between Member States’ undertakings have to be supported by other policies and the creation of competition in markets that suffer from market failure. This course looks at the integrating function of fundamental freedoms and develops further insights into the essential influence that the European Legal Order has on State domestic legal systems - and also, especially, on the economic systems. 

LS4057: ROMAN LAW (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course focuses on selected areas of Roman law including some in which there has been considerable influence on modern legal systems like that of Scots law.  Part of the purpose of the course is to introduce participants to the neo-humanistic textual study of Roman law but also to evaluate its continuing importance as exemplified in, for example, a leading case like Donoghue v Stevenson. 

LS4065: OIL AND GAS LAW

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The exploration production and transportation of oil and gas gives rise to a host of legal issues.  Issues of private law and public or regulatory law equally arise.  Who (if anyone) owns oil and gas in its natural state?  What legal method does the state utilise to govern the relationship between itself and the private sector oil companies given permission to produce a national asset?  How is health and safety best regulated? How can the state best ensure that the major elements of infrastructure installed on the sea-bed are properly decommissioned?  Teaching is via a combination of lectures and seminars.  

LS4066: COMPANY LAW (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course is useful for students who are interested in consolidating their knowledge of Company Law. It covers a wide variety of topics including the nature and function of limited liability, minority shareholder protection, directors’ duties, company contracts and legal capital. There are numerous career opportunities associated with this course.

LS4067: CORPORATE FINANCE LAW

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This is an optional course at honours level for students interested in how companies finance their business activities and would be suitable for those students seeking to specialise in corporate law.  The course shall examine the law concerning both the financing of small and medium-sized companies and the financing of the largest public limited companies. A reasonable, but not exhaustive list of financing techniques will be studied, including some innovative techniques. The law concerning the raising of finance through the issue of shares and bonds in public markets will also be analysed.

LS4069: CONTRACT LAW (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The course builds upon the basic understanding of contract law acquired in Contract (LS1520), although it is  important to understand that the topics are approached from a more theoretical perspective, and will critically evaluate at an advanced level, a number of themes introduced in LS1520. The course approaches a selection of current problems in contract law doctrine from the theoretical, comparative and philosophical perspectives. The topics  will vary annually but will include the philosophical basis of contract law, contractual formation, good faith, promise,  contractual remedies, factors vitiating consent, contractual interpretation and risk management through contract (exclusion clauses, penalty clauses etc).

LS4070: EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE: JUDICIAL ACTIVISM

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

To engage in critical analysis of the legitimacy of the role of the Court of Justice of the European Union (the CJEU) in making EU Law. In particular to become an expert analyst on the legitimacy of the CJEU’s role in: (a) developing fundamental human rights in Union Law; (b) determining the extent of locus standi of non-privileged applicants; (c) interpreting the scope of mandatory preliminary rulings; (d) determining the effect of EU Directives on the laws of Member States; and (e) developing the exclusive external competence of the EU.

LS4072: LAW, ELECTIONS AND DEMOCRACY

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

Democracy depends upon elections which in turn require to be regulated by law. This course considers the content of those laws and the constitutional processes by which governments, parliaments and courts share the task of regulating elections. It asks how the law could be reformed to improve the quality of our electoral democracy. Topics include voting rights (the prisoner voting ban); controls on candidacy (affirmative action and equality law); regulating money (donations, ‘big money’ and campaign spending); election crimes and corruption (voting fraud);  modernizing the law  (e-voting) and representation (diversity in parliaments; recalling MPs).

LS4078: COMPARATIVE CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

Today there is a global dialogue on constitutionalism, and judges extensively borrow doctrinal concepts and arguments from each other. This makes the study of comparative constitutional law ever more relevant and has contributed to the rapid evolution of the discipline. The aim of this course is to introduce students to the methods and main themes of comparative constitutional law. The topics include constitutional borrowing; federalism; the comparison of presidential and parliamentary governments; the types of judicial review; different approaches to constitutional interpretation; the right to privacy and freedom of religion.  

