Academic Articles 2007-2004

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Akl EA, Treweek S, Foy C, Francis J, Oxman A, ReBEQI Group. NorthStar, a support tool for the design and evaluation of quality improvement interventions in healthcare. Implementation Sci [serial on the Internet] 2007;2(19):26 June 2007.Available from: URL:

Andrews PJ, Avenell A, Noble D, Campbell MK, Battison CG, Croal BL, Simpson WG, Norrie J, Vale L, Cook JA, de Verteuil R, Milne AC. Randomised trial of glutamine and selenium supplemented parenteral nutrition for critically ill patients.  Protocol Version 9, 19 February 2007.  Known as SIGNET (Scottish Intensive care Glutamine or selenium Evaluative Trial). Trials [serial on the Internet] 2007;8(25):20 September 2007.Available from: URL:

Anton S, McKee L, Farrar S, Harrison S. Involving the public in NHS service planning. J Health Org Manage 2007;21(4-5):470-483.

Avenell A, Cook JA, MacLennan GS, McPherson GC, RECORD Study Group. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent infections: a sub study of a randomised placebo-controlled trial in older people (RECORD trial). Age Ageing 2007;36(5):574-577.

Azuara-Blanco A, Burr J, Thomas RE, MacLennan GS, McPherson S. The accuracy of accredited glaucoma optometrists in the diagnosis and treatment recommendation for glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol 2007;91(12):1639-1643.

Black C, de Verteuil R, Walker S, Ayers S, Boland A, Bagust A, Waugh N. Population screening for lung cancer using CT, is there evidence of clinical effectiveness?  A systematic review of the literature. Thorax 2007;62:131-138.

Bloomfield R, Steel E, MacLennan GS, Noble D. Accuracy of weight and height estimations in an intensive care unit: implications for clinical practice and scientific research. Crit Care Med 2007;34(8):2153-2157.

Bojke L, Hornby E, Sculpher M, REFLUX Trial Group, [Campbell MK], [Grant AM], [Ramsay C], [Vale L], [Wileman S]. A comparison of the cost effectiveness of pharmacotherapy or surgery (laparoscopic fundoplication) in the treatment of GORD. Pharmacoeconomics 2007;25(10):829-841.

Bollapragada S, Norrie J, Norman JE. Review of new regulations for the conduct of clinical trials if investigational medicinal products. BJOG 2007;114(8):917-921.

Buckley BS, Grant AM, Firkins L, Greene A, Frankau J. Working together to identify research questions. Continence UK 2007;1(1):76-81.

Burr J, Mowatt G, Siddiqui MAR, Herandez R, Cook JA, Lourenco T, Ramsay CR, Vale L, Fraser C, Azuara-Blanco A, Deeks J, Cairns J, Wormald R, McPherson S, Wright D, Rabindranath KS, Grant A. The clinical and cost effectiveness of screening for open angle glaucoma: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess 2007;11(41).

Burr J, Kilonzo M, Vale L, Ryan M. Developing a preference based glaucoma utility index using a discrete choice experiment. Optomet Vis Sci 2007;84(8):797-808.

Cameron M, Penney G, MacLennan GS, McCann S, Walker A. Impact on maternity professionals of novel approaches to clinical audit feedback. Evaluat Health Professions 2007;30(1):75-95.

Campbell MK, Snowdon C, Francis D, Elbourne D, McDonald A, Knight R, Entwistle VA, Garcia J, Roberts I, Grant A. Recruitment to randomised trials: Strategies for Trial Enrolment and Participation Study (STEPS). Health Technol Assess 2007;11(48).

Cleland JA, Francis J, Watson M, Inch J, Bond C. Using theory to improve communication: designing a communication skills training package for medicine counter assistants. Int J Pharm Practice 2007;15(1):79-81.

Cook JA, Ramsay CR, Fayers P. Using the literature to quantify the learning curve. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 2007;23(2):255-260.

Cuthbertson BH, Rattray J, Johnston M, Wildsmith JAW, Wilson E, Hernandez R, Ramsay C, Hull A, Norrie J, Campbell MK. A Pragmatic Randomised, Controlled Trial of Intensive Care follow up programmes in improving Longer-term outcomes from critical illness. BMC Health Serv Res [serial on the Internet] 2007;7(116):23 July 2007.

 Cuthbertson BH. A warning on early-warning scores! Br J Anaesth 2007;98(6):704-706.

Cuthbertson BH, Bourjerdi M, Aucott L, Prescott GJ. Can physiological parameters and early warning scoring systems allow early recognition of the deteriorating surgical patient? Crit Care Med 2007;35:402-409.

Cuthbertson BH. The impact of critical care outreach. Crit Care Med 2007;30:179.

Cuthbertson BH, Card G, Croal BL, McNeilly J, Hillis G. The utility of B-type natriuretic peptide in predicting postoperative cardiac events and mortality in patients undergoing major emergency non-cardiac surgery. Anaesthesia 2007;62:875-881.

Cuthbertson BH, Amiri AR, Croal BL, Rajagopalan S, Brittenden J, Hillis G. Utility of B-type natriuretic peptide in predicting medium-term mortality in patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery. Am J Cardiol 2007;100(8):1310-1313.

