Professor Helen Macdonald

  Professor Helen Macdonald The University of Aberdeen School of Medicine & Dentistry Professor Helen Macdonald Personal Chair work +44 (0)1224 438020 work fax +44 (0)1224 438070 pref Musculoskeletal Research Health Sciences Building University of Aberdeen Foresterhill Aberdeen AB25 2ZD

Personal Chair

BSc (Hons) (Manchester, 1977) PhD (Reading, 1985) MSc (Distinction) (Aberdeen, 1995)

Professor Helen Macdonald

Contact Details

Telephone: +44 (0)1224 438020
Fax: +44 (0)1224 438070
Email:

h.macdonald@abdn.ac.uk

Address: Musculoskeletal Research
Health Sciences Building
University of Aberdeen
Foresterhill
Aberdeen
AB25 2ZD
hCard

Biography

Helen Macdonald graduated in 1977 with a BSc in Biochemistry from the University of Manchester. She obtained her PhD (from Reading University) while working in the food industry, and had accumulated 15 years experience in food biochemistry before focusing on nutrition. She joined the Osteoporosis Research Unit in late 1997 and now leads research in nutrition and musculoskeletal health. She is a registered public health nutritionist, a member of the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research, on the nutrition and lifestyle forum (scientific advisory committee) of the National Osteoporosis Society (Chair from 2007-2012); and a member of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) team for guidelines on management of osteoporosis (from 2011). She was also part of the Arthritis and Musculsokeletal Alliance Working Party to provide Standards of Care for Metabolic Bone Diseases.


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Research Interests

Dr Macdonald has research interests in lifestyle factors that influence disease, and in gene-nutrient interactions affecting bone health. She is interested in the mechanisms behind how fruit and vegetable intake influences postmenopausal bone health. Her group completed a 2-year randomized controlled trial funded by the FSA to determine whether the acid balancing properties of fruit and vegetables affect bone turnover longer-term; and work is continuing to determine what constituents of fruit and vegetables are important for bone health. She leads research in vitamin D, with a 15 month longitudinal study of dietary and sunlight influences on vitamin D status in postmenopausal women at 57ºN (ANSAViD). The same design was followed by a team at Surrey University and the results highlighted the North-South divide in vitamin D status. She has overseen a 1-year intervention trial to determine whether vitamin D affects cardiovascular risk factors (VICtORy) and markers of bone health, and is widening her research to the role of light and vitamin D on immune function. Her work has also involved investigating how nutritional and genetic factors influence postmenopausal bone health and joint health (osteoarthritis) in a longitudinal study of 3,800 women in Aberdeen. She is particularly interested in exploring the role of dietary patterns in chronic disease conditions, and is examining the relationship between dietary patterns and chronic low grade systemic inflammation in this population.

Potential PhD Projects.

1. Furthering research into vitamin D. Aberdeen is uniquely placed to study vitamin D in the UK because of its northerly latitude. This project aims to link together a number of research questions to further our understanding of this unique 'sunshine' vitamin.

2. Dietary patterns and musculoskeletal health. This project will develop novel ways of examining dietary patterns and study the role of dietary patterns in influencing health and disease of bones, muscles and joints.


