Professor in Biological Sciences
Professor, Biological Sciences (2015-present)
Director of Teaching, School of Biological Sciences (2013-present)
Senior Lecturer in Tropical Forestry (2007-2015)
Deputy Director of Teaching, School of Biological Sciences (2011-2013)
Postgraduate Taught Programme Coordinator, School of Biological Sciences (2009-2013)
Postgraduate Research Student Coordinator, School of Biological Sciences (2008-2009)
MSc Forestry Programme Coordinator (2001-2012)
Lecturer in Tropical Forestry (1996-2007)
Ph.D., Plant Ecology, Department of Botany, University of Florida, USA, 1995.
M.Sc., Plant Ecology, Department of Botany, University of Florida, USA, 1991.
Secondary Education Teaching Certificate, Eastern Oregon State College, USA, 1985.
B.Sc., Wildlife & Fisheries Biology, University of Vermont, USA, 1982.
My research is in the discipline of conservation science but also pedagogic.
My disciplinary research sits at the interface between ecology and forest use, either for management, conservation or livelihoods. I work mainly in lowland and montane regions in the tropics, in Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Ethiopia, Ghana, Brazil and Bolivia. I am best known for my work on regeneration issues in logged forests, carbon offsets in forestry, and reduced-impact logging. I also work on silvicultural problems related to the selection of trees for felling and retention in natural forests managed for timber.
My recent PhD students work on conservation conflicts and governance as it relates to livelihoods and natural resource use.
Recently, with colleagues in the Aberdeen Centre for Sustainability and partners in Bolivia and Brazil, we completed a project aimed to understanding how deforestation affects rural people’s well-being. The project involved understanding rural people’s perspective on poverty and exploring how forest loss and current environmental management practice and policies relate to human impoverishment.
My pedagogic research has focused on capacity building of doctoral students and conservation practitioners, the links between learning, interdisciplinarity and natural resource management or conservation. I also have an interest in iterative feedback, inclusive assessments, the delivery and assessment of practical skills in the biological sciences and field-based learning.
Shared, Plural and Cultural Values of Ecosystems (with J Kenter (UA) and M Reed (Birmingham City University; DEFRA National Ecosystem Assessment Grant).
Forest dependent poor at the agricultural frontier: the complexity of poverty and the promise of sustainable forest ecosystems in Amazonia (with A Ioris and S Shubin (UA), IBIF, Bolivia, Museo Goeldi, Belem and EMBRAPA, Brazil; Ecosystem Services and Poverty Alleviation Partnership and Project Develoment Grant).
Buffer zone restoration and development in Knuckles Forest Reserve, Sri Lanka (with U Peradeniya, Darwin Initiative).
Biodiversity Monitoring in Forest Ecosystems in Bale Mountains Park, Ethiopia (with BMNP, Darwin Initiative).
Silvicultural intervention in tropical moist forest in Ghana: an assessment of forest responses and stakeholder priorities. Tropenbos Ghana Project. (with E Foli, Forest Research Institute Ghana).
Modelling composition and performance of timber tree regeneration after selective logging. Tropenbos Ghana Project. (with M D Swaine, U Aberden; K Adam, Forest Research Institute Ghana, and F Bongers, Wageningen Agricultural University).
Silviculture and economics of improved natural forest management in Ghana. International Tropical Timber Organization. (with Ghana Forestry Department, Forest Research Institute Ghana, Ghana Timber Millers Organisation).
Rural livelihoods and carbon managementj. Department for International Development, UK. (with S Bass, IIED; P Moura-Costa, Ecosecurities; and R Tipper, U Edinburgh).
Disturbance and regeneration in tropical rain forest: the importance of biotic interactions. British Ecological Society, Overseas Research Programme. (with D Burslem, U Aberdeen; S Compton, U Leeds; J Ghazoul, Imperial College; S Hartley, U Sussex; M Press and J Scholes, U Sheffield).
I am the Director of Teaching for the School of Biological Sciences.
