PhD Project

Clinical practice varies considerably across hospitals and countries for the investigation of patients referred with suspected urinary tract cancer. In the UK, NICE recently set new recommended criteria for suspected cancer referral from primary to secondary care. Furthermore many hospitals have a one-stop clinic where all appropriate investigations may be performed in one visit to screen for urothelial cancer. This will normally include a flexible cystoscopy, but many hospitals will differ in their choice of upper tract imaging as well as the use of other investigations such as urine cytology.

Primary aims:

Determine the prevalence of urological cancers in patients presenting to secondary care with suspected urinary tract cancer (e.g. in patients presenting with haematuria to urology services).

Secondary aims: 

  • To determine the difference in diagnostic practice across hospitals and countries and assess if this has an impact on diagnostic yield
  • Identify an optimal diagnostic strategy that can be personalised to the individual patient

Supervisors: Graeme MacLennan, James N'Dow and John McGrath

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Sinan Khadhouri;


Analysis ongoing