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Publications 

Contributions to Journals

Articles

  • Macdonald, HM., Garland, A., Burr, J., Strachan, A., Wood, AD., Jamil, NA., McLernon, D. & Black, AJ. (2014). 'Validation of a short questionnaire for estimating dietary calcium intakes'. Osteoporosis International, vol 25, no. 6, pp. 1765-1773.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1007/s00198-014-2694-5
  • Wood, AD., Secombes, KR., Thies, F., Aucott, LS., Black, AJ., Reid, DM., Mavroeidi, A., Simpson, WG., Fraser, WD. & Macdonald, HM. (2014). 'A parallel group double-blind RCT of vitamin D-3 assessing physical function: is the biochemical response to treatment affected by overweight and obesity?'. Osteoporosis International, vol 25, no. 1, pp. 305-315.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1007/s00198-013-2473-8
  • Mavroeidi, A., Aucott, L., Black, AJ., Fraser, WD., Reid, DM. & Macdonald, HM. (2013). 'Seasonal variation in 25(OH)D at Aberdeen (57°N) and bone health indicators: could holidays in the sun and cod liver oil supplements alleviate deficiency?'. PLoS ONE, vol 8, no. 1, e53381.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053381
  • Macdonald, HM., Wood, AD., Aucott, LS., Black, AJ., Fraser, WD., Mavroeidi, A., Reid, DM., Secombes, KR., Simpson, WG. & Thies, F. (2013). 'Hip bone loss is attenuated with 1000 IU but not 400 IU daily vitamin D3: a 1-year double-blind RCT in postmenopausal women'. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol 28, no. 10, pp. 2202-2213.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1002/jbmr.1959
  • Milliken, SVI., Wassall, H., Lewis, BJ., Logie, J., Barker, RN., Macdonald, H., Vickers, MA. & Ormerod, AD. (2012). 'Effects of ultraviolet light on human serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and systemic immune function'. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol 129, no. 6, pp. 1554-1561.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2012.03.001
  • Macdonald, HM., Hardcastle, AC., Jugdaohsingh, R., Fraser, WD., Reid, DM., Powell, JJ. & Macdonald, HM. (2012). 'Dietary silicon interacts with oestrogen to influence bone health: evidence from the Aberdeen Prospective Osteoporosis Screening Study'. Bone, vol 50, no. 3, pp. 681-687.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2011.11.020
  • McLernon, DJ., Powell, JJ., Jugdaohsingh, R. & Macdonald, HM. (2012). 'Do lifestyle choices explain the effect of alcohol on bone mineral density in women around menopause?'. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol 95, no. 5, pp. 1261-1269.
    [Online] DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.111.021600
  • Wood, AD., Secombes, KR., Thies, F., Aucott, L., Black, AJ., Mavroeidi, A., Simpson, WG., Fraser, WD., Reid, DM. & Macdonald, HM. (2012). 'Vitamin D 3 supplementation has no effect on conventional cardiovascular risk factors: a parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled RCT'. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol 97, no. 10, pp. 3557-3568.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1210/jc.2012-2126
  • Judson, RN., Wackerhage, H., Hughes, A., Mavroeidi, A., Barr, RJ., Macdonald, HM., Ratkevicius, A., Reid, DM. & Hocking, LJ. (2011). 'The functional ACTN3 577X variant increases the risk of falling in older females: results from two large independent cohort studies'. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol 66A, no. 1, pp. 130-135.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1093/gerona/glq189
  • Macdonald, HM., Mavroeidi, A., Aucott, LA., Diffey, BL., Fraser, WD., Ormerod, AD. & Reid, DM. (2011). 'Skin color change in Caucasian postmenopausal women predicts summer-winter change in 25-hydroxyvitamin D: findings from the ANSAViD cohort study'. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol 96, no. 6, pp. 1677-1686.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1210/jc.2010-2032
  • Macdonald, HM., Mavroeidi, A., Fraser, WD., Darling, AL., Black, AJ., Aucott, L., O'Neill, F., Hart, K., Berry, JL., Lanham-New, SA. & Reid, DM. (2011). 'Erratum to: Sunlight and dietary contributions to the seasonal vitamin D status of cohorts of healthy postmenopausal women living at northerly latitudes: a major cause for concern?'. Osteoporosis International, vol 22, no. 9, pp. 2473-2474.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1007/s00198-011-1548-7
  • Lanham-New, SA., Buttriss, JL., Miles, LM., Ashwell, M., Berry, JL., Boucher, BJ., Cashman, KD., Cooper, C., Darling, AL., Francis, RM., Fraser, WD., de Groot, CPGM., Hyppönen, E., Kiely, M., Lamberg-Allardt, C., Macdonald, HM., Martineau, AR., Masud, T., Mavroeidi, A., Nowson, C., Prentice, A., Stone, EM., Reddy, S., Vieth, R. & Williams, CM. (2011). 'Proceedings of the Rank Forum on Vitamin D'. British Journal of Nutrition, vol 105, no. 1, pp. 144-156.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1017/S0007114510002576
  • Macdonald, HM., Mavroeidi, A., Fraser, WD., Darling, AL., Black, AJ., Aucott, L., O'Neill, F., Hart, K., Berry, JL., Lanham-New, SA. & Reid, DM. (2011). 'Sunlight and dietary contributions to the seasonal vitamin D status of cohorts of healthy postmenopausal women living at northerly latitudes: a major cause for concern?'. Osteoporosis International, vol 22, no. 9, pp. 2461-2472.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1007/s00198-010-1467-z
  • Sharma, S., Barr, AB., Macdonald, HM., Sheehy, T., Novotny, R., Corriveau, A. & Macdonald, HM. (2011). 'Vitamin D deficiency and disease risk among aboriginal Arctic populations'. Nutrition Research Reviews, vol 69, no. 8, pp. 468-478.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00406.x
