Crew Resource Management

Completed Projects

Behavioural markers for crew resource management

Prof Rhona Flin and Paul O'Connor, School of Psychology


Crew Resource Management (CRM) is a special type of human factors training given to pilots which is designed to improve team work and to reduce errors on the flight deck. An initial project, funded by the Civil Aviation Authority, Safety Research Group (1997-98) examined the critical behaviours for CRM performance. This study was based on an EC funded European Project (NOTECHS) which developed an evaluation form for pilots' non-technical skills. This group included participants from DLR (Germany), NLR, Sofreavia, and IMASSA (France) participated in a major EC study of non-technical skills (JARTEL) (1997-2000) with DERA, Alitalia and BA.


O'Connor, P., Hormann, H., Flin, R., Lodge, M. & Goeters, K. (2002). Developing a method for evaluating crew resource management: a european perspective. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 12, 263-285.

Mearns, K., Flin, R. & O'Connor, P. (2001). Sharing worlds of risk; improving communication with crew resource management. Journal of Risk Research, 4, 377-392.

Evaluating crew resource management training in the aviation industry

Prof Rhona Flin, Dr Paul O'Connor, and Georgina Fletcher, School of Psychology


The aim of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of human factors training in the aviation industry. All UK pilots are given special human factors training (known as Crew Resource Management training) designed to enhance the skills needed to enable them to work together as safe and efficient crews on the flight deck. These skills include leadership, team working, communication and problem solving. A survey was undertaken of UK air operators to determine how they are evaluating the impact of this training. In addition a literature survey reviewed 48 articles which examined the effectiveness of CRM training in aviation and other high reliability industries.

This project was sponsored by the Civil Aviation Authority Safety Regulation Group.


O'Connor, P., Flin, R. & Fletcher, G. (2002). Techniques used to evaluate crew resource management training: a literature review. Human Factors and Aerospace Safety, 2, 217-233.

O' Connor, P., Flin, R., Fletcher, G. & Hemsley, P. (2002). Methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of CRM training: A survey of UK aviation operators. Human Factors and Aerospace Safety, 2, 235-256.