The Aberdeen Bestiary

Folio 91r - the parts of man's body, continued.De etate hominis; Of the age of man.


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Commentary, Translation and Transcription

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It is not part of the project to provide a definitive edition of the text of the Bestiary, but to help readers by providing a transcription and translation of the text. Currently the following editorial conventions obtain:

Text

  1. The original capitalisation is retained, but capitals have been added for personal and place names, excluding deus and diabolus.
  2. The original punctuation, including a point and inverted semi-colon (both serving as commas), and a point (serving as a full stop), is represented by comma, full stop and question-mark; a colon has been inserted before quotations.
  3. Suggested readings are in [ ].
  4. Variants from other Bestiary texts (eg Ashmole 1511 and Patrologia Latina 176) are added where they indicate a corruption, elucidate a meaning and replace excised text. They are represented as [A: PL:]

Translation

  1. Direct quotations from the Bible, where identified, are cited from the Authorised Version in ( ).
  2. Paraphrased quotations are identified where possible and indicated as: (see Job, 18:22).
  3. Suggested translations of corrupt words are in [ ].
  4. Capitalisation is sparing; additional punctuation has been used where necessary to give the sense. Paragraphs have been created to break up the text.
if her seed is stronger; for this reason countenances have a similar appearance. Infants who have the face of both parents were conceived in an equal mix of their their paternal and maternal seed. They resemble grandparents and great-grandparents because, just as there are many seeds hidden in the earth, so there are seeds hidden in mankind, which give us the features of our ancestors. From the paternal seed girls are born; from the maternal, boys; because each birth consists of a double seed, and when the greater of the two parts overcomes the other, it produces a similarity in sex. In our body certain things are created for a functional purpose, such as the intestines; some for utility and ornament, like the sensory organs on the face and the hands and feet on the body. The usefulness of these parts is great and their appearance most seemly. Some are there for ornament only, like men's nipples and the navel in both sexes. Some are there to distinguish one sex from the other, like the genitals, the long beard and the broad chest in men; the soft cheeks and narrow breast in women; but for conceiving and carrying babies their loins and hips are widened. What pertains to man and the parts of his body has already been said; now we will go on to the ages of his life. Of the age of man There are six stages of life. Infancy, childhood, adolescence, youth, maturity and old age. The first age is infancy, which lasts from the time the child enters the light till it is seven. The second is childhood, that is, when the child is pure and not yet old enough to generate young; it extends to the fourteenth year. The third is adolescence, when the child is old enough to generate children; it lasts until the twenty-eighth year. The fourth is youth, the the most robust of all the ages; it ends in the fiftieth year. The fifth age is that of riper years, that is, of maturity, and represents the movement away from youth to

Text

Isidore on heredity. The Six Stages of Life.

Comment

Type 3 initial to introduce a new section, on the six stages of life.

Folio Attributes

  • Initial Type 3

    Initial Type 3

    Initial Type 3
    Type 3 initial. Detail from f.77v

    Type 3 is the most luxurious: a gold letter is framed by a blue or brown patterned square (f.3r, f.5v); or the other way around with a painted letter and gilded frame (f.36v, f.77v). On f.36v there are tiny red circles found on the clothing of God and Adam in quire A. Therefore the initials of type 3 are also by the main illuminator. Type 3 may occupy only two lines as in quire A or up to eight lines on f.77v. It is generally, but not always, used to signal a particularly significant section. So, it is used in the Creation sequence, and the start of the Bestiary proper. On f.25v it is used to highlight the start of a section on birds derived from the Aviarium by Hugo of Fouilloy, as distinct from the general bird section deriving from the ‘standard’ bestiary on f.25r. In the latter part of the book where there are fewer illustrations it is used to introduce the next category (f.72r passim): worms and insects, fish, trees, Isidore on the nature of man, Isidore on human body parts, and the condition of man. Three individual topics are given particular emphasis with the type 3 initial: the hoopoe (f.36r) famous for its filial piety; the magpie, likened to a poet (f.36v) and the perindens tree which can be understood as God (f.64v).

