The Aberdeen Bestiary

Folio 99v - Decimum crisopassus; The tenth, chrysoprase. Undecimum Iacinctus; The eleventh, hyacinth


Translation Open Book View Download image for personal, teaching or research purposes Help Copyright

Help

To explore the image, simply click the image to zoom, double-click to zoom out, or click-drag to pan. You can also zoom in and out using the mouse scroll wheel.

Shortcuts

(Alt is Option on Macintosh)

  • Alt-click-drag to create a zoom-rectangle
  • Alt-click / Alt-double-click to zoom fully in / out
  • Alt-click-Reset button to return to the prior view

The thumbnail view in the top left can also be clicked or click-dragged to pan.

Keyboard shortcuts:

  • a to zoom in
  • z to zoom out
  • Arrow keys pan arround the image
  • Escape resets initial view or exits fullscreen

Toolbar buttons

Use the Toolbar for exact navigation - if using a mouse, hold it over any button to see a helpful tip.


Zoom out

Zoom in

Pan left

Pan right

Pan up

Pan down

Reset Image

Full screen view

View translation alongside image

View double page - bi folio

Download image for personal, research or teaching purposes

Help

Commentary, Translation and Transcription

These sections are located below the image on each page, scroll down page and click on the tabs to view them. It is also possible to view the translation alongside the image by clicking the translation icon in the toolbar

It is not part of the project to provide a definitive edition of the text of the Bestiary, but to help readers by providing a transcription and translation of the text. Currently the following editorial conventions obtain:

Text

  1. The original capitalisation is retained, but capitals have been added for personal and place names, excluding deus and diabolus.
  2. The original punctuation, including a point and inverted semi-colon (both serving as commas), and a point (serving as a full stop), is represented by comma, full stop and question-mark; a colon has been inserted before quotations.
  3. Suggested readings are in [ ].
  4. Variants from other Bestiary texts (eg Ashmole 1511 and Patrologia Latina 176) are added where they indicate a corruption, elucidate a meaning and replace excised text. They are represented as [A: PL:]

Translation

  1. Direct quotations from the Bible, where identified, are cited from the Authorised Version in ( ).
  2. Paraphrased quotations are identified where possible and indicated as: (see Job, 18:22).
  3. Suggested translations of corrupt words are in [ ].
  4. Capitalisation is sparing; additional punctuation has been used where necessary to give the sense. Paragraphs have been created to break up the text.
The tenth, chrysoprase The tenth foundation is chrysoprase. This stone, according to Isidorus, comes from India, and is purple in colour with separate, small gold marks; for this reason it gets its name crisopassus, 'scattered everywhere with gold'. It signifies desire of the the heavenly land, which burns the more brightly, the more it is affected by tribulation, because, as Gregory says: 'What a bellows does to coal, tribulation does to love.' Chrisoprase is placed in the tenth position, because holy men, in their desire for heaven, hasten to reach the tenth order of angels by observing the ten commandments. The tenth order is the one which will be renewed from men. In this context, man is called, in Luke, 15, the tenth piece of silver which the woman searched for and found (see 15:8-10). Verse India, its home, sends us the stone called chrysoprase. It shines with the sap of the leek and is of mixed colour, tinted with purple and marked with gold. The eleventh, hyacinth The eleventh foundation is hyacinth. This stone changes in accordance with the weather: on clear days, it is transparent; when the sky is overcast, it is opaque. For this reason it signifies the judgement of holy men, who use it, as the Lord did, to adapt to all conditions of life, in order to win the hearts of all men; as the apostle says, 1 Corinthians, 9: 'I am made all things to all men, that I might by all means save all' (see 9:22); Romans, 12: ' Rejoice with them that do rejoice, and weep with them that weep' (12:15). This virtue enables holy teachers to know what, to whom, when and how to preach. This stone is placed in the eleventh position, because through it, especially, all manner of sin is avoided. Verse The learned say that there are three kinds of hyacinth. The best is the kind whose colour is not so dense as to be obscure or so light as to be transparent but has a purple, myrtle-like bloom drawn from both parts of the spectrum.

Text

Chrisoprase and hyacinth.

Comment

Initials type 4.