Cuthbertson BH, Amiri AR, Croal BL, Rajagopalan S, Alozairi O, Brittenden J, Hillis G. Utility of b-type natriuretic peptide in predicting peri-operative cardiac events in patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery. Br J Anaesth 2007;99(2):170-176.

de Verteuil R, Hernandez R, Vale L, Aberdeen (HERU) HTA Review Group. Economic evaluation of laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 2007;23(4):464-472.

Dombrowski S, Sniehotta F, Avenell A, Coyne JC. Towards a cumulative science of behaviour change: do current conduct and reporting of behavioural interventions fall short of best practice?[editorial]. Psychol Health 2007;22(8):869-874.

Eagles JM, Scott NW, Cameron IM, Wileman SM, Naji SA. Dates of birth and seasonal changes in well-being among 4904 subjects completing the seasonal pattern assessment questionnaire. J Affect Disord 2007;104:161-165.

Eccles M, Johnston M, Hrisos S, Francis J, Grimshaw J, Steen N, Kaner E. Translating clinicians' beliefs into implementation interventions (TRACII): an intervention modeling experiment to change clinicians' intentions to implement evidence-based practice. Implementation Sci [serial on the Internet] 2007;2(27):16 August 2007.

Eccles MP, Grimshaw JM, Johnston M, Steen N, Pitts N, Thomas RE, Glidewell L, MacLennan GS, Bonetti D, Walker AE. Applying psychological theory to evidence-based clinical practice: Identifying factors predictive of managing upper resiratory tract infections without antibiotics. Implementation Sci [serial on the Internet] 2007;2(25):5 August 2007.

Fayers P, Langston AL, Robertson C, PRISM Trial Group. Implicit self-comparisons against others could bias quality of life assessments. J Clin Epidemiol 2007;60:1034-1039.

Forrest Keenan K, Miedzybrodzka ZH, van Teijlingen E, McKee L, Simpson SA. Young peoples experiences of growing up in a family affected by Huntington's disease. Clin Genet 2007;71(2):120-129.

Foy R, Francis J, Johnston M, Lecouturier J, Bamford C, Grimshaw J. The development of a theory-based intervention to promote appropriate disclosure of a diagnosis of dementia. BMC Health Serv Res [serial on the Internet] 2007;7(207):19 December 2007.

Francis D, Roberts I, Elbourne D, Shakur H, Knight R, Garcia J, Snowdon C, Entwistle VA, McDonald A, Grant AM, Campbell MK.  Marketing and clinical trials: a case study. Trials [serial on the Internet] 2007;8(37):20 November 2007.

Francis J, Grimshaw J, Zwarenstein M, Eccles M, Shiller S, Godin G, Johnston M, O'Rourke K, Presseau J, Tetroe J. Testing a TheoRY-inspired MEssage ('TRY-ME'): a sub-trial within the Ontario Printed Educational Message (OPEM) trial. Implementation Sci [serial on the Internet] 2007;2(39):26 November 2007.

 Gibson P, Croal BL, Cuthbertson BH, Small GR, Ifezulike AI, Gibson G, Jeffrey RR, Buchan KG, El-Shafei H, Hillis G. Preoperative neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and outcome from coronary artery bypass grafting. Am Heart J 2007;154(5):995-1002.

Grimshaw J, Zwarenstein M, Tetroe J, Godin G, Graham I, Lemyre L, Eccles M, Johnston M, Francis J, Hux J, O'Rourke K, Legare F, Presseau J. Looking inside the black box: A theory based process evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial of printed educational materials (The Ontario Printed Educational Message (OPEM) Trial). Implementation Sci [serial on the Internet] 2007;2(38):26 November 2007.

Hernandez R, Vale L. The value of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in the diagnosis and management of angina and myocardial infarction: a probabilistic analysis. Med Decis Making 2007;27(12):772-788.

Hillis G, Cuthbertson BH, Croal BL. Renal function, revascularization and risk. Eur Heart J 2007;28:782-784.

Hull A, Cuthbertson BH. Psychological consequences of critical illness: aftercare or an afterthought? Br J Hosp Med 2007;68:474-476.

Jia X, Mowatt G, Burr J, Cassar K, Cook JA, Fraser C. Systematic review of the safety and efficacy of foam sclerotherapy for venous disease of the lower limbs. Br J Surg 2007;94(8):925-936.

Keogh-Brown MR, Bachmann MO, Shepstone L, Hewitt C, Howe A, Ramsay CR, Song F, Miles JNV. Contamination in trials of educational interventions. Health Technol Assess 2007;11(43).

Kilonzo M, Vale L, Cook J, Milne AC, Stephen A, Avenell A, MAVIS Trial Group. A cost-utility analysis of multivitamin and multimineral supplements in men and women aged 65 years and over. Clin Nutr 2007;26(3):364-370.

Koretz RL, Avenell A, Lipman TO, Braunschweig CL, Milne AC. Does enteral nutrition affect clinical outcome? Am J Gastroenterol 2007;102(2):412-429.

Langston AL, Campbell MK, Fraser WD, MacLennan GS, Selby PL, Ralston SH. Clinical determinants of Quality of Life of Paget's disease of bone. Calcif Tissue Int 2007;80(1):1-9.

Macran S, Wileman SM, Barton G, Russell I, REFLUX Trial Group. The development of a new measure of quality of life in the management of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: the REFLUX questionnaire. Qual Life Res 2007;16(2):331-343.

McCormack K, Rabindranath KS, Kilonzo M, Vale L, Fraser C, McIntyre L, Thomas S, Rothnie H, Fluck N, Gould I, Waugh N. Systematic review of the effectiveness of preventing and treating Staphylococcus aureus carriage on peritoneal catheter-related infections. Health Technol Assess 2007;11(23).