LS4086: THE LAW OF LEASES IN SCOTLAND

25 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The aim of this course is to ensure that participants can develop a good grounding in an important field of law.  In particular, the course will cover the following topics: The philosophy of the lease; the history of the lease in Scotland; the interaction of common law and statute in the Scottish law of leases; the residential lease – public sector/private sector; recent statutory developments in respect of residential tenancies; agricultural leases; commercial leases; special situations – windfarm leases, long leases, the registration of leases, leases in the form A, B & C → A; endgame situations - recovery, removing, ejection, notices. 

LS4517: CRIMINAL EVIDENCE (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

Criminal Evidence Honours takes an in-depth look at some of the more problematic  areas in the Scots law of criminal evidence, for instance, the admissibility of scientific evidence, corroboration, and hearsay. It adopt s a theoretical and comparative perspective to encourage a critical and reflective examination of these issues. We will be concerned with understanding the principles and policies underlying the law, teasing out the balances which have to be struck in implementing any particular rule. It will be demonstrated that different jurisdictions, both at the domestic and international level, use different solutions to reconcile conflicting principles and policy objectives.

LS451A: COMPARATIVE CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course will discuss corporate governance from comparative and legal policy perspectives. It is aimed at affording students a firm understanding of the theories of Corporate Governance, national systems of corporate governance, Board Structures and Composition, Director Liability, Executive pay and shareholders’ Rights.

LS451K: COPYRIGHT AND ALLIED RIGHTS

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course considers various aspects of copyright law including subject matter, the term of protection, criteria for protection, infringement and defences, and the moral rights of authors. Copyright is of importance given the value of the digital economy and the significance of the cultural industries. In terms of career opportunities, students may practice in large intellectual property firms or provide advice to large entertainment companies etc.

LS451L: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

The course explores patents (right to control an invention) and trade marks (right to control the use of a sign, commonly, but not necessarily, a logo).  We will consider  theoretical arguments for and against them, thresholds which must be met for them to exist and be infringed, the relevant international, regional and UK frameworks and limits on the rights conferred. Particular attention will be paid to contemporary controversies.  We will also consider the various avenues by which these registered rights can be obtained and the relevance of other legal fields to the power conferred.  Assessment is by essay and exam.  

LS451P: VOLUNTARY SCOTLAND: SCOTTISH CHARITIES, CLUBS, COMMUNITY ORGANISATIONS AND UNINCORPORATED ASSOCIATIONS

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

Many students will be members of clubs and societies, and will go on to become board members for clubs and charities, or community organisation chairpersons and secretaries. This course is for them.

Scottish Charities are regulated by OSCR. Rights of local communities to acquire land are enshrined in statute. Clubs flourish and community empowerment has been the subject of legislation in the Scottish Parliament. However, private clubs can exclude women members, and the law accepts this. The form of business model available to community organisations may be problematic. The legal status of unincorporated associations is unclear. That’s our topic.

LS4523: CONVEYANCING (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

The honours conveyancing course examines a selection of issues arising from contemporary property transactions. This will include investigation of the list of real and public rights available in Scots law (the numerus clausus principle) and its possible extension, the identification of how rights are created and transmitted, tenemental property regimes and minerals extraction, boundary disputes and settlement of boundary issues, land registration, real burdens and servitudes, restrictions on the use of land, the use of trusts to emulate real rights, the methods of transmission of property (including missives and electronic conveyancing) and the practical application of conveyancing theory to practice.

LS4529: FAMILY LAW (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course consists of 6 seminars and considers a number of important topics in contemporary Scots family law. An underlying theme is whether the law in these areas is satisfactory or in need of reform, and what shape reform might take. Topics include; the welfare test, divorce law, family mediation, assisted reproduction, adoption and international family relocation. There is a comparative element to some of the seminar topics as relevant Scots law is compared with the position in England and/or other common law jurisdictions. The effects on Scots family law of the European Convention of Human Rights are also explored. 

