Montrose, James Graham, Marquis of

Biography: 1st Marquess of Montrose. Royalist army officer. Studied in Glasgow 1624-7, St Andrews 1627-29. Travelled abroad 1632-6. In England 1636, may have been slighted by Charles I whilst there. Initially supported the covenanters 1637-9, but in secret correspondence with the King by the end of 1639. Signed the Cumbernauld bond 1640, alliance against the earl of Argyll but still upholding the covenant. Imprisoned as a plotter June- Nov 1641, after correspondence with king became known. Tried to rally Scottish royalists to deter covenanters invasion of England, but failed. Appointed lieutenant-general Feb 1644, created marquess May 1644. Decided to rally the royalists of the north-east lowlands and the highlands. Won 6 victories 1644-5, aimed to establish a royalist regime after Kilsyth but had to flee back to the highlands after defeat at Philiphaugh. Victories weren't enough to bring him support. Made lieutenant-governor and captain-general 1645. Admired in Europe for his victories, 1645-9. Authorised by Charles II to negotiate with all kings and princes for military aid 1649, travelled widely in Europe. Occupied the Orkneys 1649, to pose a military threat and force the covenanters into negotiations with the King. Order of the Garter 1649. Landed on the mainland and advanced south, defeated at Carbisdale by a surprise attack. Escaped but captured at Assynt and sent to Edinburgh 1650. Hung, drawn and quartered 1650.

Biography Date: 1612-1650

Biography References: LOC; CERL; DNB;

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