The Aberdeen Bestiary

Folio 98v - sard, continued. Septimus crisolitus; The seventh, chrysolite. Octavus Berillus; The eighth, beryl


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Commentary, Translation and Transcription

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It is not part of the project to provide a definitive edition of the text of the Bestiary, but to help readers by providing a transcription and translation of the text. Currently the following editorial conventions obtain:

Text

  1. The original capitalisation is retained, but capitals have been added for personal and place names, excluding deus and diabolus.
  2. The original punctuation, including a point and inverted semi-colon (both serving as commas), and a point (serving as a full stop), is represented by comma, full stop and question-mark; a colon has been inserted before quotations.
  3. Suggested readings are in [ ].
  4. Variants from other Bestiary texts (eg Ashmole 1511 and Patrologia Latina 176) are added where they indicate a corruption, elucidate a meaning and replace excised text. They are represented as [A: PL:]

Translation

  1. Direct quotations from the Bible, where identified, are cited from the Authorised Version in ( ).
  2. Paraphrased quotations are identified where possible and indicated as: (see Job, 18:22).
  3. Suggested translations of corrupt words are in [ ].
  4. Capitalisation is sparing; additional punctuation has been used where necessary to give the sense. Paragraphs have been created to break up the text.
and for that reason it is placed in the sixth position, because Christ in the sixth age and on the sixth day consecrated his martyrdom with his blood. Verse The sard gets its name from Sardis where it was first found. It gets its name from its reddish colour. The seventh, chrysolite The seventh foundation, chrysolite, is similar in colour to gold. For this reason its name comes from crisis [chrysos], which means 'gold'; it seems to give out glittering sparks, as the Glossator says; and it signifies wisdom, which exceeds all other gifts, just as gold exceeds all other metals. Wisdom, through the medium of preaching, gives out glittering sparks, that is, encouragement and doctrine, setting alight the hearts of those who hear them. In this context, Ezekiel 1, on the sacred animals: 'They sparkled like the colour of burnished brass' (1:7); The Wisdom of Solomon, 3: 'The righteous shall shine and run to and fro like sparks among the stubble' (see 3:1,7). This stone is placed in the seventh position, because it holds the seventh place in order of ascendancy among the gifts of the holy spirit. Verse Chrysolite shines like gold and flashes like fire. It is similar to the sea, displaying something of its green colour. We read that the Ethiopians send us this stone. The eighth, beryl The eighth foundation is beryl. This stone is polished into a hexagonal shape; it shines like water struck by the sun; it is also said to be of such heat that it warms the hand of the holder; and it signifies the virtue of mercy. Mercy operates in six ways, warming the cold hearts of the infirm to a love of God and one's neighbour, according to Proverbs, 25: 'If thine enemy be hungry, give him bread to eat; and if he thirsty give him water to drink: For thou shalt heap coals of fire upon his head' (25:21-23). Matthew, 5: 'Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works and glorify your Father which is in heaven' (5:16). This virtue is placed in the eighth position, because not here but in the eighth age

Text

Chrisolite and beryl.

Comment

Initials type 4.

Folio Attributes

  • Initial Type 4

    Initial Type 4

    Initial Type 4
    Type 4 initial. Detail from f.96v

    Type 4 initials are red or blue. On any given page they alternate red and blue regularly. Blue initials are embellished with red tassels and vice versa. The colouring and form of the letters is not very even and appears rather hurried in places. In the Bestiary proper, they appear on f.79v and f.80r. Thereafter this is the basic initial used in the thirteenth-century Lapidary addition, found from f.94r onwards. This suggests that gaps left in the twelfth-century text on ff. 79v and 80r were filled in when the book was completed in the later thirteenth century. The poor quality of the later work is apparent from f.94r onwards, and is apparent on f.79v where the wrong capital ‘U’ was inserted and later corrected to ‘F’ for Fagus, the beech tree.