  • Hardcastle, AC., Aucott, LS., Fraser, WD., Reid, DM. & Macdonald, HM. (2011). 'Dietary patterns, bone resorption and bone mineral density in early postmenopausal Scottish women'. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol 65, no. 3, pp. 378-385.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2010.264
  • Barr, R., MacDonald, H., Stewart, A., McGuigan, F., Rogers, A., Eastell, R., Felsenberg, D., Gluer, C., Roux, C. & Reid, DM. (2010). 'Association between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, falls, balance and muscle power: results from two independent studies (APOSS and OPUS)'. Osteoporosis International, vol 21, no. 3, pp. 457-466.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1007/s00198-009-1019-6
  • Mavroeidi, A., O'Neill, F., Lee, PA., Darling, AL., Fraser, WD., Berry, JL., Lee, WT., Reid, DM., Lanham-New, SA. & Macdonald, HM. (2010). 'Seasonal 25-hydroxyvitamin D changes in British postmenopausal women at 57 degrees N and 51 degrees N'. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol 121, no. 1-2, pp. 459-461.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2010.03.038
  • Wang, TJ., Zhang, F., Richards, JB., Kestenbaum, B., van Meurs, JB., Berry, D., Kiel, DP., Streeten, EA., Ohlsson, C., Koller, DL., Peltonen, L., Cooper, JD., O'Reilly, PF., Houston, DK., Glazer, NL., Vandenput, L., Peacock, M., Shi, J., Rivadeneira, F., McCarthy, MI., Anneli, P., de Boer, IH., Mangino, M., Kato, B., Smyth, DJ., Booth, SL., Jacques, PF., Burke, GL., Goodarzi, M., Cheung, C-L, Wolf, M., Rice, K., Goltzman, D., Hidiroglou, N., Ladouceur, M., Wareham, NJ., Hocking, LJ., Hart, D., Arden, NK., Cooper, C., Malik, S., Fraser, WD., Hartikainen, A-L, Zhai, G., Macdonald, HM., Forouhi, NG., Loos, RJF., Reid, DM., Hakim, A., Dennison, E., Liu, Y., Power, C., Stevens, HE., Jaana, L., Vasan, RS., Soranzo, N., Bojunga, J., Psaty, BM., Lorentzon, M., Foroud, T., Harris, TB., Hofman, A., Jonsson, J-O, Cauley, JA., Uitterlinden, AG., Gibson, Q., Jarvelin, M-R, Karasik, D., Siscovick, DS., Econs, MJ., Kritchevsky, SB., Florez, JC., Todd, JA., Dupuis, J., Hyppoenen, E. & Spector, TD. (2010). 'Common genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency: a genome-wide association study'. The Lancet, vol 376, no. 9736, pp. 180-188.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60588-0
  • Mavroeidi, A., Stewart, AD., Reid, DM. & Macdonald, HM. (2009). 'Physical activity and dietary calcium interactions in bone mass in Scottish postmenopausal women'. Osteoporosis International, vol 20, no. 3, pp. 409-416.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1007/s00198-008-0681-4
  • Mavroeidi, A., Aucott, LS., Black, A., Fraser, W., Reid, DM. & Macdonald, HM. (2009). '(Young Investigator Award) Cod Liver Oil Usage and Holidays Abroad May Help Maintain Vitamin D Status in Scottish Postmenopausal Women Results From a Longitudinal Study'. Osteoporosis International, vol 20, no. Suppl. 4, pp. S262-S263.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1007/s00198-009-0923-0
  • Mavroeidi, A., Aucott, LS., Black, A., Fraser, WB., Reid, DM. & Macdonald, HM. (2009). 'Is seasonal variation in vitamin D status affected by holidays and cod liver oil? Results from the Aberdeen Nutrition, Sunlight and Vitamin D study (ANISAViD)'. Bone, vol 44, no. Suppl. 1, pp. S111.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2009.01.242
  • Macdonald, HM., Mavroeidi, A., Gibson, L., Fraser, WD. & Reid, DM. (2009). 'Is vitamin D status a concern for the overweight and obese?'. Bone, vol 44, no. Suppl. 1, pp. S109.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2009.01.238
  • Macdonald, HM., Hardcastle, AC., Duthie, GG., Duthie, SJ., Aucott, L., Sandison, R., Shearer, MJ. & Reid, DM. (2009). 'Changes in vitamin biomarkers during a 2-year intervention trial involving increased fruit and vegetable consumption by free-living volunteers'. BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, vol 102, no. 10, pp. 1477-1486.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1017/S0007114509990377
    [Online] AURA: Macdonald_et_al_Changes_in_vitamin_biomarkers_during_a_2_yea...
  • Gannon, RHT., Millward, DJ., Brown, JE., Macdonald, HM., Lovell, DP., Frassetto, LA., Remer, T. & Lanham-New, SA. (2008). 'Estimates of daily net endogenous acid production in the elderly UK population: analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) of British adults aged 65 years and over'. British Journal of Nutrition, vol 100, no. 3, pp. 615-623.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1017/S0007114508901240
  • MacDonald, HM., Mavroeidi, A., Barr, RJ., Black, AJ., Fraser, WD. & Reid, DM. (2008). 'Vitamin D status in postmenopausal women living at higher latitudes in the UK in relation to bone health, overweight, sunlight exposure and dietary vitamin D'. Bone, vol 42, no. 5, pp. 996-1003.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2008.01.011
  • Ashwell, M., Stone, E., Mathers, J., Barnes, S., Compston, J., Francis, RM., Key, T., Cashman, KD., Cooper, C., Khaw, KT., Lanham-New, S., Macdonald, HM., Prentice, A., Shearer, M. & Stephen, A. (2008). 'Nutrition and bone health projects funded by the UK Food Standards Agency: have they helped to inform public health policy?'. British Journal of Nutrition, vol 99, no. 1, pp. 198-205.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1017/S0007114507771891
  • Macdonald, HM., McGuigan, FE., Lanham-New, SA., Fraser, WD., Ralston, SH. & Reid, DM. (2008). 'Vitamin K 1 intake is associated with higher bone mineral density and reduced bone resorption in early postmenopausal Scottish women: no evidence of gene-nutrient interaction with apolipoprotein E polymorphisms'. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol 87, no. 5, pp. 1513-1520.
    [Link] http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/87/5/1513.abstract