LS4543: DELICT (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course, builds upon the introduction to Delict provided in LS2025 and examines a number of aspects of the law of delict in greater detail.  Topics will be discussed in a comparative, historical and/or theoretical context.  The specific topics covered will vary on a year-by-year basis as the course aims to examine issues of topical interest.  Some of the topics covered in previous years include: causation; product liability; liability for breach of privacy; liability for pure economic loss; psychiatric injury; advocates' immunity and the liability of the police for negligently-conducted investigations.

LS4547: PLANNING LAW

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course examines the law relating to the highly political topic of urban and rural planning in Scotland. It considers it in the context of history, theory and international / EU developments. The law in Scotland is discussed in detail and examples of plans such as the National Planning Framework and controversial planning applications e.g. Menie Golf Course are drawn on to illustrate the law. There is a body of case law (both English and Scots), intricate legislative provisions and policy sources for all the key areas. Planning Law (Honours) mixes academic refection with practical knowledge.  

LS4553: LAW AND MEDICAL ETHICS

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

Changes in medical technology frequently cause changes in ethical attitudes and in the content of the law. The purpose of this course is to explore the interaction between law, ethics and medicine with an emphasis on the ethical aspects.

LS4557: ADMINISTRATIVE LAW (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course examines the relationship between the law and the exercise of public power.  Topics covered include: consideration of the state in the United Kingdom and its changing nature; the character of public administration and the evolution of administrative law; the development, role and impact of judicial review in both Scotland and England; and non-judicial mechanisms by which public administrative power is regulated, by reference to particular topical case studies.  This is a skill-based course: students are expected to undertake significant personal research focused on the coursework and pre-released examination questions.

LS4561: MEDIA LAW (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

Through a series of seminars, this course engages students with a body of ‘media law’ which covers topics such as the freedom of the press, freedom of expression, access to information, open justice principle on the one hand, and on the other hand, obscene publications, defamation, right to fair trial, right to privacy, and right of publicity.  The focus is on the regulation of media contents.  While the course follows the relevant current developments in the law, it also lays the foundation and the broader social and historical contexts within which these developments take place.

LS4572: MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND THE LAW

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This is an optional course for students interested in the largest and most powerful type of company – the multinational company. This course would be suitable for those students seeking to specialise in corporate law, or oil and gas law.  The course will examine the nature of this cross-border, international corporate entity, why multinationals are difficult to regulate, the inter-group relationships between parent companies and their subsidiary and affiliated companies. Discussion of the role and the liabilities of directors in such multinational corporate groups will also be analysed.

LS4573: CORPORATE INSOLVENCY LAW

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course explores, through seminar discussion, group presentations and the use of an outside speaker, the legal theory and practice relating to selected domestic and international corporate insolvency law issues, currently directors’ duties in the twilight zone, personal liability of directors, disqualification, corporate rescue, the EU Regulation on Insolvency Proceedings and domestic law provisions on international insolvency including the common law, s 426 of the Insolvency Act 1986 and the Cross-Border Insolvency Regulations 2006. Topics may vary according to topicality.

LS4574: EUROPEAN COMPETITION LAW

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course focuses on the complex problems of establishing a correct legal regulation of competitive conditions in the EU. We examine: the economic theory of competition and the difficulties of translating this into effective legal regulation; the operation of Art 101 TFEU in multi-level and other complex markets; current developments within Art 102 TFEU; reform of the public and the private enforcement of EU Competition law.

LS4577: CRIMINOLOGY (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course examines theories that attempt to explain why people act in a deviant or criminal manner. We will consider theories that explain deviance (in whole or in part) as the product of (1) biological features of the deviant; (2) economic forces; (3) environmental conditions; and (4) the 'labels' social groups assign to certain types of conduct. We will also look at the means by which criminal statistics are gathered, and the extent to which they are accurate. The course is taught through seven 1hour lectures and six 1hour seminars. There is one assessed essay (33%) and an exam (67%).

