The Aberdeen Bestiary

Folio 84v - the nature of man, continued.


Translation Open Book View Download image for personal, teaching or research purposes Help Copyright

Help

To explore the image, simply click the image to zoom, double-click to zoom out, or click-drag to pan. You can also zoom in and out using the mouse scroll wheel.

Shortcuts

(Alt is Option on Macintosh)

  • Alt-click-drag to create a zoom-rectangle
  • Alt-click / Alt-double-click to zoom fully in / out
  • Alt-click-Reset button to return to the prior view

The thumbnail view in the top left can also be clicked or click-dragged to pan.

Keyboard shortcuts:

  • a to zoom in
  • z to zoom out
  • Arrow keys pan arround the image
  • Escape resets initial view or exits fullscreen

Toolbar buttons

Use the Toolbar for exact navigation - if using a mouse, hold it over any button to see a helpful tip.


Zoom out

Zoom in

Pan left

Pan right

Pan up

Pan down

Reset Image

Full screen view

View translation alongside image

View double page - bi folio

Download image for personal, research or teaching purposes

Help

Commentary, Translation and Transcription

These sections are located below the image on each page, scroll down page and click on the tabs to view them. It is also possible to view the translation alongside the image by clicking the translation icon in the toolbar

It is not part of the project to provide a definitive edition of the text of the Bestiary, but to help readers by providing a transcription and translation of the text. Currently the following editorial conventions obtain:

Text

  1. The original capitalisation is retained, but capitals have been added for personal and place names, excluding deus and diabolus.
  2. The original punctuation, including a point and inverted semi-colon (both serving as commas), and a point (serving as a full stop), is represented by comma, full stop and question-mark; a colon has been inserted before quotations.
  3. Suggested readings are in [ ].
  4. Variants from other Bestiary texts (eg Ashmole 1511 and Patrologia Latina 176) are added where they indicate a corruption, elucidate a meaning and replace excised text. They are represented as [A: PL:]

Translation

  1. Direct quotations from the Bible, where identified, are cited from the Authorised Version in ( ).
  2. Paraphrased quotations are identified where possible and indicated as: (see Job, 18:22).
  3. Suggested translations of corrupt words are in [ ].
  4. Capitalisation is sparing; additional punctuation has been used where necessary to give the sense. Paragraphs have been created to break up the text.
The straight part of the nose, of equal extent in roundness and length, is called 'the column', columna. The end of the nose is called pirula, 'little pear', because it is pear-shaped. But the right and left parts of the nose, from their resemblance to wings, are called pennule, 'little wings'. The part between nostrils is called the septum, interfinium. The mouth, os, is so called because, as if through a door, ostium, we send food inside and eject sputum outside; or because food goes in there and speech comes out. Lips, labia, get their name from lambere, to lick. The upper lip we call labium; the lower, and thicker, labrum. Others say that men's lips are labra; women's, labia. Varro thinks that the tongue, lingua, got its name from the phrase, ligare cibum, to bind food. Others say that it is because it binds words together from distinct sounds. For the tongue hits the teeth, like a plectrum hitting strings, producing the sound of the voice. The Greeks call teeth odontes, from which they seem to have taken their Latin name, dentes. The first of the teeth are called incisors, precisores, because they first cut up, praecidere, everything that we take into our mouth. The Next are called canines, canini; two of them are in the right jaw, two in the left. They are so called because they look like the teeth of dogs, canis. Dogs use these teeth to break up bones, just as men do; such food as the incisors cannot cut up, they pass on to the canines to break up. They are commonly called colomelli, 'little columns', because of their length, breadth and roundness. The last of the teeth are called molars, molares; they work, grind and chew the food which the incisors have cut up and the canines have broken up; they get their name from molere, to grind. The number of teeth is determined by sex. For there are more in a man's mouth; fewer in a woman's. The gums, gingive, are so called because they produce, gignere, the teeth. They were created to adorn the teeth, lest a row of crooked teeth might seem more of a horror than an ornament. Our palate, palatum,

Text

Isidore on the nose, mouth and teeth.

Transcription

Narium recta pars eo quod equaliter sit in longitudine et\ rotunditate porrecta, columpna vocatur. Extremitas eius\ pirula ac formula pomi peri. Que vero dextra levaque sunt pen\nule ab alarum similitudine. Medium autem interfini\um. Os dictum quod per ipsum quasi per ostium et cibos intus\ mittimus, et sputum foras proicimus, vel quia illuc ingredi\untur cibi et inde egrediuntur sermones. Labia a laben\do [PL, lambendo] sunt nominata. Quod autem superius est labium dici\mus, quod inferius eo quod grossius sit labrum. Alii virorum\ labra, mulierum labia dicunt. Lingue a ligando cibo\ putat Varro nomen impositum. Alii quod per articulos\ sonos ligat verba. Sicut enim plectrum cordis, ita lin\gua illiditur dentibus, et vocalem sonum efficit. Dentes\ Greci odontes dicunt, et inde in Latinum videntur tra\here nomen. Horum primi precisores dicuntur, quia omne\ quod accipitur ipsi prius incidunt. Sequentes canini vo\cantur, quorum duo in dextera maxilla, et duo in sinistra\ sunt. Et dicti canini quia ad similitudinem caninorum\ existunt, et canis ex ipsis ossa confringit, sicut et homo\ ut quod non possunt priores precidere, illis tradunt ut\ confringant. Hos vulgus pro longitudine et latitudine et\ rotunditate, colomellos vocant. Ultimi sunt molares, qui\ concisa a prioribus atque confracta subigunt et molunt, atque\ immassant. Unde et molares vocati sunt. Dentium autem\ numerum discernit qualitas sexus. Nam in viris plures,\ in feminis pauciores existunt. Gingive a gignendis dentibus\ nominate. Facte sunt ad decorem dentium, ne torti hor\rori pocius quam ornamenta [PL, ornamento] existerent. Palatum nostrum sicut\

