The Aberdeen Bestiary

Folio 51r - the hoopoe, continued. De noctua; Of the nightowl. [De vespertilione]; Of the bat


Translation Open Book View Download image for personal, teaching or research purposes Help Copyright

Help

To explore the image, simply click the image to zoom, double-click to zoom out, or click-drag to pan. You can also zoom in and out using the mouse scroll wheel.

Shortcuts

(Alt is Option on Macintosh)

  • Alt-click-drag to create a zoom-rectangle
  • Alt-click / Alt-double-click to zoom fully in / out
  • Alt-click-Reset button to return to the prior view

The thumbnail view in the top left can also be clicked or click-dragged to pan.

Keyboard shortcuts:

  • a to zoom in
  • z to zoom out
  • Arrow keys pan arround the image
  • Escape resets initial view or exits fullscreen

Toolbar buttons

Use the Toolbar for exact navigation - if using a mouse, hold it over any button to see a helpful tip.


Zoom out

Zoom in

Pan left

Pan right

Pan up

Pan down

Reset Image

Full screen view

View translation alongside image

View double page - bi folio

Download image for personal, research or teaching purposes

Help

Commentary, Translation and Transcription

These sections are located below the image on each page, scroll down page and click on the tabs to view them. It is also possible to view the translation alongside the image by clicking the translation icon in the toolbar

It is not part of the project to provide a definitive edition of the text of the Bestiary, but to help readers by providing a transcription and translation of the text. Currently the following editorial conventions obtain:

Text

  1. The original capitalisation is retained, but capitals have been added for personal and place names, excluding deus and diabolus.
  2. The original punctuation, including a point and inverted semi-colon (both serving as commas), and a point (serving as a full stop), is represented by comma, full stop and question-mark; a colon has been inserted before quotations.
  3. Suggested readings are in [ ].
  4. Variants from other Bestiary texts (eg Ashmole 1511 and Patrologia Latina 176) are added where they indicate a corruption, elucidate a meaning and replace excised text. They are represented as [A: PL:]

Translation

  1. Direct quotations from the Bible, where identified, are cited from the Authorised Version in ( ).
  2. Paraphrased quotations are identified where possible and indicated as: (see Job, 18:22).
  3. Suggested translations of corrupt words are in [ ].
  4. Capitalisation is sparing; additional punctuation has been used where necessary to give the sense. Paragraphs have been created to break up the text.
brings about the death of the spirit; for this reason those who love God should 'rejoice evermore, pray without ceasing and in every thing give thanks' (see 1 Thessalonians, 5:16-18) 'for the fruit of the Spirit is joy' (see Galatians, 5:22). In addition, Physiologus says of the hoopoe that when it grows old and cannot fly, its offspring come and pull out the oldest feathers from its body and constantly care for it, until it has recovered its strength as before and can fly. The young hoopoes provide, therefore, an example to those evil men who, when their parents grow old, throw them out of their home; who refuse to support, when they are weak, the parents who raised them when they were still in their infancy. Let man, who is endowed with reason, learn his duty to his mother and father, from the way in which this creature, which lacks reason, provides (as we have already shown) for its parents' needs when they are old. Of the night-owl The night-owl, noctua, is so called because it flies at night and cannot see in the daytime. For its sight is dimmed by brightness of the sun when it has risen. The night-owl, noctua, is not the same as the owl, bubo, which is bigger. But the night-crow, nicticorax, is the same as the night-owl, because it loves the night. For it is a bird which shuns the light and cannot bear to see the sun. This bird symbolises the Jews who, when the Lord our Saviour came to save them, rejected him, saying: 'We have no king but Caesar' (John, 19:15); and 'loved darkness rather than light' (John, 3:19). Then our Lord turned to us, the Gentiles, and gave us light as we sat in darkness and the shadow of death; of the Gentiles it is said: 'A people which I knew not shall serve me' (Samuel 2, 22:44; Psalms, 18:44); and in another prophet: 'I will call them my people, which were not my people; and her beloved, which was not beloved' (Romans, 9:25; see Hosea, 2:23). Of the people of the Jews, the sons of strangers etc. [Of the bat] The bat, a lowly animal, gets its name from vesper, the evening, when it emerges. It is a winged creature but also a four-footed one, and it has teeth,

Text

Young hoopoes care for their parents. Noctua, the night owl.

Comment

Prick marks for pouncing are visible, which relate to the image of the bat on f.51v. The centre of this page is excised for the illustration of the jackdaw on f.51v. The rubric for the bat, at the bottom of the page, is missing. Initial type 2.