LS4579: RENEWABLE ENERGY LAW (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

A transition from reliance on fossil fuels to low-carbon renewable energy is essential for mitigating climate change and for making energy supplies more sustainable. The course considers the challenges and concerns that this fundamental change in the nature of energy supplies gives rise to, and explores law’s role in addressing them. The course examines the legal regimes for promoting renewable energy at international, EU and UK levels, and considers how law can be used to address significant constraints on the growth of renewable energy including difficulties with grid access and public opposition to wind energy development.

LS4584: THE USE OF FORCE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

The course analyses how international law regulates the use of force between States. The course will first study the fundamental principle of the prohibition on the use of force between States. It will then examine the current exceptions to this principle, and how States try to justify the use of force. In doing so, the course will study the most recent recourses to force on the international plane, in particular in Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Syria, and Ukraine. Teaching will be delivered through discussion based seminars and lectures. Assessment is based on the drafting of an essay and an exam.

LS4586: EMPLOYMENT LAW (HONOURS)

25 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course is open to students who have studied Employment Law at Level 3.  There will be 7 x 2 hour Seminars.  Assessment is by way of 3000 word essay and an exam.   The Seminars will examine the principles underpinning a select few areas of employment law, in particular constructive dismissal, discrimination, the reach of employment law to UK citizens working abroad and the right of trade unions to take industrial action.  We will also examine the controversial EU Directive on the regulation of working time and the continuing difficulties the UK is experiencing in transposing this into UK law.

LX4019: CRIMINAL JUSTICE (HONOURS)

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course looks in depth at certain of the main aspects of the Scottish criminal justice process, focussing upon its mainly adversarial nature. Some comparisons are drawn with the inquisitorial processes of continental Europe. Topics addressed include: prosecution systems; the position of the accused; the status granted to the victim; plea-bargaining; the trial process; and appeals. The emphasis is not so much on ‘black-letter law’ but on the principles and policies, often clashing, which underlie the detailed legal rules and regulations governing the relevant institutions and processes.

LX401C: ENVIRONMENTAL LAW (HONOURS)

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

Humanity is confronted by an environmental crisis.  Local, regional and global environments are experiencing rapid and accelerating deterioration due to the negative impacts of human activities on them.  The eight seminar course considers the key legal principles that have been developed during the last forty years to address this situation, and looks at ways in which law is used to tackle specific sources of environmental harm including unsustainable uses of land and pollution.  The course will draw from international, European and UK/Scottish law as necessary to provide a comprehensive overview of the areas of law that it examines.

LX401P: INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The course is intended to offer insights into the dynamics of the development of international human rights law. It provides advanced instruction in several key aspects of international human rights law (freedom from torture, freedom of religion, social rights, right to self-determination, etc.) in order to develop a critical understanding of the protection of human rights at the global level. It also seeks to shed light on the way the forces of globalisation and global civil society activism shape the conditions under which human rights law can be created and maintained.

LX4021: AMERICAN CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The aim of this course is to introduce students to American constitutional law through the study of landmark Supreme Court decisions on controversial moral issues. The material on the course will be organised in relation to broad themes that will enable students to develop and refine their understanding of major issues in American Constitutional Law. The themes include abortion; homosexuality and same-sex marriage; freedom of religion; affirmative action. The course will also help students to familiarise themselves with the main approaches to constitutional interpretation.  

LX4025: DISSERTATION

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course, that is only available to final year honours students, allows you to write a 10,000 word piece on an aspect of law that you choose with the help of a supervisor. Once your topic and plan are approved by the law school you work independently and hand in the dissertation shortly before the Easter Break.