Currently I co-ordinate Ecology, Society and Conservation (EK5510) and Statistical Analysis of Biological Data (BI3010). I also teach into Frontiers in Biological Sciences (BI1009), Biological Enhanced Skills Training (BI2018), Ecology (BI2020) and Plants, People and the Environment (BI25P4).
I have supervised 23 PhD students, 40 MSc students and 46 BSc Honours students. Over half of the project students that I have supervised have worked overseas. For a list of the students and projects that I have supervised, look under the Further Info tab.
- Further Info
My current external responsibilities include the following:
Trustee for the Scottish Forestry Trust
Subject Editor, Conservation Letters
Subject Editor, Biotropica
UA Representative for the Society of Biology
I am the Director of Teaching for the School of Biological Sciences.
Morris-Trainor, Z., current, Impact of Cashmere Production on Wild Herbivores and Snow Leopards in the Himalayas
Heinon, J., 2015, Socio-ecological modeling of human-wildlife conflicts.
Sage, P., 2015, Drivers of change in mangrove forests of the Philippines.
Kenter, J., 2014, Novel approaches to valuation of ecosystem services.
Tadesse Wakjira, D., 2013, Community-based natural resource management in Ethiopia.
Mogollones, S., 2013, Factors influencing natural regeneration in degraded grasslands of Knuckles Forest Reserve, Sri Lanka.
Dhakal, B., 2011, Restoration of forests with residual stands of cardamom in Knuckles Forest of Sri Lanka.
Everly, A., 2010, Evaluating the effectiveness of community participation in a mink eradication project.
Fisher, C., 2010, Villager’s perspectives and priorities for forest restoration in Knuckles Range in Sri Lanka.
Salim, J., 2010, Tree response and resistance to damage in dipterocarp forest in Sabah.
Lincoln, P., 2008, Carbon accumulation during forest recovery from selective logging of dipterocarp forest in Sabah, Malaysia.
Barnes, R., 2008, Ecological assessment of fuels and potential for fuel treatment in Ghanaian forests.
Mamo, Y., 2007, Conservation biology of mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni) in Bale Mountains, Ethiopia.
Ong, R. C., 2006, The silviculture of logged-over dipterocarp forest in Sabah.
Foli, E., 2005, Silvicultural interventions in moist forest in Ghana: an assessment of forest responses and stakeholder priorities.
Birhanu, T., 2005, Rehabilitation of degraded woodlands in the Amhara Region, Ethiopia.
Sudin, M., 2005, Development of wood decay in wounded Parashorea trees.
Freitas, J., 2004, Alternative rules for selection of trees for felling and retention: consideration of spatial and ecological factors.
Adam, A. R., 2003, Tree selection rules for felling and retention to enhance the productivity and sustainability of forest management in Ghana.
Guinart, D., 1997, Mammals of seasonally dry tropical forest in Lomerio, Bolivia.
MSc Project Students
Jones S, 2014, A comparison of understorey vegetation in abandoned harvested stands with native pine forests in central Chile.
Reidy K, 2014, Silvicultural treatments influence micro-habitat selection by deer and the vigour of bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus in Inschriach Forest, Scotland.
Ross P, 2013, The response of bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus and associated herbivorous insects to plantation silviculture in Inshriach Forest, Scotland.
Harrower B, 2012, Urban deer management in Scotland: a comparison of three approaches.
Johnson J, 2012, Mangrove responses to environmental disturbance in the Caribbean.
Abadom Tochukwu I, 2011, Detrimental health effects of pesticides on small farms in Pakistan: problems and prospects.
Neoh R, 2011, Challenges in monitoring the carbon benefits of enrichment planting and stand improvement treatments in logged-over tropical forests: a case study of the INFAPRO Project in Sabah, Malaysia.
Wei Min, 2011, Effects of cardamom cultivation on tree regeneration in the tropical montane forest of the Knuckles Forest Reserve, Sri Lanka.
Bhandari S, 2010, An assessment of non-timber forest products in Humla District, Nepal: collectors perspectives on changes in abundance and distribution.