Folio Attributes

  • Initial Type 4

    Initial Type 4

    Initial Type 4
    Type 4 initial. Detail from f.96v

    Type 4 initials are red or blue. On any given page they alternate red and blue regularly. Blue initials are embellished with red tassels and vice versa. The colouring and form of the letters is not very even and appears rather hurried in places. In the Bestiary proper, they appear on f.79v and f.80r. Thereafter this is the basic initial used in the thirteenth-century Lapidary addition, found from f.94r onwards. This suggests that gaps left in the twelfth-century text on ff. 79v and 80r were filled in when the book was completed in the later thirteenth century. The poor quality of the later work is apparent from f.94r onwards, and is apparent on f.79v where the wrong capital ‘U’ was inserted and later corrected to ‘F’ for Fagus, the beech tree.

Transcription

Decimum crisopassus \ Decimum crisopassus.\ Hic lapis secundum Isydorum, Indicus est, et coloris pur\purei, guttulis distinctis aureis, unde et nomen recipit\ crisopassus, quasi passim habens aurum, et significat desiderium\ celestis patrie, quod quanto plus tribulacionibus excu\titur, tanto amplius accenditur, quia ut dicit Gregorius: Quod\ flatus carboni, hic facit tribulacio caritati et unde de\cimo loco ponitur quia sancti per desiderium, ad decimum or\dinem angelorum per observanciam decalogi venire\ festinant, decimus ordo dicitur, qui ex hominibus restau\rabitur, unde et homo dicitur Luce, xv: Decima dragma quam mu\lier querens invenit. \ Versus \ Et crissopassum lapi\dem domus India mittit. Hic priori [porri] suctum [succum] refe\rens mixtusque colore, Aureolis guctis [guttis] retinet quasi pur\pura tincta. \ Undecimum Iacinctus \ Undecimum iacinctus. His lapis cum aere mutatur\ in sereno prospicuus [perspicuus] est in nubilo obscurus est, unde\ significat discrecionem sanctorum, per quam secundum dominum omnibus se con\formant, ut omnes lucrifaciant, sicut dicit apostolus, i Corinthios, ix: Omnibus omnia factus sum ut omnes faceret [facarem] salvos; Romanos, xii\ gaudete [gaudere] cum gaudentibus flere cum flentibus; per hanc\ etiam virtutem sciunt sancti doctores quid, quibus, quando, et qualiter\ predicandum. Hic undecimo loco ponitur, quia per hanc\ maxime transgressio omnis vitatur. \ Versus \ Iacincti species\ docti tres esse loquuntur. Optimus huic tenor est quem\ non aut densior equo, Obscurat suctus [succus] aut rarus perspi\cium dat, Set flos purpureus murtum componit utroque\

Translation

The tenth, chrysoprase The tenth foundation is chrysoprase. This stone, according to Isidorus, comes from India, and is purple in colour with separate, small gold marks; for this reason it gets its name crisopassus, 'scattered everywhere with gold'. It signifies desire of the the heavenly land, which burns the more brightly, the more it is affected by tribulation, because, as Gregory says: 'What a bellows does to coal, tribulation does to love.' Chrisoprase is placed in the tenth position, because holy men, in their desire for heaven, hasten to reach the tenth order of angels by observing the ten commandments. The tenth order is the one which will be renewed from men. In this context, man is called, in Luke, 15, the tenth piece of silver which the woman searched for and found (see 15:8-10). Verse India, its home, sends us the stone called chrysoprase. It shines with the sap of the leek and is of mixed colour, tinted with purple and marked with gold. The eleventh, hyacinth The eleventh foundation is hyacinth. This stone changes in accordance with the weather: on clear days, it is transparent; when the sky is overcast, it is opaque. For this reason it signifies the judgement of holy men, who use it, as the Lord did, to adapt to all conditions of life, in order to win the hearts of all men; as the apostle says, 1 Corinthians, 9: 'I am made all things to all men, that I might by all means save all' (see 9:22); Romans, 12: ' Rejoice with them that do rejoice, and weep with them that weep' (12:15). This virtue enables holy teachers to know what, to whom, when and how to preach. This stone is placed in the eleventh position, because through it, especially, all manner of sin is avoided. Verse The learned say that there are three kinds of hyacinth. The best is the kind whose colour is not so dense as to be obscure or so light as to be transparent but has a purple, myrtle-like bloom drawn from both parts of the spectrum.
  • Commentary

    Text

    Chrisoprase and hyacinth.

    Comment

    Initials type 4.