LX4035: CRIMINAL LAW (HONOURS)

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The course builds upon the basic understanding of criminal law acquired in LS1020 although it is very important to understand that the topics are approached from a much more theoretical perspective. The course examines in detail selected principles of criminal liability, including the role and limits of the criminal law, the defence of mental disorder, murder, rape, provocation and the limits of excusability. Comparative material from a variety of jurisdictions is included. There are six 2hour seminars, partly run in debate format. The assessment consists in an essay (33%) and an exam (67%).

LX4037: SCOTTISH LEGAL HISTORY (HONOURS)

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course provides students with a knowledge and understanding of certain key points in Scottish legal history from the 14th to the 18th centuries. Seminar topics have been chosen to show students how to evaluate primary material as well as to engage with academic debate. Students will also in some seminars engage with the research projects based at Aberdeen.

LX4039: ANIMAL WELFARE LAW (HONOURS)

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course examines the way in which the law regulates the treatment of animals in Britain. Topics include: historical development; legal and moral status of animals; the basis and nature of regulation; the legal and political framework, including the impact of the WTO and the EU; the legal meaning of unnecessary suffering; the scientific concept of animal welfare; enforcement; and legislation relating to animals in specific contexts. Consideration is also given to relevant political, scientific, ethical and commercial issues which influence the substantive law. Students are expected to undertake significant personal research focused on the coursework and pre-released examination questions.

LX4047: GOVERNMENT AND LAW (HONOURS)

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course concerns the relationship between law and politics in United Kingdom. In view of the highly topical nature of the subject-matter, the specific issues which are focused upon each year are determined by the members of the course, in consultation with the course co-ordinator. Recent examples include: devolution; response to terrorism; the role of the Prime Minister; reform of the House of Lords. In addition to developing an understanding of particular topics, the course places considerable emphasis on developing research and analytical skills.  Students are expected to undertake significant personal research focused on the coursework and pre-released examination questions.

LX4050: EUROPEAN ECONOMIC LAW

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

Historically, markets of the EEC/EU were integrated mainly on the basis of the case law of ECJ/CJEU using fundamental freedoms as a tool. Today, these freedoms are still an important pillar of the economic constitution, but free trade and competition between Member States’ undertakings have to be supported by other policies and the creation of competition in markets that suffer from market failure. This course looks at the integrating function of fundamental freedoms and develops further insights into the essential influence that the European Legal Order has on State domestic legal systems - and also, especially, on the economic systems. 

LX4065: OIL AND GAS LAW

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

The exploration production and transportation of oil and gas gives rise to a host of legal issues.  Issues of private law and public or regulatory law equally arise.  Who (if anyone) owns oil and gas in its natural state?  What legal method does the state utilise to govern the relationship between itself and the private sector oil companies given permission to produce a national asset?  How is health and safety best regulated? How can the state best ensure that the major elements of infrastructure installed on the sea-bed are properly decommissioned?  Teaching is via a combination of lectures and seminars.  

LX4066: COMPANY LAW (HONOURS)

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course is useful for students who are interested in consolidating their knowledge of Company Law. It covers a wide variety of topics including the nature and function of limited liability, minority shareholder protection, directors’ duties, company contracts and legal capital. There are numerous career opportunities associated with this course.

LX4067: CORPORATE FINANCE LAW

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This is an optional course at honours level for students interested in how companies finance their business activities and would be suitable for those students seeking to specialise in corporate law.  The course shall examine the law concerning both the financing of small and medium-sized companies and the financing of the largest public limited companies. A reasonable, but not exhaustive list of financing techniques will be studied, including some innovative techniques. The law concerning the raising of finance through the issue of shares and bonds in public markets will also be analysed.

LX4070: EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE: JUDICIAL ACTIVISM

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

To engage in critical analysis of the legitimacy of the role of the Court of Justice of the European Union (the CJEU) in making EU Law. In particular to become an expert analyst on the legitimacy of the CJEU’s role in: (a) developing fundamental human rights in Union Law; (b) determining the extent of locus standi of non-privileged applicants; (c) interpreting the scope of mandatory preliminary rulings; (d) determining the effect of EU Directives on the laws of Member States; and (e) developing the exclusive external competence of the EU.