Hueck D, 2010, Incentives for tree planting and participating in community-based group activities in rural villages in Northern Tanzania.
Karki K, 2010, Determining the cause of deforestations through remote sensing and participatory assessments in Makawanpur District, Nepal.
Belcon K, 2009, Learning, flexible thinking and adaptive capacity in the Trinidad Forest Department.
Cho P, 2009, Patterns of distribution of timber species across a neo-tropical landscape and the implications for tropical forest management in Belize.
Murtala A Mohd, 2009, Rural Energy: Fuelwood Scarcity, Adaptation and Tree management A Case study of Tsanyawa district of Kano state, Northern Nigeria.
Trim W, 2009, Types, extent and causes of abandoned agroforestry innovations, and opportunities for idle lands, Northeast Tobago.
Tomlinson F, 2009, Spatial analysis of logging gaps and forest recovery in dipterocarp forest.
Barnes JD, 2008, A study of geographic genetic variation on two populations of aspen (Populus tremula) in North East Scotland.
Pain R, 2008, A comparison of the felling impacts from illegal and legal logging in moist forest in Ghana.
Hrdlicka J, 2008, Altitudinal gradient, forest structure and regeneration of Harenna forest, Ethiopia
Khandu Y, 2007, Regeneration and expansion of native pinewoods of Birse Forest in Scotland.
Bibi M Safwan, 2006, A comparative study of selective logging in Brunei and Malaysia.
Dhakal B, 2005, Community forestry and poverty reduction in Nepal: perspectives on forest dependency, benefit-sharing, resource governance and overall livelihoods to the poor.
Wilks M, 2004, Orangutan habitat quality in dipterocarp forest in Sabah: a comparison of conventional and reduced-impact logging areas.
Kervell D, 2001, Structural complexity in planted and semi-natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests.
Banda G, 2001, Evaluation of five years of co-management of Chimaliro Forest Reserve, Malawi.
Hinton P, 2000, Small-scale forestry operations in Scotland: a case study of the Dun Beagg Project.
Hook J, 2000, Rehabilitation of logged forest in Sabah: a case study of the INFAPRO Project.
Lohure Tobiolo M, 2000, Participatory Forest Extension: a curriculum for extension agents in Sudan.
Maripa R, 2000, A comparison of xylem properties in recent sapwood of suppressed and dominant beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees.
Orgle J, 1999, Conflicts and cooperation in the management of non-timber forest products in Ghana.
Evans J, 1998, Restoration of coastal mangroves in Guyana: an action plan.
Tanyi CT, 1998, Evaluation of biodiversity conservation through participatory forest management: a case study of the Mount Cameroon Project.
Lorraine N, 1998, Carbon sequestration through rural development forestry.
Schoonenberg T, 1998, Wounding responses of trees damaged by fire in seasonally dry forest in Bolivia.
Guzman, R, 1998, Ecological guilds of trees in seasonally-dry tropical forests, Bolivia.
Collins F, 1997, A study of the use of pigs to aid natural regeneration of ancient semi-natural oakwoods.
Maclean L, 1997, Effect of seed predation on sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) seeds and their subsequent germination in a forest in Scotland.
BSc Honours Project Students
Drummond D, 2015, Primary school teacher confidence teaching science - is there a problem?
Howell Z, 2015, The University of Aberdeen's Sixth Century Courses: Evaluating the impact of innovative assessments on the students' learning experience.
Rodda J, 2015. Factors associated with roost selection by maternity colonies of the soprano pipistrelle (Pipistrellis pygmaeus) in buildings in the north east of Scotland.
Taylor A, 2015, The effectiveness of science centre exhibits.
Wilkinson A, 2015. The attitudes of young farmers to woodland in Scotland
Hudson C, 2014. The implementation, practice and outcomes of Forest Schools are uniform in nature: A series of case studies of Forest Schools undergone in Aberdeenshire, Scotland.
McCusker D, 2014. The teaching of sustainability in the University of Aberdeen: are students being sent mixed signals?
Pereira J, 2014. Are Botanic Gardens blogging?