Transcription

si ma[t]ris hac ratione[s] similes exprimi vultus. Qui autem\ utriusque parentis figuram reddunt, equaliter mixto pa\terno maternoque semine concipiuntur. Avorum proavorumque\ similes fieri, quia sicut in terra multa semina occulta\ sic in hominibus semina celantur, nobis figuram parentum\ redditura. Ex paterno autem semine puellas nasci, et\ ex materno pueros, quia omnis partus constat duplici se\mine, cuius pars maior cum involvit, occupat similitudi\nem sexus. In corpore nostro quedam et utilitatis causa facta\ sunt ut viscera, quedam et utilitatis et decoris ut sensus in\ facie, et in corpore manus et pedes. Quorum membrorum et uti\litas magna est, et species decentissima. Quedam tantum\ decoris, ut mamille in viris, et in utroque sexu umbilicus. Que\dam discretionis ut in viris genitalia, barba prolixa, pectus\ amplum. In mulieribus leves gene et angustum pectus, ad\ concipiendos autem et portandos fetus renes et latera dilatata.\ Quod ad hominem et partes attinet corporis ex parte dictum\ est, nunc etatis [PL, etates] eius subiungamus. \ De etate hominis \ Gradus etatis vi sunt. Infancia, puericia,\ adolescentia, iuventus, gravitas, atque se\nectus. Prima etas infantia est, pueri nas\centis ad lucem, que porrigit in vii annis.\ Secunda puericia est, id est pura et nec dum ad\ generandum apta, tendens usque ad quartum decimum an\num. Tercia adolescentia ad gignendum adulta, que porri\gitur usque viginti octo annos. Quarta iuventus firmissima\ omnium etatum finiens in quinquagesimo anno. Quinta\ etas senioris, id est gravitas que est declinatio a iuventute in\

Translation

if her seed is stronger; for this reason countenances have a similar appearance. Infants who have the face of both parents were conceived in an equal mix of their their paternal and maternal seed. They resemble grandparents and great-grandparents because, just as there are many seeds hidden in the earth, so there are seeds hidden in mankind, which give us the features of our ancestors. From the paternal seed girls are born; from the maternal, boys; because each birth consists of a double seed, and when the greater of the two parts overcomes the other, it produces a similarity in sex. In our body certain things are created for a functional purpose, such as the intestines; some for utility and ornament, like the sensory organs on the face and the hands and feet on the body. The usefulness of these parts is great and their appearance most seemly. Some are there for ornament only, like men's nipples and the navel in both sexes. Some are there to distinguish one sex from the other, like the genitals, the long beard and the broad chest in men; the soft cheeks and narrow breast in women; but for conceiving and carrying babies their loins and hips are widened. What pertains to man and the parts of his body has already been said; now we will go on to the ages of his life. Of the age of man There are six stages of life. Infancy, childhood, adolescence, youth, maturity and old age. The first age is infancy, which lasts from the time the child enters the light till it is seven. The second is childhood, that is, when the child is pure and not yet old enough to generate young; it extends to the fourteenth year. The third is adolescence, when the child is old enough to generate children; it lasts until the twenty-eighth year. The fourth is youth, the the most robust of all the ages; it ends in the fiftieth year. The fifth age is that of riper years, that is, of maturity, and represents the movement away from youth to
  • Commentary

    Text

    Isidore on heredity. The Six Stages of Life.

    Comment

    Type 3 initial to introduce a new section, on the six stages of life.