LX4072: LAW, ELECTIONS AND DEMOCRACY

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

This course is about the constitutional laws governing elections in the UK. It considers the links between those laws and ideas about how democracy is organised. Seminar discussions are based on prescribed reading covering legal doctrine and scholarship commenting on the principles underlying the law. Issues discussed include: who should have the ‘human’ right to vote? How should the use of money in elections be regulated? Are political parties adequately regulated by election law? What is the rationale for criminalising certain conduct at elections? Those questions are considered in the context of current UK legislation and case law on elections.

LX4078: COMPARATIVE CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

30 credits

Level 4

First Sub Session

Today there is a global dialogue on constitutionalism, and judges extensively borrow doctrinal concepts and arguments from each other. This makes the study of comparative constitutional law ever more relevant and has contributed to the rapid evolution of the discipline. The aim of this course is to introduce students to the methods and main themes of comparative constitutional law. The topics include constitutional borrowing; federalism; the comparison of presidential and parliamentary governments; the types of judicial review; different approaches to constitutional interpretation; the right to privacy and freedom of religion.  

LX451A: COMPARATIVE CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course will discuss corporate governance from comparative and legal policy perspectives. It is aimed at affording students a firm understanding of the theories of Corporate Governance, national systems of corporate governance, Board Structures and Composition, Director Liability, Executive pay and shareholders’ Rights.

LX451K: COPYRIGHT AND ALLIED RIGHTS

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course considers various aspects of copyright law including subject matter, the term of protection, criteria for protection, infringement and defences, and the moral rights of authors. Copyright is of importance given the value of the digital economy and the significance of the cultural industries. In terms of career opportunities, students may practice in large intellectual property firms or provide advice to large entertainment companies etc.

LX451L: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

The course explores patents (right to control an invention) and trade marks (right to control the use of a sign, commonly, but not necessarily, a logo).  We will consider  theoretical arguments for and against them, thresholds which must be met for them to exist and be infringed, the relevant international, regional and UK frameworks and limits on the rights conferred. Particular attention will be paid to contemporary controversies.  We will also consider the various avenues by which these registered rights can be obtained and the relevance of other legal fields to the power conferred.  Assessment is by essay and exam.  

LX451P: VOLUNTARY SCOTLAND: SCOTTISH CHARITIES, CLUBS, COMMUNITY ORGANISATIONS AND UNINCORPORATED ASSOCIATIONS

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

Many students will be members of clubs and societies, and will go on to become board members for clubs and charities, or community organisation chairpersons and secretaries. This course is for them.

Scottish Charities are regulated by OSCR. Rights of local communities to acquire land are enshrined in statute. Clubs flourish and community empowerment has been the subject of legislation in the Scottish Parliament. However, private clubs can exclude women members, and the law accepts this. The form of business model available to community organisations may be problematic. The legal status of unincorporated associations is unclear. That’s our topic.

LX4543: DELICT (HONOURS)

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course, available only to Honours LLB students, builds upon the introduction to Delict provided in LS2025 and examines a number of aspects of the law of delict in greater detail.  Topics will be discussed in a comparative, historical and/or theoretical context.  The specific topics covered will vary on a year-by-year basis as the course aims to examine issues of topical interest.  Some of the topics covered in previous years include: causation; product liability; liability for breach of privacy; liability for pure economic loss; psychiatric injury; advocates' immunity and the liability of the police for negligently-conducted investigations.

LX4545: INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS IN EU LAW (SELECTED TOPICS)

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course examines particular topics of EU Law, which may vary from year to year. Topics covered include EU Citizenship, Human Rights and EU Law including article 6 and 8 of the ECHR.