McNeil G, Avenell A, Campbell MK, Cook JA, Hannaford P, Kilonzo M, Milne AC, Ramsay CR, Seymour DG, Stephen A, Vale L. Effect of multivitamin and multimineral supplementation on cognitive function in men and women aged 65 years and over: a randomised controlled trial. Nutrit J [serial on the Internet] 2007;6(10):2 May 2007.

Nabi G, Cook JA, McClinton S, N'Dow J. Outcomes of stenting following uncomplicated ureteroscopy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Br Med J 2007;334(7593):572-579.

Norrie J. Trials of venous thromboembolism prevention. Lancet 2007;370(9591):915-917.

Ostergen NA, Lewis D, McEnery C, Pedersen J, Salkow M, Skovlund S, Greene A. Young people's needs and priorities for improved support and education: a call for action. Diabetes Voice 2007;52:41-42.

Pesudovs K, Burr J, Harley C, Elliott DB. The development, assessment and selection of questionnaires. Optomet Vis Sci 2007;84(8):663-674.

Poobalan A, Aucott L, Smith WC, Avenell A, Jung R, Broom J. Long-term weight loss effects on all cause mortality in overweight/obese populations. Obes Rev 2007;8:503-513.

Rabindranath KS, Ali TZ, MacLeod AM, Vale L. Automated vs continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: A systematic review of randomized controlled trial. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2007;22(10):2991-2998.

Reader T, Flin R, Cuthbertson BH. Communication skills and error in the intensive care unit. Curr Opini Crit Care 2007;13:732-736.

Reader T, Flin R, Mearns K, Cuthbertson BH.  Interdisciplinary communication in the intensive care unit. Br J Anaesth 2007;98(3):347-352.

Somani B, Kumar V, Wong S, Pickard R, Ramsay C, Nabi G, Grant AM, N'Dow J, ABACUS Research Group. Bowel dysfunction after transposition of intestinal segments into the urinary tract: 8-year prospective cohort study. J Urol 2007;177(5):1793-1798.

Vale L, Thomas RE, MacLennan GS, Grimshaw JM. Systematic review of economic evaluations and cost analyses of guideline implementation strategies. Eur J Health Econ 2007;8:111-121.

Viswanath AK, Avenell A, Philip S, Acharya S, MacLennan GS, Dalziel K, Pereira O, Copland SA, Bevan JS, Abraham P. Is annual surveillance of all treated hypothyroid patients necessary? BMC Endocrine [serial on the Internet] 2007;7(4):2 July 2007.

Watson M, Cleland JA, Francis J, Inch J, Bond C. Theory-based communication skills training for medicine counter assistants to improve consultations for non-prescription medicines . Med Educ 2007;41(5):450-459


Avenell A, Sattar N, Lean M. ABC of obesity: managing the epidemic - behaviour change, diet and physical activity. Br Med J 2006;333(7571):740-743.

Avenell A. Glutamine in critical care - current evidence from systematic reviews. Proc Nutr Soc 2006;65:236-241.

Barclay J, Kruszewski K, Croal BL, Cuthbertson BH, Oh JK, Hillis G. Relation of left atrial volume to B-type natriuretic peptide levels in patients with stable chronic heart failure. Am J Cardiol 2006;98:98-101.

Black C, Bagust A, Boland A, Walker S, McLeod C, de Verteuil R. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of computed tomography screening for lung cancer: systematic reviews. Health Technol Assess 2006;10(3).

Blackman T, Elliott E, Greene A, Harrington B, Hunter DJ, Marks L, McKee L, Williams G. Performance Assessment and Wicked Problems: the Case of Health Inequalities. Public Policy  Manage 2006;21(2):66-80.

Bonetti D, Pitts N, Eccles M, Grimshaw J, Johnston M, Steen N, Glidewell L, Thomas RE, MacLennan GS, Clarkson JE, Walker AE. Applying psychological theory to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of taking intra-oral radiographs. Soc Sci Med 2006;63(7):1889-1899.

Brazzelli M, McKenzie L, Fielding S, Fraser C, Clarkson J, Kilonzo M, Waugh N. Systematic review of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Healozone for the treatment of occlusal pit/fisssure caries and root caries. Health Technol Assess 2006;10(16):1-96.

Brazzelli M, Murray A, Fraser C. Efficiacy and safety of sacral nerve stimulation for urinary urge incontinence: a systematic review. J Urol 2006;175(3 Pt 1):835-841.

Bugge C, Entwistle VA, Watt I. The significance for decision-making of information that is not exchanged by patients and health professionals during consultations. Soc Sci Med 2006;63(8):2065-2078.

Burr J, Hay D, Ludgate S, Abraham P. Hot and cold technologies for tissue ablation in urology. BJU Int 2006;98(6):1149-1153.

Campbell and Cochrane Economics Methods Group (CCEMG), [Vale L. Economics methods in Cochrane systematic reviews of health promotion and public health related intervention. BMC Med Res Methodol [serial on the Internet] 2006;6(55):15 November 2006.

Croal BL, Hillis G, Gibson G, Fazal M, El-Shafei H, Jeffery RR, Buchan KG, West D, Cuthbertson BH. The relationship between post-operative cardiac tropin I levels and outcome from cardiac surgery. Circulation 2006;114(14):1468-1475.