Folio Attributes

  • Initial Type 2

    Initial Type 2

    Initial Type 2
    Type 2 initial. Detail from f.5v

    Type 2 is much more common. The letter is made with burnished gold, filled with a blue or brown background which is decorated with a delicate white tracery. Many of these are embellished with red or blue traces or sprays. The Aberdeen Bestiary is a very early example of the use of sprays which culminates in the art of William de Brailes in the mid-thirteenth century (Morgan 1982,no.68). An elaborate spray is on f.41v. The fine white filigree pattern is also found on some of the illuminations (f.3r, f.11r, f.12r) suggesting that the main illuminator also made these initials. This type generally occupies two lines. This initial is generally used to introduce each new animal.

Transcription

mortem spiritus operatur, propter quod oportet eum qui diligit deum semper\ gaudere sine intermissione orare, in omnibus gratias agere quia gaudi\ um spiritus est fructus. De hupupa etiam Phisiologus dicit, quia [PL, quod]\ cum senuerit et volare non possit, filii eius ad eum veniunt\ et pennas vetustissimas a corpore ipsius evellunt, eamque fovere\ non cessant, donec sicut ante assumptis viribus volare pos\ sit. Exemplum igitur perversis hominibus tribuunt, qui patres\ suos cum senuerint a domibus propriis expellunt, qui eos cum\ deficiant sustentare renuunt, qui ipsos cum adhuc parvu\ li essent educaverunt. Videat ergo homo rationabilis quid patri\ vel matri debeat, cum irrationabilis creatura quod predixi\ [A, imus in necessitate cum senuerint parentibus reddat. \ De noctua \ Noctua dicitur, eo quod nocte circumvolat, et per diem non possit videre. Nam exorto splendore solis, visus illius hebetatur. Noctua autem non est bubo. Nam bubo maior est. Nicticorax ipsa est noctua, quia noctem amat. Est enim avis lucifuga, et solem videre non patitur.] Hec avis figuram gerit Judeorum,\ qui veniente domino salvatore ad salvandos eos reppule-\ runt eum, dicentes: Non habemus regem nisi Caesarem, et plus\ dilexerunt tenebras quam lucem. Tunc dominus convertit se ad nos\ gentes et illuminavit nos sedentes in tenebris et umbra mortis,\ de quibus dicitur: Populus quem non cognovi servivit mihi, et in alio\ propheta: Vocabo non plebem meam plebem, et non dilectam dilectam.\ De populo Judeorum, filii alieni et cetera. \ [De vespertilione] \ Vespertilio animal ignobile, a vespere nomen accepit. Est\ autem volatile idemque quadrupes, et dentibus utitur

Translation

brings about the death of the spirit; for this reason those who love God should 'rejoice evermore, pray without ceasing and in every thing give thanks' (see 1 Thessalonians, 5:16-18) 'for the fruit of the Spirit is joy' (see Galatians, 5:22). In addition, Physiologus says of the hoopoe that when it grows old and cannot fly, its offspring come and pull out the oldest feathers from its body and constantly care for it, until it has recovered its strength as before and can fly. The young hoopoes provide, therefore, an example to those evil men who, when their parents grow old, throw them out of their home; who refuse to support, when they are weak, the parents who raised them when they were still in their infancy. Let man, who is endowed with reason, learn his duty to his mother and father, from the way in which this creature, which lacks reason, provides (as we have already shown) for its parents' needs when they are old. Of the night-owl The night-owl, noctua, is so called because it flies at night and cannot see in the daytime. For its sight is dimmed by brightness of the sun when it has risen. The night-owl, noctua, is not the same as the owl, bubo, which is bigger. But the night-crow, nicticorax, is the same as the night-owl, because it loves the night. For it is a bird which shuns the light and cannot bear to see the sun. This bird symbolises the Jews who, when the Lord our Saviour came to save them, rejected him, saying: 'We have no king but Caesar' (John, 19:15); and 'loved darkness rather than light' (John, 3:19). Then our Lord turned to us, the Gentiles, and gave us light as we sat in darkness and the shadow of death; of the Gentiles it is said: 'A people which I knew not shall serve me' (Samuel 2, 22:44; Psalms, 18:44); and in another prophet: 'I will call them my people, which were not my people; and her beloved, which was not beloved' (Romans, 9:25; see Hosea, 2:23). Of the people of the Jews, the sons of strangers etc. [Of the bat] The bat, a lowly animal, gets its name from vesper, the evening, when it emerges. It is a winged creature but also a four-footed one, and it has teeth,
  • Commentary

    Text

    Young hoopoes care for their parents. Noctua, the night owl.

    Comment

    Prick marks for pouncing are visible, which relate to the image of the bat on f.51v. The centre of this page is excised for the illustration of the jackdaw on f.51v. The rubric for the bat, at the bottom of the page, is missing. Initial type 2.