  • Macdonald, HM., Black, AJ., Aucott, L., Duthie, G., Duthie, S., Sandison, R., Hardcastle, AC., New, SAL., Fraser, WD. & Reid, DM. (2008). 'Effect of potassium citrate supplementation or increased fruit and vegetable intake on bone metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial'. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol 88, no. 2, pp. 465-474.
  • Mavroeidi, A., Neill, FO., Black, A., Fraser, WD., Diffey, BL., Reid, DM. & Macdonald, HM. (2008). 'Lack of Seasonal Variation of Bone Resorption in Elderly Women in Relation to Periodicity of Sunlight Exposure at a Northerly Latitude (57 degrees N)'. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol 23, pp. S114.
  • Frassetto, LA., Lanham-New, SA., Macdonald, HM., Remer, T., Sebastian, A., Tucker, KL. & Tylavsky, FA. (2007). 'Standardizing terminology for estimating the diet-dependent net acid load to the metabolic system'. The journal of nutrition, vol 137, no. 6, pp. 1491-1492.
    [Link] http://jn.nutrition.org/content/137/6/1491.long
  • McGuigan, FEA., Macdonald, HM., Bassiti, DA., Farmer, R., Bear, S., Stewart, A., Black, AJ., Fraser, WD., Welsh, F., Reid, DM. & Ralston, S. (2007). 'Large-scale population-based study shows no association between common polymorphisms of the TGFB1 gene and BMD in women'. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol 22, no. 2, pp. 195-202.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1359/JBMR.061016
  • MacDonald, HM., McGuigan, FEA., Stewart, A., Black, AJ., Fraser, WD., Ralston, SH. & Reid, DM. (2006). 'Large-scale population-based study shows no evidence of association between common polymorphism of the VDR gene and BMD in British women'. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol 21, no. 1, pp. 151-162.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1359/JBMR.050906
  • Hardcastle, AC., Kyle, J., Duthie, G., McNeill, G., Fraser, WD., Reid, DM. & Macdonald, HM. (2006). 'Dietary flavanones are associated with increased bone mineral density and reduced bone resorption in early postmenopausal Scottish women'. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, vol 65, pp. 54A.
  • Barr, R., Stewart, A., McGuigan, FEA., Ralston, SH., Reid, DM. & Macdonald, HM. (2006). 'Aberdeen Prospective Osteoporosis Screening Study is there an association between falls and vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms?'. Osteoporosis International, vol 17, no. Supplement 3, pp. 365-366.
  • Barr, R., Stewart, A., McGuigan, F., Ralston, SH., Reid, DM. & Macdonald, HM. (2006). 'Aberdeen prospective osteoporosis screening study is there an association between falls and vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms?'. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol 21, no. Supplement 1, pp. S242-S242.
  • Albagha, OME., Pettersson, U., Stewart, A., McGuigan, FEA., Macdonald, HM. & Reid, DM. (2005). 'Association of estrogen receptor-alpha gene polymorphisms with postmenopausal bone loss, bone mass and quantitative ultrasound properties of bone'. Journal of Human Genetics, vol 42, no. 3, pp. 240-246.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1136/jmg.2004.023895
  • MacDonald, HM., New, SA., Fraser, WD., Campbell, MK. & Reid, DM. (2005). 'Low dietary potassium intakes and high dietary estimates of net endogenous acid production are associated with low bone mineral density in premenopausal women and increased markers of bone resorption in postmenopausal women'. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol 81, no. 4, pp. 922-933.
  • MacDonald, HM., New, SA., Campbell, MK. & Reid, DM. (2004). 'Influence of weight and weight change on bone loss in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal Scottish women'. Osteoporosis International, vol 16, no. 2, pp. 163-171.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1007/s00198-004-1657-7
  • MacDonald, HM., McGuigan, FEA., Fraser, WD., New, SA., Ralston, S. & Reid, DM. (2004). 'Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism interacts with riboflavin intake to influence bone mineral density'. Bone, vol 35, no. 4, pp. 957-964.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2004.05.018
  • MacDonald, HM., New, SA., Golden, MHN., Campbell, MK. & Reid, DM. (2004). 'Nutritional associations with bone loss during the menopausal transition: evidence of a beneficial effect of calcium, alcohol, and fruit and vegetable nutrients and of a detrimental effect of fatty acids'. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol 79, no. 1, pp. 155-165.
  • New, SA., MacDonald, HM., Campbell, MK., Martin, J., Garton, MJ., Robins, SP. & Reid, DM. (2004). 'Lower estimates of net endogenous noncarbonic acid production are positively associated with indexes of bone health in premenopausal and perimenopausal women'. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol 79, no. 1, pp. 131-138.
  • MacDonald, HM., New, SA., Reid, DM. & Campbell, MK. (2003). 'Longitudinal changes in weight in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women: effects of dietary energy intake, energy expenditure, dietary calcium intake and hormone replacement therapy'. International Journal of Obesity, vol 27, no. 6, pp. 669-676.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802283
  • MacDonald, HM., McGuigan, FEA., Campbell, MK., Reid, DM., New, SA., Golden, MHN. & Ralston, S. (2001). 'COL1A1 Sp1 polymorphism predicts perimenopausal and early postmenopausal spinal bone loss'. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol 16, no. 9, pp. 1634-1641.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1359/jbmr.2001.16.9.1634
  • Reid, DM. & MacDonald, HM. (2001). 'Nutrition and bone: is there more to it than just calcium and vitamin D?'. QJM, vol 94, pp. 53-56.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1093/qjmed/94.2.53