    Folio Attributes

    • Initial Type 4

      Initial Type 4

      Initial Type 4
      Type 4 initial. Detail from f.96v

      Type 4 initials are red or blue. On any given page they alternate red and blue regularly. Blue initials are embellished with red tassels and vice versa. The colouring and form of the letters is not very even and appears rather hurried in places. In the Bestiary proper, they appear on f.79v and f.80r. Thereafter this is the basic initial used in the thirteenth-century Lapidary addition, found from f.94r onwards. This suggests that gaps left in the twelfth-century text on ff. 79v and 80r were filled in when the book was completed in the later thirteenth century. The poor quality of the later work is apparent from f.94r onwards, and is apparent on f.79v where the wrong capital ‘U’ was inserted and later corrected to ‘F’ for Fagus, the beech tree.

  • Translation
    The tenth, chrysoprase The tenth foundation is chrysoprase. This stone, according to Isidorus, comes from India, and is purple in colour with separate, small gold marks; for this reason it gets its name crisopassus, 'scattered everywhere with gold'. It signifies desire of the the heavenly land, which burns the more brightly, the more it is affected by tribulation, because, as Gregory says: 'What a bellows does to coal, tribulation does to love.' Chrisoprase is placed in the tenth position, because holy men, in their desire for heaven, hasten to reach the tenth order of angels by observing the ten commandments. The tenth order is the one which will be renewed from men. In this context, man is called, in Luke, 15, the tenth piece of silver which the woman searched for and found (see 15:8-10). Verse India, its home, sends us the stone called chrysoprase. It shines with the sap of the leek and is of mixed colour, tinted with purple and marked with gold. The eleventh, hyacinth The eleventh foundation is hyacinth. This stone changes in accordance with the weather: on clear days, it is transparent; when the sky is overcast, it is opaque. For this reason it signifies the judgement of holy men, who use it, as the Lord did, to adapt to all conditions of life, in order to win the hearts of all men; as the apostle says, 1 Corinthians, 9: 'I am made all things to all men, that I might by all means save all' (see 9:22); Romans, 12: ' Rejoice with them that do rejoice, and weep with them that weep' (12:15). This virtue enables holy teachers to know what, to whom, when and how to preach. This stone is placed in the eleventh position, because through it, especially, all manner of sin is avoided. Verse The learned say that there are three kinds of hyacinth. The best is the kind whose colour is not so dense as to be obscure or so light as to be transparent but has a purple, myrtle-like bloom drawn from both parts of the spectrum.
  • Transcription
    Decimum crisopassus \ Decimum crisopassus.\ Hic lapis secundum Isydorum, Indicus est, et coloris pur\purei, guttulis distinctis aureis, unde et nomen recipit\ crisopassus, quasi passim habens aurum, et significat desiderium\ celestis patrie, quod quanto plus tribulacionibus excu\titur, tanto amplius accenditur, quia ut dicit Gregorius: Quod\ flatus carboni, hic facit tribulacio caritati et unde de\cimo loco ponitur quia sancti per desiderium, ad decimum or\dinem angelorum per observanciam decalogi venire\ festinant, decimus ordo dicitur, qui ex hominibus restau\rabitur, unde et homo dicitur Luce, xv: Decima dragma quam mu\lier querens invenit. \ Versus \ Et crissopassum lapi\dem domus India mittit. Hic priori [porri] suctum [succum] refe\rens mixtusque colore, Aureolis guctis [guttis] retinet quasi pur\pura tincta. \ Undecimum Iacinctus \ Undecimum iacinctus. His lapis cum aere mutatur\ in sereno prospicuus [perspicuus] est in nubilo obscurus est, unde\ significat discrecionem sanctorum, per quam secundum dominum omnibus se con\formant, ut omnes lucrifaciant, sicut dicit apostolus, i Corinthios, ix: Omnibus omnia factus sum ut omnes faceret [facarem] salvos; Romanos, xii\ gaudete [gaudere] cum gaudentibus flere cum flentibus; per hanc\ etiam virtutem sciunt sancti doctores quid, quibus, quando, et qualiter\ predicandum. Hic undecimo loco ponitur, quia per hanc\ maxime transgressio omnis vitatur. \ Versus \ Iacincti species\ docti tres esse loquuntur. Optimus huic tenor est quem\ non aut densior equo, Obscurat suctus [succus] aut rarus perspi\cium dat, Set flos purpureus murtum componit utroque\
Folio 99v - Decimum crisopassus; The tenth, chrysoprase. Undecimum Iacinctus; The eleventh, hyacinth | The Aberdeen Bestiary | The University of Aberdeen