Transcription

suum fuderunt, et ideo sexto loco ponitur, quia Christus\ sexta etate et sexto die sanguine suo martyrium con\ secravit. \ Versus \ Sardius a Sardis est a quibus ante repertus.\ Sortitus nomen rubei solet esse coloris. \ Septimus crisolitus \ Septimus crisolitus auro simile in colore,\ unde dicitur a crisis quod est aurum, et sintillas ardentes\ videtur a[e]mittere ut dicit Glossator, et significat sapienciam, que omnia\ dona superat, sicut aurum omnia in metalla, que pre\dicando scintillas ardentes emittit, id est exhortaciones\ et iustificaciones [instruciones], corda audientium inflamantes.\ Unde Ezekieli primo dicitur de sanctis animalibus: Scintille quasi aspectu eris\ ca[n]dentis; Sapiencie iii: Fulgebunt iusti et tanquam scintille in\ arundineto discurrent. Hic septimo loco ponitur, quia inter\ dona sancti spiritus locum tenet septimum ascendendo. \ Versus \ Auro crisolitus micat et scintillat ut ignis. Iste mari\ simile quiddamque viroris adumbrans. Ethiopes le\gimus nobis hanc mittere gemmam. \ Octavus Berillus \ Octavum berillus. Hic lapis in sexangulam for\mam politus, lucet quasi aqua sole percussa, qui etiam\ tante caliditas [caliditatis] dicitur esse, ut calefaciat manum tenen\tis et significat virtutem misericordie que sex operibus se exercet\ corda frigida hominum infirmorum calefaciens in amo\rem dei et proximi iuxta id Proverbiorum, xxv: Si esurierit inimicus tu\ us ciba illum. Si sitit, potum da ei, sic enim faciens con\geres carbonum super caput eius. Mattheus, v: Sic luceat lux vestra\ coram hominibus, ut videant opera vestra bona, et glorificent patrem vestrum qui in celis est.\ Hic virtus octavo loco ponitur, quia non hic sed in octava eta\

Translation

and for that reason it is placed in the sixth position, because Christ in the sixth age and on the sixth day consecrated his martyrdom with his blood. Verse The sard gets its name from Sardis where it was first found. It gets its name from its reddish colour. The seventh, chrysolite The seventh foundation, chrysolite, is similar in colour to gold. For this reason its name comes from crisis [chrysos], which means 'gold'; it seems to give out glittering sparks, as the Glossator says; and it signifies wisdom, which exceeds all other gifts, just as gold exceeds all other metals. Wisdom, through the medium of preaching, gives out glittering sparks, that is, encouragement and doctrine, setting alight the hearts of those who hear them. In this context, Ezekiel 1, on the sacred animals: 'They sparkled like the colour of burnished brass' (1:7); The Wisdom of Solomon, 3: 'The righteous shall shine and run to and fro like sparks among the stubble' (see 3:1,7). This stone is placed in the seventh position, because it holds the seventh place in order of ascendancy among the gifts of the holy spirit. Verse Chrysolite shines like gold and flashes like fire. It is similar to the sea, displaying something of its green colour. We read that the Ethiopians send us this stone. The eighth, beryl The eighth foundation is beryl. This stone is polished into a hexagonal shape; it shines like water struck by the sun; it is also said to be of such heat that it warms the hand of the holder; and it signifies the virtue of mercy. Mercy operates in six ways, warming the cold hearts of the infirm to a love of God and one's neighbour, according to Proverbs, 25: 'If thine enemy be hungry, give him bread to eat; and if he thirsty give him water to drink: For thou shalt heap coals of fire upon his head' (25:21-23). Matthew, 5: 'Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works and glorify your Father which is in heaven' (5:16). This virtue is placed in the eighth position, because not here but in the eighth age
  • Commentary

    Text

    Chrisolite and beryl.

    Comment

    Initials type 4.

    Folio Attributes

    • Initial Type 4

      Initial Type 4

      Initial Type 4
      Type 4 initial. Detail from f.96v

      Type 4 initials are red or blue. On any given page they alternate red and blue regularly. Blue initials are embellished with red tassels and vice versa. The colouring and form of the letters is not very even and appears rather hurried in places. In the Bestiary proper, they appear on f.79v and f.80r. Thereafter this is the basic initial used in the thirteenth-century Lapidary addition, found from f.94r onwards. This suggests that gaps left in the twelfth-century text on ff. 79v and 80r were filled in when the book was completed in the later thirteenth century. The poor quality of the later work is apparent from f.94r onwards, and is apparent on f.79v where the wrong capital ‘U’ was inserted and later corrected to ‘F’ for Fagus, the beech tree.