Davey P, Brown E, Fenelon L, Finch R, Gould I, Holmes A, Ramsay C, Taylor E, Wiffen P, Wilcox M. Systematic review of antimicrobial drug prescribing in hospitals. Emerg Infect Dis 2006;12(2):211-216.

Dijkstra R, Wensing M, Thomas RE, Akkermans R, Braspenning JCC, Grimshaw JM, Grol R. The relationship between organisational characteristics and the effects of clinical guidelines on medical performance in hospitals, a meta-analysis. BMC Health Serv Res [serial on the Internet] 2006;6(53):28 April 2006.

Eccles M, Hrisos S, Francis J, Kaner E, Dickinson HO, Beyer F, Johnston M. Do self- reported intentions predict clinicians behaviour: a systematic review. Implementation Sci [serial on the Internet] 2006;1(28):21 November 2006.

Entwistle VA, Williams B, Skea Z, MacLennan GS, Bhattacharya S. Which surgical decisions should patients participate in and how? Reflections on woman's recollections of discussions about variants of hysterectomy. Soc Sci Med 2006;62(2):499-509.

Fraser C, Murray A, Burr J. Identifying observational studies of surgical interventions in MEDLINE and EMBASE. BMC Med Res Methodol [serial on the Internet] 2006;6(41):18 August 2006.

Glazener CM, Herbison GP, MacArthur C, Lancashire RJ, McGee M, Grant A, Wilson PD. New postnatal urinary incontinence: obstetric and other risk factors in primiparae. BJOG 2006;113(2):208-217.

Green C, Dinnes J, Takeda A, Cuthbertson BH. Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of drotrecogin alfa (activated) for the treatment of severe sepsis in the United Kingdom. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 2006;22(1):90-100.

Griffiths J, Barber VS, Cuthbertson BH, Young J. A national survey of intensive care follow-up clinics. Anaesthesia 2006;61:950-955.

Grimshaw J, Eccles M, Thomas RE, MacLennan GS, Ramsay C, Fraser C, Vale L. Evidence (and its limitations) of the effectiveness guideline dissemination and implementation strategies 1966-1998. J Gen Intern Med 2006;21:S14-S20.

Hillis G, Croal BL, Buchan KG, El-Shafei H, Gibson G, Jeffrey RR, Millar CGM, Prescott GJ, Cuthbertson BH. Renal function and outcome from coronary artery bypass grafting. Circulation 2006;113:1056-1062.

Improved Clinical Effectiveness through Behavioural Research Group (ICEBeRG), [Francis J]. Designing theoretically-informed implementation interventions. Implementation Sci [serial on the Internet] 2006;1(4):23 February 2006.

Jones A, Bugge C. Improving understanding and rigour through triangulation: an exemplar based on patient participation in interaction. J Adv Nurs 2006;55(5):612-621.

Keating JF, Grant A, Masson A, Scott NW, Forbes J, Scottish Orthopaedic Trial Network. Randomised comparison of reduction and fixation, bipolar hemiarthroplasty and total hip replacement: treatment of displaced intracapsular hip fracture in healthy older patients. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2006;88:149-260.

Langston AL, Campbell MK, Fraser WD, MacLennan GS, Selby PL, Ralston SH, PRISM Trial Group. Clinical determinants of quality of life in Paget's disease of bone. Calcif Tissue Int 2006;80(1):1-9.

Langston AL, Johnston M, Robertson C, Campbell MK, Entwistle VA, Marteau T, McCallum M, Ralston SH. Protocol for stage 1 of the GAP study. BMC Health Serv Res [serial on the Internet] 2006;6(71):8 June 2006.

 MacArthur C, Glazener CM, Wilson PD, Lancashire RJ, Herbison GP, Grant AM. Persistent urinary incontinence and delivery mode history: a six-year longitudinal study. BJOG 2006;113(2):218-224.

McDonald A, Knight R, Campbell MK, Entwistle VA, Cook JA, Grant A, Wilson PD. What influences recruitment to randomised controlled trials? A review of trials funded by two UK funding agencies.  Trials [serial on the Internet] 2006;7(9):7 April 2006.

Milne AC, Avenell A, Potter J. Meta-analysis: protein and energy supplementation in older people. Ann Intern Med 2006;144(1):37-48.

Mowatt G, Cook JA, Fraser C, McKerrow WS, Burr J. Systematic review of the safety of electrosurgery for tonsillectomy. Clin Otolaryngol 2006;31(2):95-102.

Murray A, Lourenco T, de Verteuil R, Hernandez R, Fraser C, McKinley A, Krukowski Z, Vale L, Grant A. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer: systematic reviews and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess 2006;10(45):1-160.

Profit J, McCormick M, Zupancic J, Richardson D, Escobar G, Tucker J, Tarnow-Mordi W, Parry G. Moderately premature infants at Kaiser Permanente in California are discharged home earlier than their peers in Massacheusetts and the United Kingdom. Arch Dis Child 2006;91:F245-F250.

Reader T, Flin R, Lauche K, Cuthbertson BH.  Non-technical skills in the intensive care unit. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2006;96(5):551-559.

Ross S, Soroka D, Karahalios A, Glazener CM, Hay-Smith EJC, Drutz HP. Incontinence-specific quality of life measures used in trials of treatments for female urinary incontinence: a systematic review. Int Urogynecol J 2006;17(3):272-285.