Bryson D, 2013. An analysis of biodiversity monitoring along nature trails in the Harenna Forest in the Bale Mountain National Park, Ethiopia.
Golledge C, 2013. Short-term changes in carbohydrate concentration of bracken fern Pteridium aquiliunum rhizomes as a consequence of control through cutting.
Herd C, 2013. Abundance and habitat preference of neotropical primates in Peru.
Telford E, 2013. Diversity and abundance of plants from seed ball aid in the restoration of degraded land
Wiley N, 2013. Livestock densities and interactions with wild ungulates on the Gasay Grasslands, Bale Mountains.
Attah F, 2012. Local attitudes to national fire management strategies in forest zone in Ghana.
Brown R, 2012. Community-based monitoring of resource quality and resource use in Guassa Community Conservation Area, Ethiopia.
Johnson C, 2011. Community-based monitoring of resource use in Bale Mountains National Park.
Banks R, 2011. Bamboo density, distribution and response to harvesting, Bale Mountains.
Becker L, 2011. The impact of forest structure and community composition on microclimatic conditions and decomposition processes within a mangrove forest on Panay Island, Philippines.
Bott M, 2011. Barriors to the adoption of biomass heat projects in Scotland.
Hamilton N, 2011. Conflicts around urban tree management: a case study from Aberdeen.
Banks E, 2010. Community-based mangrove afforestation: an effective and sustainable option for the provision of valuable ecosystem services? A case study from the Philippines.
Baxter A, 2010. Socio-economic implications of biofuel Africa’s jatropha development for local communities in No. Ghana.
Woolf L, 2010. Assessing the state of coarse woody debris in Kirkhill Forest, Aberdeenshire.
Witkos K, 2010. Tourism management in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland.
Moss ID, 2009, A comparison of the effects of two logging methods on forest structure in tropical moist forest in Ghana.
Mastrogiovanni B, 2009, Slums and the Environment: A Case Study of Residents Perspectives on Environmental Issues in a Slum in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Taylor P, 2008, The implementation of butterfly farming in the Arabuko- Sokoke Forest, Kenya, as a means of enhancing livelihoods and conserving indigenous forest.
Freeman A, 2008, Forest Canopy Damage and Regeneration Success following Reduced-Impact and Conventional Logging Methods in Sabah, Malaysia: analysed by aerial photographs.
Branston N, 2004, Evaluation of benefit-sharing arrangements in support of community-based wildlife conservation in Namibia.
Aiken R, 2003, Liana recovery following cutting and selective logging in dipterocarp forest, Sabah, Malaysia.
Lobo E, 2003, Modelling seed shadows to inform rules for seed tree retention in tropical moist forest in Ghana.
Pratt E, 2003, Teaching forestry to school children in Britain - teachers' attitudes and materials available.
Cadman J, 2003, A comparison of rural and urban attitudes towards forest recreation.
Ramanyaka T, 2001, Indigenous systems of soil management in Malealea, Lesotho.
McDonald E, 1999, Habitat requirements of nine-banded armadillo in seasonally dry tropical forest in Bolivia.
Lowe T, 1999, Compatibility of managing small woodlands in Wales for timber and non-timber forest products.
Fotherington S, 1998, Fire susceptibility of Scottish managed forests: fuel moisture and fuel loads in stands, and the relationship between bark thickness and diameter at breast height for common British tree species.
Latchford R, 1998, An investigation into the population structure and population growth dynamics of the palm, Euterpe precatoria Mart., in northeastern Bolivia.
Leach R, 1998, Implications of changes in the minimum harvesting diameter on population stability of Machaerium scleroxylon in seasonally dry tropical forest, Bolivia.
Kugan M, 1998, Silvicultural needs of logged forest in Sabah, Malaysia.
Winarni T, 1998, A comparison of changes in tree species composition following conventional and reduced-impact logging in old growth dipterocarp forest in Sabah, Malaysia.
Arellano JA, 1997, Effect of gap size on tree seedling growth and allometry.
Titze E, 1996, Susceptibility of logged and unlogged forests to fires, Bolivia.
