Trials which evaluate surgical interventions pose distinct issues which impact upon trial design, conduct and analysis. Current research interests are novel trial designs, recruitment and retention of participants and surgeons, the assessment of learning, surgical compliance and the impact of clustering on analysis. This research was supported by a MRC Fellowship.


Craig Ramsay;




Ergina PL, Cook JA, Blazeby JM, Boultron I, Clavien P, Reeves B, Seiler CM, for the Balliol Collaboration. Challenges in evaluating surgical innovation. Lancet, 374: 1097-1104, 2009.

Cook J. The challenges faced in the design, conduct and analysis of surgical randomised trials. Trials 2009;10(9):6 2009.

Cook JA, Ramsay CR, Norrie J. Recruitment to publicly funded trials - Are surgical trials really different? Contemp Clin Trials 2008;29(5):631-634.

Cook JA, Ramsay CR, Fayers P. Using the literature to quantify the learning curve. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 2007;23(2):255-260.