    Folio Attributes

    • Initial Type 3

      Initial Type 3

      Initial Type 3
      Type 3 initial. Detail from f.77v

      Type 3 is the most luxurious: a gold letter is framed by a blue or brown patterned square (f.3r, f.5v); or the other way around with a painted letter and gilded frame (f.36v, f.77v). On f.36v there are tiny red circles found on the clothing of God and Adam in quire A. Therefore the initials of type 3 are also by the main illuminator. Type 3 may occupy only two lines as in quire A or up to eight lines on f.77v. It is generally, but not always, used to signal a particularly significant section. So, it is used in the Creation sequence, and the start of the Bestiary proper. On f.25v it is used to highlight the start of a section on birds derived from the Aviarium by Hugo of Fouilloy, as distinct from the general bird section deriving from the ‘standard’ bestiary on f.25r. In the latter part of the book where there are fewer illustrations it is used to introduce the next category (f.72r passim): worms and insects, fish, trees, Isidore on the nature of man, Isidore on human body parts, and the condition of man. Three individual topics are given particular emphasis with the type 3 initial: the hoopoe (f.36r) famous for its filial piety; the magpie, likened to a poet (f.36v) and the perindens tree which can be understood as God (f.64v).

  • Translation
    if her seed is stronger; for this reason countenances have a similar appearance. Infants who have the face of both parents were conceived in an equal mix of their their paternal and maternal seed. They resemble grandparents and great-grandparents because, just as there are many seeds hidden in the earth, so there are seeds hidden in mankind, which give us the features of our ancestors. From the paternal seed girls are born; from the maternal, boys; because each birth consists of a double seed, and when the greater of the two parts overcomes the other, it produces a similarity in sex. In our body certain things are created for a functional purpose, such as the intestines; some for utility and ornament, like the sensory organs on the face and the hands and feet on the body. The usefulness of these parts is great and their appearance most seemly. Some are there for ornament only, like men's nipples and the navel in both sexes. Some are there to distinguish one sex from the other, like the genitals, the long beard and the broad chest in men; the soft cheeks and narrow breast in women; but for conceiving and carrying babies their loins and hips are widened. What pertains to man and the parts of his body has already been said; now we will go on to the ages of his life. Of the age of man There are six stages of life. Infancy, childhood, adolescence, youth, maturity and old age. The first age is infancy, which lasts from the time the child enters the light till it is seven. The second is childhood, that is, when the child is pure and not yet old enough to generate young; it extends to the fourteenth year. The third is adolescence, when the child is old enough to generate children; it lasts until the twenty-eighth year. The fourth is youth, the the most robust of all the ages; it ends in the fiftieth year. The fifth age is that of riper years, that is, of maturity, and represents the movement away from youth to
  • Transcription
    si ma[t]ris hac ratione[s] similes exprimi vultus. Qui autem\ utriusque parentis figuram reddunt, equaliter mixto pa\terno maternoque semine concipiuntur. Avorum proavorumque\ similes fieri, quia sicut in terra multa semina occulta\ sic in hominibus semina celantur, nobis figuram parentum\ redditura. Ex paterno autem semine puellas nasci, et\ ex materno pueros, quia omnis partus constat duplici se\mine, cuius pars maior cum involvit, occupat similitudi\nem sexus. In corpore nostro quedam et utilitatis causa facta\ sunt ut viscera, quedam et utilitatis et decoris ut sensus in\ facie, et in corpore manus et pedes. Quorum membrorum et uti\litas magna est, et species decentissima. Quedam tantum\ decoris, ut mamille in viris, et in utroque sexu umbilicus. Que\dam discretionis ut in viris genitalia, barba prolixa, pectus\ amplum. In mulieribus leves gene et angustum pectus, ad\ concipiendos autem et portandos fetus renes et latera dilatata.\ Quod ad hominem et partes attinet corporis ex parte dictum\ est, nunc etatis [PL, etates] eius subiungamus. \ De etate hominis \ Gradus etatis vi sunt. Infancia, puericia,\ adolescentia, iuventus, gravitas, atque se\nectus. Prima etas infantia est, pueri nas\centis ad lucem, que porrigit in vii annis.\ Secunda puericia est, id est pura et nec dum ad\ generandum apta, tendens usque ad quartum decimum an\num. Tercia adolescentia ad gignendum adulta, que porri\gitur usque viginti octo annos. Quarta iuventus firmissima\ omnium etatum finiens in quinquagesimo anno. Quinta\ etas senioris, id est gravitas que est declinatio a iuventute in\
Folio 91r - the parts of man's body, continued.De etate hominis; Of the age of man. | The Aberdeen Bestiary | The University of Aberdeen