Vezega R, 1996, Herbivore damage to commercial tree seedlings in felling gaps, Bolivia.
Aguape R, 1996, Availability of fruit resources important for mammals in gallery forests, Bolivia.
Montaño G, 1996, A study of the vegetation and ethnobotany of 3 Izozeño communities in eastern Bolivia.
Fuentes J, 1995, Determination of minimum cutting diameters using ecological characteristics, Bolivia.
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- Galante, MV, Pinard, MA & Mencuccini, M 2018, 'Estimating Carbon Avoided from the Implementation of Reduced-Impact Logging in Sabah, Malaysia', International Forestry Review, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 58-78. [Online] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1505/146554818822824192
- Dhakal, B, Pinard, MA, Gunatilleke, IAUN, Gunatilleke, CVS & Burslem, DFRP 2015, 'Strategies for restoring tree seedling recruitment in high conservation value tropical montane forests underplanted with cardamom', Applied Vegetation Science, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 121-133. [Online] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12129
- Sist, P, Rutishauser, E, Peña-Claros, M, Shenkin, A, Hérault, B, Blanc, L, Baraloto, C, Baya, F, Benedet, F, da Silva, KE, Descroix, L, Ferreira, JN, Gourlet-Fleury, S, Guedes, MC, Bin Harun, I, Jalonen, R, Kanashiro, M, Krisnawati, H, Kshatriya, M, Lincoln, P, Mazzei, L, Medjibé, V, Nasi, R, d'Oliveira, MVN, de Oliveira, LC, Picard, N, Pietsch, S, Pinard, M, Priyadi, H, Putz, FE, Rodney, K, Rossi, V, Roopsind, A, Ruschel, AR, Shari, NHZ, Rodrigues de Souza, C, Susanty, FH, Sotta, ED, Toledo, M, Vidal, E, West, TAP, Wortel, V & Yamada, T 2015, 'The Tropical managed forests Observatory: A research network addressing the future of tropical logged forests', Applied Vegetation Science, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 171-174. [Online] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12125
- Putz, FE, Zuidema, PA, Synnott, T, Peña-Claros, M, Pinard, MA, Sheil, D, Vanclay, JK, Sist, P, Gourlet-Fleury, S, Palmer, J, Zagt, R & Griscom, B 2014, 'A More Realistic Portrayal of Tropical Forestry: Response to Kormos and Zimmerman', Conservation Letters, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 145-146. [Online] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12044
- Duah-Gyamfi, A, Swaine, EK, Adam, KA, Pinard, MA & Swaine, MD 2014, 'Can harvesting for timber in tropical forest enhance timber tree regeneration?', Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 314, pp. 26-37. [Online] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.11.025
- Barker, M & Pinard, M 2014, 'Closing the feedback loop? Iterative feedback between tutor and student in coursework assessments', Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 899-915. [Online] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2013.875985
- Wakjira, DT, Fischer, A & Pinard, MA 2013, 'Governance change and institutional adaptation: a case study from Harenna Forest, Ethiopia', Environmental Management, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 912-925. [Online] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-013-0017-9
- Shimelis, A, Pinard, M & Asefa, A 2013, 'Impact of forest structure simplification on bird species richness in the Harena forest of the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP), South Eastern Ethiopia', Nature Environment and Pollution Technology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 321-324.
- Heinonen, JPM, Travis, JMJ, Redpath, SM & Pinard, MA 2012, Combining socio-economic and ecological modelling to inform natural resource management strategies. in iEMSs 2012 - Managing Resources of a Limited Planet: Proceedings of the 6th Biennial Meeting of the International Environmental Modelling and Software Society. pp. 2545-2558, 6th Biennial Meeting of the International Environmental Modelling and Software Society: Managing Resources of a Limited Planet, iEMSs 2012, Leipzig, Germany, 1/07/12.
