The saura goes blind, enters a crack in the wall, faces the sun and regains its sight. The stellio or newt has spots over his body.
The saura is shown crawling through a crack in a wall towards the sun in order to regain his sight.
Stellio has spots, but should have legs too. Initials type 2.
- Transcription and Translation
TranscriptionSaura lacertus qui quando senescit cecantur oculi eius, et\ intrat per foramen parietis aspiciens contra orientem\ et orto sole intendit et illuminatur. \ De stellione\ Stellio de colore inditum nomen habet. Est enim tergo\re pictus lucentibus guttis in modum stellarum. De quo\ Ovidius: Aptumque colori. Nomen habet variis stellatus corpore\ guttis. Hic autem scorpionibus adeo contrarius traditur, ut viso\ eo pavorem his afferat et torporem. Sunt et alia genera ser\pentium, ut admodite, elephantie, camedracontes. Postremo\ quantus nominum, tantus mortuum numerus. Omnes ser\pentes natura sua frigide sunt nec percuciunt nisi quando calescunt.\ Nam quando sunt frigidi nullum tangunt. Unde et venena eorum\ plus die quam nocte nocent. Torpent enim noctis algore, et merito\ quia frigidi sunt nocturno rore. In se enim adducunt vapo\rem corporis frigide pestes, et nature gelide. Unde et in hieme\ in nidos torpent, estate solvuntur. Inde est quod quicumque veneno\ serpentium percutitur primum obstupescit, et postea ubi in illo ca\lefactum ipsum virus exarserit, statim hominem extinguit. Ve\nenum autem dictum, quia per venas vadit. Infusa enim pestis eius per\ venas vegetatione[m] corporis aucta discurrit, et animam exigit.\ Unde non potest venenum nocere, nisi hominis tetigit sanguinem.\ Lucanus: Noxio serpentium est, admixto sanguine pestis. Omne autem\ venenum est frigidum, et ideo anima que est ignea fugit venenum\ frigidum. In naturalibus bonis que nobis et irrationabilibus\ animantibus videmus esse communia, vivacitate quadam sensus\ serpens excellit. Unde legitur in Genesi: Serpens autem erat sapi\
TranslationThe saura is a lizard which goes blind when it grows old; it enters a crack in a wall and, looking toward the east, it bends its gaze on the rising sun and regains its sight. Of the newt The newt, stellio, gets its name from its colouring. For it is adorned on its back with shining spots like stars, stella. Ovid says of it: 'Its name fits its colour; it is starred on the body with spots of various colours' (see Ovid, Metamorphoses, 5, 461). It is said to be so hostile to scorpions, that the sight of it paralyses them with fear. There are other species of snakes, like the admodite, elephantia, camedracontes. Finally, it can be said that snakes inflict as many kinds of death as they have names. All snakes are cold by nature; they will only strike you when their body warms up. For as long as it is cold, they will touch no-one. As a result, their poison is more harmful by day than by night. For they become sluggish in the cold of the night; and rightly so, because they grow cold in the night-time dew. For the deathly cold and freezing weather draw off the warmth of the body. Thus in winter they lie inactive in their nests; in summer, they grow lively again. So, if you are struck by a snake's poison, you are numbed at first; then, when the venom warms up and begins to burn, it kills you at once. Their poison is called 'venom', venenum, because it spreads through your veins. For when its deathly effect is introduced, it courses in every direction through the veins, increased by the quickening of the body, and drives out life. As a result, poison cannot hurt unless it infects your blood. Lucan says: 'The poison of snakes is only deadly when mixed with the blood' (Pharsalia, 9, 614). All poison is cold; as a result, the soul, which is by nature hot, flees from the poison's icy touch. In terms of the natural qualities which we observe that we, reasoning beings, share with animals, who have no capacity for reason, the serpent stands out by virtue of its lively intelligence. On this subject, it says in Genesis: 'Now the serpent was