Snowdon C, Elbourne D, Garcia J, Campbell MK, Entwistle VA, Francis D, Grant AM, Knight R, McDonald A, Cook JA, Roberts I. Financial considerations in the conduct of multicentre randomised controlled trials: evidence from a qualitative study. Trials [serial on the Internet] 2006;7(34):21 December 2006.

 Stephen A, Avenell A. A systematic review of multivitamin and multimineral supplementation for infection. J Hum Nutr Diet 2006;19:179-190.

Thomas RE, Croal BL, Ramsay CR, Eccles MP, Grimshaw JM. Effect of enhanced feedback and brief educational reminder messages on laboratory test requesting in primary care: a cluster randomised trial. Lancet 2006;367(9527):1990-1996.

Torrance N, Mollison J, Wordsworth S, Gray J, Miedzybrodzka ZH, Haites NE, Grant A, Campbell MK, Watson MS, Clarke A, Wilson B. Genetic nurse counsellors can be acceptable and cost-effective alternative to clinical geneticists for breast cancer risk genetic counselling. Evidence from two parallel randomised controlled equivalence trials. Br J Cancer 2006;95(4):435-444.

Treweek S, McCormack K, Abalos E, Campbell MK, Ramsay C, Zwarenstein M, PRACTiHC Collaboration. The Trial Protocol Tool: The PRACTiHC software tool that supported the writing of protocols for pragmatic randomized controlled trials. J Clin Epidemiol 2006;59(11):1127-1133.

Volkert D, Berner YN, Berry C, Cenderholm T, Coti Bertrand P, Milne AC. ESPEN Guidelines enteral nutrition: geriatrics. Clin Nutr 2006;25(2):330-360.

Watson MC, Bond C, Grimshaw J, Johnston M. Factors predicting the guideline compliant supply (or non-supply) of non-prescription medicines in the community pharmacy setting. Qual Saf Health Care 2006;15(1):53-57.

Wilson BJ, Torrance N, Mollison J, Watson MS, Douglas A, Meidzybrodzka Z, Gordon R, Wordsworth S, Campbell MK, Haites NE, Grant AM. Cluster randomised trial of a multifaceted primary care decision-support intervention for inherited breast cancer risk. Fam Pract 2006;23(5):537-544.


Abraham P, Avenell A, Park CM, Watson WA, Bevan JS. A systematic review of drug therapy for Graves' hyperthyroidism. Eur J Endocrinol 2005;153(4):489-498.

Anton S, Klautzer L, Toenshoff S, de Vries H, Kahan JP. Exploring possibilities for consumer choice in the German health care system. Eurohealth 2005;11(1):14-18.

Aucott L, Poobalan A, Smith WC, Avenell A, Jung R, Broom J. Effects of weight loss in overweight/obese individuals and long-term hypertension outcomes: a systematic review. Hypertension 2005;45(6):1035-1041.

Avenell A, Campbell MK, Cook JA, Hannaford P, Kilonzo M, McNeil G, Milne AC, Ramsay CR, Seymour DG, Stephen A, Vale L. Effect of multivitamin and multimineral supplements on morbidity from infections in older peolple (MAVIS trial): pragmatic, randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Br Med J 2005;331(7512):324-329.

Berry C, Hogg K, Norrie J, Stevenson K, Brett M, McMurray J. Heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function: a hospital cohort study. Heart 2005;91(7):907-913.

Berry C, Norrie J, McMurray JJ. Ximelagatran compared with warfarin for the prevention of systemic embolism and stroke. An imputed placebo analysis. Cardiovascular Drugs & Therapy 2005;19(2):149-151.

Birnie DH, Vickers LE, Hillis WS, Norrie J, Cobbe SM. Increased titres of anti-human heat shock protein 60 predict an adverse one year prognosis in patients with acute cardiac chest pain. Heart 2005;91(9):1148-1153.

Boldero J, Moretti M, Bell R, Francis J. Self-discrepancies and negative affect: a primer on when to look for specificity, and how to find it. Australian Journal of Psychology 2005;57(3):139-147.

Bonetti D, Eccles MP, Johnston M, Steen N, Grimshaw J, Baker R, Walker AE, Pitts N. Guiding the design and selection of interventions to influence the implementation of evidence-based practice: an experimental simulation of a complex intervention trial. Soc Sci Med 2005;60(9):2135-2147.

Bower DJ, Barry N, Reid M, Norrie J. Designing and implementing E-health Applications in the UK's National Health Service. Journal of Health Communication 2005;10(8):733-750.

Campbell MK, Elbourne DR, Altman DG. Cluster randomised clinical trials (CLUSTER CONSORT) [Ensayos clinicos aleatorizados comunitarios (CONSORT CLUSTER)]. Med Clin (Barc) 2005;125(Supplement 1):28-31.

Campbell MK, Fayers P, Grimshaw JM. Determinants of the intracluster correlation coefficient in cluster randomized trials: the case of implementation research. Clin Trials 2005;2(2):99-107.

Clemens F, Elbourne D, Darbyshire J, Pocock S, DAMOCLES Group, [Campbell MK], [Grant AM], [McLeer S], [Walker AE], [Wallace SA]. Data monitoring in randomised controlled trials: surveys of recent practice and policies. Clin Trials 2005;2(1):22-33.

Collins S, Drew P, Watt I, Entwistle VA. 'Unilateral' and 'bilateral' practitioner approaches in decision-making about treatment. Soc Sci Med 2005;61(12):2611-2627.