    Folio Attributes

    • Initial Type 2

      Initial Type 2

      Initial Type 2
      Type 2 initial. Detail from f.5v

      Type 2 is much more common. The letter is made with burnished gold, filled with a blue or brown background which is decorated with a delicate white tracery. Many of these are embellished with red or blue traces or sprays. The Aberdeen Bestiary is a very early example of the use of sprays which culminates in the art of William de Brailes in the mid-thirteenth century (Morgan 1982,no.68). An elaborate spray is on f.41v. The fine white filigree pattern is also found on some of the illuminations (f.3r, f.11r, f.12r) suggesting that the main illuminator also made these initials. This type generally occupies two lines. This initial is generally used to introduce each new animal.

  • Translation
    brings about the death of the spirit; for this reason those who love God should 'rejoice evermore, pray without ceasing and in every thing give thanks' (see 1 Thessalonians, 5:16-18) 'for the fruit of the Spirit is joy' (see Galatians, 5:22). In addition, Physiologus says of the hoopoe that when it grows old and cannot fly, its offspring come and pull out the oldest feathers from its body and constantly care for it, until it has recovered its strength as before and can fly. The young hoopoes provide, therefore, an example to those evil men who, when their parents grow old, throw them out of their home; who refuse to support, when they are weak, the parents who raised them when they were still in their infancy. Let man, who is endowed with reason, learn his duty to his mother and father, from the way in which this creature, which lacks reason, provides (as we have already shown) for its parents' needs when they are old. Of the night-owl The night-owl, noctua, is so called because it flies at night and cannot see in the daytime. For its sight is dimmed by brightness of the sun when it has risen. The night-owl, noctua, is not the same as the owl, bubo, which is bigger. But the night-crow, nicticorax, is the same as the night-owl, because it loves the night. For it is a bird which shuns the light and cannot bear to see the sun. This bird symbolises the Jews who, when the Lord our Saviour came to save them, rejected him, saying: 'We have no king but Caesar' (John, 19:15); and 'loved darkness rather than light' (John, 3:19). Then our Lord turned to us, the Gentiles, and gave us light as we sat in darkness and the shadow of death; of the Gentiles it is said: 'A people which I knew not shall serve me' (Samuel 2, 22:44; Psalms, 18:44); and in another prophet: 'I will call them my people, which were not my people; and her beloved, which was not beloved' (Romans, 9:25; see Hosea, 2:23). Of the people of the Jews, the sons of strangers etc. [Of the bat] The bat, a lowly animal, gets its name from vesper, the evening, when it emerges. It is a winged creature but also a four-footed one, and it has teeth,
  • Transcription
    mortem spiritus operatur, propter quod oportet eum qui diligit deum semper\ gaudere sine intermissione orare, in omnibus gratias agere quia gaudi\ um spiritus est fructus. De hupupa etiam Phisiologus dicit, quia [PL, quod]\ cum senuerit et volare non possit, filii eius ad eum veniunt\ et pennas vetustissimas a corpore ipsius evellunt, eamque fovere\ non cessant, donec sicut ante assumptis viribus volare pos\ sit. Exemplum igitur perversis hominibus tribuunt, qui patres\ suos cum senuerint a domibus propriis expellunt, qui eos cum\ deficiant sustentare renuunt, qui ipsos cum adhuc parvu\ li essent educaverunt. Videat ergo homo rationabilis quid patri\ vel matri debeat, cum irrationabilis creatura quod predixi\ [A, imus in necessitate cum senuerint parentibus reddat. \ De noctua \ Noctua dicitur, eo quod nocte circumvolat, et per diem non possit videre. Nam exorto splendore solis, visus illius hebetatur. Noctua autem non est bubo. Nam bubo maior est. Nicticorax ipsa est noctua, quia noctem amat. Est enim avis lucifuga, et solem videre non patitur.] Hec avis figuram gerit Judeorum,\ qui veniente domino salvatore ad salvandos eos reppule-\ runt eum, dicentes: Non habemus regem nisi Caesarem, et plus\ dilexerunt tenebras quam lucem. Tunc dominus convertit se ad nos\ gentes et illuminavit nos sedentes in tenebris et umbra mortis,\ de quibus dicitur: Populus quem non cognovi servivit mihi, et in alio\ propheta: Vocabo non plebem meam plebem, et non dilectam dilectam.\ De populo Judeorum, filii alieni et cetera. \ [De vespertilione] \ Vespertilio animal ignobile, a vespere nomen accepit. Est\ autem volatile idemque quadrupes, et dentibus utitur
Folio 51r - the hoopoe, continued. De noctua; Of the nightowl. [De vespertilione]; Of the bat | The Aberdeen Bestiary | The University of Aberdeen