LX4547: PLANNING LAW

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course examines the law relating to the highly political topic of urban and rural planning in Scotland. It considers it in the context of history, theory and international / EU developments. The law in Scotland is discussed in detail and examples of plans such as the National Planning Framework and controversial planning applications e.g. Menie Golf Course are drawn on to illustrate the law. There is a body of case law (both English and Scots), intricate legislative provisions and policy sources for all the key areas. Planning Law (Honours) mixes academic refection with practical knowledge.  

LX4553: LAW AND MEDICAL ETHICS

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

Changes in medical technology frequently cause changes in ethical attitudes and in the content of the law. The purpose of this course is to explore the interaction between law, ethics and medicine with an emphasis on the ethical aspects.

LX4557: ADMINISTRATIVE LAW (HONOURS)

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course examines the relationship between the law and the exercise of public power.  Topics covered include: consideration of the state in the United Kingdom and its changing nature; the character of public administration and the evolution of administrative law; the development, role and impact of judicial review in both Scotland and England; and non-judicial mechanisms by which public administrative power is regulated, by reference to particular topical case studies.  This is a skill-based course: students are expected to undertake significant personal research focused on the coursework and pre-released examination questions.

LX4561: MEDIA LAW (HONOURS)

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

Through a series of seminars, this course engages students with a body of ‘media law’ which covers topics such as the freedom of the press, freedom of expression, access to information, open justice principle on the one hand, and on the other hand, obscene publications, defamation, right to fair trial, right to privacy, and right of publicity.  The focus is on the regulation of media contents.  While the course follows the relevant current developments in the law, it also lays the foundation and the broader social and historical contexts within which these developments take place.

LX4572: MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND THE LAW

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This is an optional course for students interested in the largest and most powerful type of company – the multinational company. This course would be suitable for those students seeking to specialise in corporate law, or oil and gas law.  The course will examine the nature of this cross-border, international corporate entity, why multinationals are difficult to regulate, the inter-group relationships between parent companies and their subsidiary and affiliated companies. Discussion of the role and the liabilities of directors in such multinational corporate groups will also be analysed.

LX4573: CORPORATE INSOLVENCY LAW

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course explores, through seminar discussion, group presentations and the use of an outside speaker, the legal theory and practice relating to selected domestic and international corporate insolvency law issues, currently directors’ duties in the twilight zone, personal liability of directors, disqualification, corporate rescue, the EU Regulation on Insolvency Proceedings and domestic law provisions on international insolvency including the common law, s 426 of the Insolvency Act 1986 and the Cross-Border Insolvency Regulations 2006. Topics may vary according to topicality.

LX4577: CRIMINOLOGY (HONOURS)

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

This course examines theories that attempt to explain why people act in a deviant or criminal manner. We will consider theories that explain deviance (in whole or in part) as the product of (1) biological features of the deviant; (2) economic forces; (3) environmental conditions; and (4) the 'labels' social groups assign to certain types of conduct. We will also look at the means by which criminal statistics are gathered, and the extent to which they are accurate. The course is taught through seven 1hour lectures and six 1hour seminars. There is one assessed essay (33%) and an exam (67%).

LX4579: RENEWABLE ENERGY LAW (HONOURS)

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

A transition from reliance on fossil fuels to low-carbon renewable energy is essential for mitigating climate change and for making energy supplies more sustainable. The course considers the challenges and concerns that this fundamental change in the nature of energy supplies gives rise to, and explores law’s role in addressing them. The course examines the legal regimes for promoting renewable energy at international, EU and UK levels, and considers how law can be used to address significant constraints on the growth of renewable energy including difficulties with grid access and public opposition to wind energy development.

LX4584: THE USE OF FORCE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW (HONOURS)

30 credits

Level 4

Second Sub Session

The course analyses how international law regulates the use of force between States. The course will first study the fundamental principle of the prohibition on the use of force between States. It will then examine the current exceptions to this principle, and how States try to justify the use of force. In doing so, the course will study the most recent recourses to force on the international plane, in particular in Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq, and Libya. Teaching will be delivered through discussion based seminars. Assessment is based on the drafting of an essay and an exam.

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