Cuthbertson BH, Scott J, Strachan M, Kilonzo M, Vale L. Quality of life before and after intensive care. Anaesthesia 2005;60(4):332-339.

Cuthbertson BH, McKeown A, Croal BL, Mutch WJ, Hillis G.  Utility of B-type natriuretic peptide in predicting the level of peri and post-operative cardiovascular support required after coronary artery bypass grafting. Crit Care Med 2005;33(2):437-442.

Cuthbertson BH, Patel RR, Croal BL, Barclay J, Hillis G.  B-type natriuretic peptide and the prediction of outcome in patients admitted to intensive care. Anaesthesia 2005;60(1):16-21.

DAMOCLES Group, [Campbell MK], [Grant AM], [McLeer S], [Walker AE], [Wallace SA]. A proposed charter for clinical trial data monitoring committees: helping them to do their job well. Lancet 2005;365(9460):711-722.

Dennis MS, Lewis SC, Warlow C, FOOD Trial Collaboration, [Avenell A], [Milne A.C]. Routine oral nutritional supplementation for stroke patients in hospital (FOOD): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005;365(9461):755-763.

Eccles M, Grimshaw J, Walker A, Johnston M, Pitts N. Response to "the OFF theory of research utilisation". J Clin Epidemiol 2005;58(2):117-118.

Eccles M, Grimshaw JM, Walker AE, Johnston M, Pitts N. Changing the behaviour of healthcare professionals: the use of theory in promoting the uptake of research findings. J Clin Epidemiol 2005;58(2):107-112.

Emslie MJ, Andrew J, Angus VC, Entwistle VA, Walker K. Who are your public?  A survey comparing the views of a population-based sample with those of a community-based public forum in Scotland. Health Soc Care Community 2005;13(2):164-169.

Entwistle VA, Mello M, Brennan T. Advising patients about patient safety: current initiatives risk shifting responsibility. J Qual Patient Saf 2005;31(9):483-494.

Foy R, Foot B, Francis J, Chakravarthy U, Wormald R. Trends in the provision of photodynamic therapy and clinician attitudes: a tracker survey of a new health technology. BMC Health Serv Res [serial on the Internet] 2005;5:34 (10 May 2005).

Foy R, Walker A, Ramsay C, Penney G, Grimshaw J, Francis J. Theory-based identification of barriers to quality improvement: induced abortion care. Int J Qual Health Care 2005;17(2):147-155.

Glazener CM, Herbison GP, MacArthur C, Grant AM, Wilson PD. Randomised controlled trial of conservative management of postnatal urinary and faecal incontinence: six year follow-up. Br Med J 2005;330(7487):337-340.

Glazener CM. Professional issues. Parental perceptions and adaption to parenthood. Br J Midwifery 2005;13(9):578-585.


Aucott L, Poobalan A, Smith WC, Avenell A, Jung R, Broom J, Grant AM. Weight loss in obese diabetic and non-diabetic individuals and long-term diabetes outcome - a systematic review. Diabetes Obes Metab 2004;6(2):85-94.

Avenell A. Treating obesity. Holyrood Magazine 2004;(5):26.

Avenell A, Grant AM, McGee M, McPherson G, Campbell MK, McGee MA, RECORD Trial Management Group, [McDonald A]. The effects of an open design on trial participant recruitment, compliance and retention - a randomized controlled trial comparison with a blinded, placebo-controlled design. Clin Trials 2004;1(6):490-498.

Avenell A, Brown TJ, McGee MA, Campbell MK, Grant AM, Broom J, Jung R, Smith WC. What interventions should we add to weight reducing diets in adults with obesity?   A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of adding a drug therapy, exercise, behaviour therapy or combinations of these interventions. J Hum Nutr Diet 2004;17(4):293-316.

Avenell A, Broom J, Brown TJ, Poobalan A, Aucott L, Stearns SC, Smith WC, Jung R, Campbell MK, Grant AM. Systematic review of the long-term effects and economic consequences of treatments for obesity and implications for health improvement. Health Technol Assess 2004;8(21):1-465.

Avenell A, Brown TJ, McGee M, Campbell MK, Grant AM, Broom J, Jung R, Smith WC. What are the long-term benefits of weight reducing diets in adults? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Hum Nutr Diet 2004;17(4):317-335.

Bahrami M, Deery C, Clarkson JE, Pitts N, Johnston M, Ricketts I, MacLennan GS, Nugent Z, Tilley C, Bonetti D, Ramsay C. Effectiveness of strategies to disseminate and implement clinical guidelines for the management of impacted and unerupted third molars in primary dental care. Br Dent J 2004;197(11):691-696.

Birks YF, Porthouse J, Addie C, Loughney K, Saxon L, Baverstock M, Francis R, Reid DM, Watt I, Torgerson C, Primary Care Hip Protector Trial Group, [Campbell MK]. Randomized controlled trial of hip protectors among women living in the community. Osteoporos Int 2004;15(9):701-706.

Campbell MK, Grimshaw JM, Elbourne DR. Intracluster correlation coefficients in cluster randomized trials: empirical insights into how should they be reported. BMC Med Res Methodol [serial on the Internet] 2004;4:9 (28 April 2004).

Campbell MK, Elbourne DR, Altman DG, CONSORT Group. The CONSORT statement: extension to cluster randomised trials. Br Med J 2004;328(7441):702-708.