Translation

The straight part of the nose, of equal extent in roundness and length, is called 'the column', columna. The end of the nose is called pirula, 'little pear', because it is pear-shaped. But the right and left parts of the nose, from their resemblance to wings, are called pennule, 'little wings'. The part between nostrils is called the septum, interfinium. The mouth, os, is so called because, as if through a door, ostium, we send food inside and eject sputum outside; or because food goes in there and speech comes out. Lips, labia, get their name from lambere, to lick. The upper lip we call labium; the lower, and thicker, labrum. Others say that men's lips are labra; women's, labia. Varro thinks that the tongue, lingua, got its name from the phrase, ligare cibum, to bind food. Others say that it is because it binds words together from distinct sounds. For the tongue hits the teeth, like a plectrum hitting strings, producing the sound of the voice. The Greeks call teeth odontes, from which they seem to have taken their Latin name, dentes. The first of the teeth are called incisors, precisores, because they first cut up, praecidere, everything that we take into our mouth. The Next are called canines, canini; two of them are in the right jaw, two in the left. They are so called because they look like the teeth of dogs, canis. Dogs use these teeth to break up bones, just as men do; such food as the incisors cannot cut up, they pass on to the canines to break up. They are commonly called colomelli, 'little columns', because of their length, breadth and roundness. The last of the teeth are called molars, molares; they work, grind and chew the food which the incisors have cut up and the canines have broken up; they get their name from molere, to grind. The number of teeth is determined by sex. For there are more in a man's mouth; fewer in a woman's. The gums, gingive, are so called because they produce, gignere, the teeth. They were created to adorn the teeth, lest a row of crooked teeth might seem more of a horror than an ornament. Our palate, palatum,
  • Commentary

    Text

    Isidore on the nose, mouth and teeth.

  • Translation
    The straight part of the nose, of equal extent in roundness and length, is called 'the column', columna. The end of the nose is called pirula, 'little pear', because it is pear-shaped. But the right and left parts of the nose, from their resemblance to wings, are called pennule, 'little wings'. The part between nostrils is called the septum, interfinium. The mouth, os, is so called because, as if through a door, ostium, we send food inside and eject sputum outside; or because food goes in there and speech comes out. Lips, labia, get their name from lambere, to lick. The upper lip we call labium; the lower, and thicker, labrum. Others say that men's lips are labra; women's, labia. Varro thinks that the tongue, lingua, got its name from the phrase, ligare cibum, to bind food. Others say that it is because it binds words together from distinct sounds. For the tongue hits the teeth, like a plectrum hitting strings, producing the sound of the voice. The Greeks call teeth odontes, from which they seem to have taken their Latin name, dentes. The first of the teeth are called incisors, precisores, because they first cut up, praecidere, everything that we take into our mouth. The Next are called canines, canini; two of them are in the right jaw, two in the left. They are so called because they look like the teeth of dogs, canis. Dogs use these teeth to break up bones, just as men do; such food as the incisors cannot cut up, they pass on to the canines to break up. They are commonly called colomelli, 'little columns', because of their length, breadth and roundness. The last of the teeth are called molars, molares; they work, grind and chew the food which the incisors have cut up and the canines have broken up; they get their name from molere, to grind. The number of teeth is determined by sex. For there are more in a man's mouth; fewer in a woman's. The gums, gingive, are so called because they produce, gignere, the teeth. They were created to adorn the teeth, lest a row of crooked teeth might seem more of a horror than an ornament. Our palate, palatum,
  • Transcription
    Narium recta pars eo quod equaliter sit in longitudine et\ rotunditate porrecta, columpna vocatur. Extremitas eius\ pirula ac formula pomi peri. Que vero dextra levaque sunt pen\nule ab alarum similitudine. Medium autem interfini\um. Os dictum quod per ipsum quasi per ostium et cibos intus\ mittimus, et sputum foras proicimus, vel quia illuc ingredi\untur cibi et inde egrediuntur sermones. Labia a laben\do [PL, lambendo] sunt nominata. Quod autem superius est labium dici\mus, quod inferius eo quod grossius sit labrum. Alii virorum\ labra, mulierum labia dicunt. Lingue a ligando cibo\ putat Varro nomen impositum. Alii quod per articulos\ sonos ligat verba. Sicut enim plectrum cordis, ita lin\gua illiditur dentibus, et vocalem sonum efficit. Dentes\ Greci odontes dicunt, et inde in Latinum videntur tra\here nomen. Horum primi precisores dicuntur, quia omne\ quod accipitur ipsi prius incidunt. Sequentes canini vo\cantur, quorum duo in dextera maxilla, et duo in sinistra\ sunt. Et dicti canini quia ad similitudinem caninorum\ existunt, et canis ex ipsis ossa confringit, sicut et homo\ ut quod non possunt priores precidere, illis tradunt ut\ confringant. Hos vulgus pro longitudine et latitudine et\ rotunditate, colomellos vocant. Ultimi sunt molares, qui\ concisa a prioribus atque confracta subigunt et molunt, atque\ immassant. Unde et molares vocati sunt. Dentium autem\ numerum discernit qualitas sexus. Nam in viris plures,\ in feminis pauciores existunt. Gingive a gignendis dentibus\ nominate. Facte sunt ad decorem dentium, ne torti hor\rori pocius quam ornamenta [PL, ornamento] existerent. Palatum nostrum sicut\
Folio 84v - the nature of man, continued. | The Aberdeen Bestiary | The University of Aberdeen