Letters

  • Macdonald, HM., Mavroeidi, A., Reid, DM. & Fraser, WD. (2010). 'Sunlight or diet: what is the answer for providing sufficient vitamin D in the UK?'. British Journal of Dermatology, vol 163, no. 2, pp. 434-435.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2010.09901.x
  • Macdonald, HM., Hardcastle, AC. & Fraser, WD. (2009). 'Meta-analysis of the quantity of calcium excretion associated with net acid excretion: caution advised: caution advised'. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol 89, no. 3, pp. 926-927.
    [Online] DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.27254

Comments and Debates

  • McNeill, G., Masson, LF., MacDonald, HM., Haggarty, P., Macdiarmid, JI., Craig, LCA. & Kyle, J. (2009). 'Food frequency questionnaires vs diet diaries'. International Journal of Epidemiology, vol 38, no. 3, pp. 884.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyn237

Editorials

  • Devereux, GS., Macdonald, HM. & Hawrylowicz, C. (2009). 'Vitamin D and Asthma Time for Intervention?'. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol 179, no. 9, pp. 739-740.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1164/rccm.200901-0145ED
  • Macdonald, HM. (2009). 'Alcohol and recommendations for bone health: should we still exercise caution?'. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol 89, no. 4, pp. 999-1000.
    [Online] DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.27574

Abstracts

  • Hardcastle, AC., Kyle, J., Duthie, G., McNeill, G., Reid, DM. & MacDonald, HM. (2007). 'Dietary flavonoid intake is associated with bone mineral density in early postmenopausal Scottish women'. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol 22, no. 7, pp. 1121-1122.
  • Hardcastle, AC., Kyle, J., Duthie, G., McNeill, G., Reid, DM. & Macdonald, HM. (2005). 'Dietary flavonoid intakes in early postmenopausal Scottish women'. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, vol 64, no. 1a, pp. 85A-85A.
    [Online] DOI: 10.1079/PNS2004XXX

Books and Reports

Commissioned Reports

  • De Roos, B., Sneddon, AA. & Macdonald, HM. (2012). Fish as a dietary source of healthy long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA) and vitamin D: A Review of the current literature. Food and Health Innovation Service.

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