Campbell MK, Thomson S, Ramsay CR, MacLennan GS, Grimshaw JM. Sample size calculator for cluster randomised trials. Comput Biol Med 2004;34(2):113-125.

Cook JA, Ramsay CR, Fayers P. Statistical evaluation of learning curve effects in surgical trials. Clin Trials 2004;1(5):421-427.

Davis J, Roberts R, Davidson DLW, Norman A, Ogston A, Grimshaw J, Davey P, Grant J, Ruta DA. Implementation strategies for a Scottish national epilepsy guideline in primary care: results of the Tayside Implementation of Guidelines in Epilepsy Randomised (TIGER) Trial. Epilepsia 2004;45(1):28-34.

Entwistle VA, Watt I, Gilhooly K, Bugge C, Haites NE, Walker AE. Assessing patients' participation and quality of decision-making: insights from a study of routine practice in diverse settings. Patient Educ Couns 2004;55(1):105-113.

Foy R, Ramsay CR, Grimshaw JM, Penney GC, Vale L, Thomson A, Greer IA. The impact of guidelines on mild hypertension in pregnancy: time series analysis. BJOG 2004;111(8):765-770.

Foy R, Penney G, Grimshaw JM, Ramsay CR, Walker AE, MacLennan GS. A randomised controlled trial of a tailored, multi-faceted strategy to promote implementation of a clinical guideline on induced abortion care. BJOG 2004;111(7):726-733.

Gates S, Brocklehurst P, Campbell MK, Elbourne D. Recruitment to multicentre trials. BJOG 2004;111(1):3-5.

Gilbert FJ, Grant AM, Gillan MGC, Vale L, Scott NW, Campbell MK, Wardlaw D, Knight D, McIntosh E, Porter RW. Does early imaging influence management and improve outcome in patients with low back pain?   A pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Health Technol Assess 2004;8(17):1-131.

Gilbert FJ, Grant AM, Gillan MGC, Vale L, Campbell MK, Scott NW, Knight D, Wardlaw D, Scottish Back Trial Group. Low back pain: influence of early MR imaging or CT on treatment and outcome - multicenter randomized trial. Radiology 2004;231(2):343-351.

Glazener CM, Evans JHC, Peto R. Treating nocturnal enuresis in children: review of evidence. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2004;31(4):223-234.

Grant AM, Scott NW, O'Dwyer P, MRC Laparoscopic Groin Hernia Trial Group. Five-year follow-up of a randomized trial to assess pain and numbness after laparoscopic or open repair of groin hernia. Br J Surg 2004;91(12):1570-1574.

Grimshaw J, Eccles M, Tetroe J. Implementing clinical guidelines: current evidence and future implications. J Contin Educ Health Prof 2004;24(1):S31-S37.

Grimshaw JM, Thomas RE, MacLennan GS, Fraser C, Ramsay CR, Vale L, Whitty P, Eccles MP, Matowe L, Shirran L, Wensing M, Dijkstra R, Donaldson C. Effectiveness and efficiency of guideline dissemination and implementation strategies. Health Technol Assess 2004;8(6):1-72.

Hendry C, Walker AE. Priority setting in clinical nursing practice: literature review. J Adv Nurs 2004;47(4):427-436.

Jarrett MED, Mowatt G, Glazener CM, Fraser C, Nicholls RJ, Grant AM, Kamm MA. Systematic review of sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence and constipation. Br J Surg 2004;91(12):1559-1569.

Jung R, Avenell A. Obesity - a review of current treatments. J R Coll Physicians Edinb 2004;34(3):181-183.

Kilonzo M, Vale L, Stearns SC, Grant A, Cody DJ, Glazener CM, Wallace S, McCormack K. Cost effectiveness of tension-free vaginal tape for the surgical management of female stress incontinence. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 2004;20(4):455-463.

Langston AL. PRISM trial - update. Natl Assoc Relief Paget's Dis Newsl 2004;(April).

Langston AL. PRISM trial - update. Natl Assoc Relief Paget's Dis Newsl 2004;(August).

Langston AL. PRISM Trial update. Natl Assoc Relief Paget's Dis Newsl 2004;(November).

Langston AL, Ralston SH. Management of Paget's disease of bone. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2004;43(8):955-959.

Langston AL, McCallum M. Getting involved in clinical trials - our experience! INVOLVE newsletter 2004;(Spring).

Langston AL. Why bother with clinical trials? Natl Assoc Relief Paget's Dis Newsl 2004;(April).

McCormack K, Grant A, Scott N, EU Hernia Trialists Collaboration. Value of updating a systematic review in surgery using individual patient data. Br J Surg 2004;91(4):495-499.

McDonald A, Campbell MK, Ross S, RECORD Study Group, [Avenell A], [Grant AM], [McPherson G]. Delivering clinical trial supplies by post to elderly trial participants: a feasibility study. Appl Clin Trial 2004;(Feb):58-59.

Mitchell E, Sullivan F, Watt G, Grimshaw J, Donnan PT. Using electronic patient records to inform strategic decision making in primary care. Medinfo 2004;11(2):1157-1161.

Mowatt G, Vale L, Brazzelli M, Hernandez R, Murray A, Scott N, Fraser C, McKenzie L, Gemmell H, Hillis G, Metcalfe M. Systematic review of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, and economic evaluation, of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy for the diagnosis of angina and myocardial infarction. Health Technol Assess 2004;8(30):1-207.