- Dhakal, B, Pinard, MA, Gunatilleke, IAUN, Gunatilleke, CVS, Weerasinghe, HMSPM, Dharmaparakrama, ALS & Burslem, DFRP 2012, 'Impacts of cardamom cultivation on montane forest ecosystems in Sri Lanka', Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 274, pp. 151-160. [Online] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.02.021
- Putz, FE, Zuidema, PA, Synnott, T, Pena-Claros, M, Pinard, MA, Sheil, D, Vanclay, JK, Sist, P, Gourlet-Fleury, S, Griscom, B, Palmer, J & Zagt, R 2012, 'Sustaining conservation values in selectively logged tropical forests: the attained and the attainable', Conservation Letters, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 296-303. [Online] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2012.00242.x
- Evely, AC, Pinard, M, Reed, MS & Fazey, I 2011, 'High levels of participation in conservation projects enhance learning', Conservation Letters, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 116-126. [Online] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2010.00152.x
- Mamo, Y, Pinard, MA & Bekele, A 2010, 'Demography and dynamics of mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni in the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia', Current Zoology, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 660-669.
- de Freitas, JV & Pinard, MA 2008, 'Applying ecological knowledge to decisions about seed tree retention in selective logging in tropical forests', Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 256, no. 7, pp. 1434-1442. [Online] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.03.001
- Putz, FE, Zuidema, PA, Pinard, MA, Boot, RGA, Sayer, JA, Sheil, D, Sist, P, Elias, M & Vanclay, JK 2008, 'Improved tropical forest management for carbon retention', PLoS Biology, vol. 6, no. 7, e166. [Online] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060166
- Evely, AC, Fazey, I, Pinard, M & Lambin, X 2008, 'The Influence of Philosophical Perspectives in Integrative Research: a Conservation Case Study in the Cairngorms National Park', Ecology and Society, vol. 13, no. 2, 52.
- Sudin, M, Woodward, S, Lee, S-S & Pinard, M 2007, 'Wood decay associated with logging wounds in Parashorea malaanonan', Australasian Plant Pathology, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 565-572. [Online] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1071/AP07060
- Barker, MG, Pinard, MA & Nilus, R 2006, 'Allometry and shade tolerance in pole-sized trees of two contrasting dipterocarp species in Sabah, Malaysia', Biotropica, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 437-440. [Online] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2006.00145.x
- Woods, CM, Woodward, S, Pinard, MA & Redfern, DB 2006, 'Colonization of Sitka spruce stumps by decay-causing hymenomycetes in paired inoculations.', Mycological Research, vol. 110, pp. 854-868. [Online] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mycres.2006.02.007
- Adam, KA, Pinard, MA & Swaine, MD 2006, 'Nine decades of regulating timber harvest from forest reserves and the status of residual forests in Ghana', International Forestry Review, vol. 8, pp. 280-296.
- Burslem, DFRP, Pinard, MA & Hartley, SE (eds) 2005, Biotic Interactions in the Tropics: Their Role in the Maintenance of Species Diversity. Ecological Reviews, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
- Pinard, MA 2005, Changes in plant communities associated with timber management in natural forests in the moist tropics. in D Burslem, M Pinard & S Hartley (eds), Biotic Interactions in the Tropics: Their Role in the Maintenance of Species Diversity. Ecological Reviews, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, pp. 530-551.
- Putz, FE, Pinard, MA, Fredericksen, T & Pena, M 2003, Forest science and the Bolfor experience: research in support of natural forest management in Bolivia. in Zarin, D. (ed.), Working Forests. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.. Cambridge University Press, Zarin, D. (ed.), Working Forests. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- Woodward, S, Schooenberg, T & Pinard, MA 2003, 'Responses to wounding in tree species characteristic of seasonally dry tropical forest of Bolivia.', Canadian journal of forest research = Revue canadienne de recherche forestiere, vol. 33, pp. 330-338. [Online] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1139/x02-172
- Sudin, M, Pinard, MA, Lee, SS & Woodward, S 2002, 'Incidence and extent of decay in Parashorea malaanonan following logging using different impact systems in Sabah, Malaysia', Proceedings of the 10th IUFRO Conference on Root and Butt Rot, pp. 343-347.