  • Translation
    and for that reason it is placed in the sixth position, because Christ in the sixth age and on the sixth day consecrated his martyrdom with his blood. Verse The sard gets its name from Sardis where it was first found. It gets its name from its reddish colour. The seventh, chrysolite The seventh foundation, chrysolite, is similar in colour to gold. For this reason its name comes from crisis [chrysos], which means 'gold'; it seems to give out glittering sparks, as the Glossator says; and it signifies wisdom, which exceeds all other gifts, just as gold exceeds all other metals. Wisdom, through the medium of preaching, gives out glittering sparks, that is, encouragement and doctrine, setting alight the hearts of those who hear them. In this context, Ezekiel 1, on the sacred animals: 'They sparkled like the colour of burnished brass' (1:7); The Wisdom of Solomon, 3: 'The righteous shall shine and run to and fro like sparks among the stubble' (see 3:1,7). This stone is placed in the seventh position, because it holds the seventh place in order of ascendancy among the gifts of the holy spirit. Verse Chrysolite shines like gold and flashes like fire. It is similar to the sea, displaying something of its green colour. We read that the Ethiopians send us this stone. The eighth, beryl The eighth foundation is beryl. This stone is polished into a hexagonal shape; it shines like water struck by the sun; it is also said to be of such heat that it warms the hand of the holder; and it signifies the virtue of mercy. Mercy operates in six ways, warming the cold hearts of the infirm to a love of God and one's neighbour, according to Proverbs, 25: 'If thine enemy be hungry, give him bread to eat; and if he thirsty give him water to drink: For thou shalt heap coals of fire upon his head' (25:21-23). Matthew, 5: 'Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works and glorify your Father which is in heaven' (5:16). This virtue is placed in the eighth position, because not here but in the eighth age
  • Transcription
    suum fuderunt, et ideo sexto loco ponitur, quia Christus\ sexta etate et sexto die sanguine suo martyrium con\ secravit. \ Versus \ Sardius a Sardis est a quibus ante repertus.\ Sortitus nomen rubei solet esse coloris. \ Septimus crisolitus \ Septimus crisolitus auro simile in colore,\ unde dicitur a crisis quod est aurum, et sintillas ardentes\ videtur a[e]mittere ut dicit Glossator, et significat sapienciam, que omnia\ dona superat, sicut aurum omnia in metalla, que pre\dicando scintillas ardentes emittit, id est exhortaciones\ et iustificaciones [instruciones], corda audientium inflamantes.\ Unde Ezekieli primo dicitur de sanctis animalibus: Scintille quasi aspectu eris\ ca[n]dentis; Sapiencie iii: Fulgebunt iusti et tanquam scintille in\ arundineto discurrent. Hic septimo loco ponitur, quia inter\ dona sancti spiritus locum tenet septimum ascendendo. \ Versus \ Auro crisolitus micat et scintillat ut ignis. Iste mari\ simile quiddamque viroris adumbrans. Ethiopes le\gimus nobis hanc mittere gemmam. \ Octavus Berillus \ Octavum berillus. Hic lapis in sexangulam for\mam politus, lucet quasi aqua sole percussa, qui etiam\ tante caliditas [caliditatis] dicitur esse, ut calefaciat manum tenen\tis et significat virtutem misericordie que sex operibus se exercet\ corda frigida hominum infirmorum calefaciens in amo\rem dei et proximi iuxta id Proverbiorum, xxv: Si esurierit inimicus tu\ us ciba illum. Si sitit, potum da ei, sic enim faciens con\geres carbonum super caput eius. Mattheus, v: Sic luceat lux vestra\ coram hominibus, ut videant opera vestra bona, et glorificent patrem vestrum qui in celis est.\ Hic virtus octavo loco ponitur, quia non hic sed in octava eta\
Folio 98v - sard, continued. Septimus crisolitus; The seventh, chrysolite. Octavus Berillus; The eighth, beryl | The Aberdeen Bestiary | The University of Aberdeen