Mowatt G, Vale L, MacLeod A. Systematic review of the effectiveness of home versus hospital or satellite unit haemodialysis for people with end-stage renal failure. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 2004;20(3):258-268.

Naji SA, Gibb J, Hamilton R, Lawton K, Palin A, Eagles J. How ready are practice nurses to participate in the identification and management of depressed patients in primary care? Prim Care Ment Health 2004;2(1):47-54.

Nicoll KS, McGee M, Callender JS. Death by suicide in Grampian 1991-1999: comparison with a previous study. Scott Med J 2004;49(2):44-47.

Norris SL, Zhang X, Avenell A, Gregg E, Bowman B, Serdula M, Brown TJ, Schmid CH, Lau J. Long-term effectiveness of lifestyle and behavioural weight loss interventions in adults with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Am J Med 2004;117(10):762-774.

Norris SL, Zhang X, Avenell A, Gregg E, Schmid CH, Kim C, Lau J. Efficacy of pharmacotherapy for weight loss for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 2004;164(13):1395-1404.

O'Donnell M, Entwistle VA. Consumer involvement in decisions about what health-related research is funded. Health Policy 2004;70(3):281-290.

O'Donnell M, Entwistle VA. Consumer involvement in research projects: the activities of research funders. Health Policy 2004;69(2):229-238.

Panarelli M, Avenell A. The role of the laboratory in the assessment of the hypertensive patient. CPD Bull Clin Biochem 2004;6(3):89-92.

Poobalan A, Aucott L, Smith WC, Avenell A, Jung R, Broom A, Grant AM. Effects of weight loss in overweight/obese individuals and long-term lipid outcomes - a systematic review. Obes Rev 2004;5(1):43-50.

REFLUX Trial Group, [Wileman S]. What is the best approach to gastro-oesophageal reflux? HTA update 2004;2-3.

Ross S, Walker AE, Macleod MJ. Patient compliance in hypertension: role of illness perceptions and treatment beliefs. J Hum Hypertens 2004;18(9):607-613.

Skea Z, Harry V, Bhattacharya S, Entwistle VA, Williams B, MacLennan GS, Templeton AA. Women's perceptions of decision-making about hysterectomy. BJOG 2004;111(2):133-142.

Smith L, Walker AE, Gilhooly K. Clinical guidelines of depression: a qualitative study of GPs' views. J Fam Pract 2004;53(7):556-561.

Smith SM, Watson MC. The training needs, attitudes and experiences of pharmacy support staff in Northern Scotland. Int J Pharm Practice 2004;12(4):191-197.

Sydes M, Spiegelhalter D, Altman D, Babiker A, Parmar M, DAMOCLES Group, [Campbell MK], [Grant AM], [McLeer S], [Walker AE], [Wallace SA].   Reported use of data monitoring committees in the main published reports of randomized controlled trials: a cross-sectional study. Clin Trials 2004;1(1):48-59.

Sydes M, Spiegelhalter D, Altman D, Babiker A, Parmar M, DAMOCLES Group, [Campbell MK], [Grant AM], [McLeer S], [Walker AE], [Wallace SA].   Systematic qualitative review of the literature on data monitoring committees for randomized controlled trials. Clin Trials 2004;1(1):60-79.

Thomas RE. Guidelines can improve the process and outcome of health care. Research Matters 2004;(25):3.

Vale L, Grant A, McCormack K, Scott N, EU Hernia Trialists Collaboration. Cost-effectiveness of alternative methods of surgical repair of inguinal hernia. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 2004;20(2):192-200.

Verstappen WHJM, Van Merode F, Grimshaw J, Dubois WI, Grol R, Van der Weijden T. Comparing cost effects of two quality strategies to improve test ordering in primary care: a randomized trial. Int J Qual Health Care 2004;16(5):391-398.

Walker AE, Watson M, Grimshaw J, Bond C. Applying the theory of planned behaviour to pharmacists' beliefs and intentions about the treatment of vaginal candidiasis with non-prescription medicines. Fam Pract 2004;21(6):670-676.

Walker AE, McLeer S, DAMOCLES Group, [Campbell MK], [Grant AM], [Wallace SA]. Small group processes relevant to data monitoring committees in controlled clinical trials: an overview of reviews. Clin Trials 2004;1(3):282-296.

Watson MC, Bond C. The evidence-based supply of non-prescription medicines: barriers and beliefs. Int J Pharm Practice 2004;12(2):65-72.

Watson MC, McCloughan L. How the Scottish School of Primary Care can help pharmacists. Pharm J 2004;272:63-64.

Watson MC, Skelton J, Bond CM, Croft P, Wiskin CM, Grimshaw J, Mollison J. Simulated patients in the community pharmacy setting. Using simulated patients to measure practice in the community pharmacy setting. Pharm World Sci 2004;26(1):32-37.

Whitty P, Eccles M, Hawthorne.G, Steen N. Improving services for people with diabetes: lessons from setting up the DREAM Trial.   Practical Diabetes Int 2004;21(9):323-328.

Whitty P, Thomas RE, Grimshaw J. View point: disseminating and implementing guidelines - how feasible is it? Clin Goverance 2004;9(1):8-10.

Wyness L, Vale L, McCormack K, Grant AM, Brazzelli M. The effectiveness of metal on metal hip resurfacing: a systematic review of the available evidence published before 2002. BMC Health Serv Res [serial on the Internet] 2004;4:39 (27 December 2004).