Socio-economic status and integration of immigrants in the UK

The socio-economic status and integration of immigrants in the UK: the role of language skills and education

The project aims to analyse how English language skills and education affect the integration and the socio-economic status of first- and second-generation immigrants in the United Kingdom (UK). The ultimate goal of the project is to explore the policies that might be effective in mitigating health and socio-economic disparities of immigrants by examining the role of a potential source of the disparities, English language proficiency and education.

To identify the causal effect of English language skills, the Instrumental Variable estimation technique is used where age at arrival to the UK is exploited to construct an instrument for English language proficiency.

Outcome and translation

Our results suggest that the education, fertility and extent of deprivation of immigrants are influenced by their ability to speak English. Precisely, better English language skills significantly raise the likelihood of having academic degrees and reduce that of having no qualifications. Regarding fertility and health outcomes, a better proficiency in English significantly delays the age at which an immigrant woman has her first child, lowers the likelihood of becoming a teenage mother, decreases the number of children a woman has, but has little effect on self-reported adult health and no effect on child health measured by birthweight. The results for deprivation outcomes indicate that better English skills lead immigrants to live in an area where residents are less deprived in terms of income, employment and health, although the effect on health deprivation is not statistically significant.

HERU researcher involved in this research project: Yu Aoki

External collaborators: L Santiago (Office for National Statistics)

Publications

Aoki, Y. and Santiago, L. (2015) 'Fertility, health and education of UK immigrants: the role of English language skills', CINCH Working Paper Series, Essen, Germany: CINCH.

Aoki, Y. and Santiago, L. (2015) Education, health and fertility of UK immigrants: the role of English language skills, Discussion Paper in Economics, 15-12, Aberdeen: University of Aberdeen Business School.

Aoki, Y. and Santiago, L. (2016) English language skills and socioeconomic segregation of UK immigrants, Discussion Paper in Economics, 16-7, Aberdeen: University of Aberdeen Business School.

Aoki, Y. and Santiago, L. (2016) 'Speak well, do well - English language proficiency and health and social outcomes of UK immigrants', HERU Policy Brief, University of Aberdeen, August 2016.

Aoki, Y. and Santiago, L. (2018) Deprivation, segregation, and socioeconomic class of UK immigrants: does English proficiency matter? IZA Discussion Paper No. 11368, Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

Aoki, Y. and Santiago, L. (2018) 'Speak better, do better? Education and health of migrants in the UK', Labour Economics, 52(June), 1-17.

Presentations

Santiago, L. and Aoki, Y. (2015) 'Fertility, health and education of UK immigrants: the role of English languages skills', Office for National Statistics (ONS) Social and Analysis Directorate Seminar : Research, Evidence and Impact for Policy - Examples of using the ONS Longitudinal Study, Titchfield, 12 May 2015.

Aoki, Y. and Santiago, L. (2015) 'Fertility, health and education of UK immigrants: the role of English languages skills', Essen Health Conference: Health. Skills. Education. New Economic Perspectives on the Health-Education Nexus, Essen, Germany, 29-31 May 2015.

Aoki, Y. and Santiago, L. (2015) 'Fertility, health and education of UK immigrants: the role of English languages skills', CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, The Hague, Netherlands, 9 June 2015.

Aoki, Y. and Santiago, L. (2015) 'Fertility, health and education of UK immigrants: the role of English languages skills', 6th International Workshop on Applied Economics of Education, Catanzaro, Italy, 14-16 June 2015.

Santiago, L. and Aoki, Y. (2015) 'Fertility, health and education of UK immigrants: the role of English languages skills', European Society for Population Economics (ESPE) 29th Annual Conference, Izmer, Turkey, 17-20 June 2015.

Aoki, Y. and Santiago, L. (2015) 'Fertility, health and education of UK immigrants: the role of English languages skills', 4th SOLE-EALE (Society of Labor Economists / European Association of Labour Economists) World Conference, Montreal, Canada, 26-28 June 2015.

Santiago, L. and Aoki, Y. (2015) 'Fertility, health and education of UK immigrants: the role of English languages skills', Understanding Society Scientific Conference 2015, University of Essex, Colchester, 21-23 July 2015.

Santiago, L. and Aoki, Y. (2015) 'Fertility, health and education of UK immigrants: the role of English languages skills', British Society for Population Studies (BSPS) Annual Conference, University of Leeds, Leeds, 7-9 September 2015.

Aoki, Y. (2015) 'Fertility, health and education of UK immigrants: the role of English languages skills', Theory & Applied Micro-Health Workshop, Alicante University, Spain, 19-20 October 2015.

Aoki, Y. and Santiago, L. (2016) 'Education health and fertility of UK immigrants: the role of language skills', Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) 13th Annual Migration Meeting, Bonn, Germany, 27-28 May 2016.

Aoki, Y. and Santiago, L. (2016) 'Education, health and fertility of UK immigrants: the role of English language skills', International Association for Applied Econometrics Annual Conference, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy, 22-25 June 2016.

Aoki, Y. and Santiago, L. (2016) 'Education health and fertility of UK immigrants: the role of language skills', 25th European Workshop on Econometrics and Health Economics, Department of Business and Economics, Econometrics Group and COHERE, University of Southern Denmark, Nyborg, Denmark, 31 August-3 September 2016.

Aoki, Y. (2017) 'Speak better, do better? Education and health of migrants in the UK', Economics Department Seminar, University of Dundee, Dundee, 8 February 2017.

Aoki, Y. (2017) 'Speak better, do better? Education and health of migrants in the UK', Society of Labor Economists (SOLE), Raleigh, North Carolina, USA, 5-6 May 2017.

Aoki, Y. (2017) 'Speak better, do better? Education and health of migrants in the UK', Second Workshop on Immigration, Health and Well-Being, University of Oxford, Oxford, England, 7 June 2017.

Aoki, Y. (2017) 'Speak well, do well? English proficiency and health and social integration of UK immigrants', 31st Annual Conference of the European Society for Population Economics (ESPE), Strathclyde Business School, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, 14-17 June 2017.

Aoki, Y. (2017) 'Deprivation, enclaves, and socioeconomic classes of UK immigrants. Does English proficiency matter?', 32nd Annual Congress of the European Economic Association (EEA), jointly held with the 70th European Meeting of the Econometric Society (ESEM), Lisbon, Portugal, 21-25 August 2017.

Aoki, Y. and Santiago, L. (2018) 'Deprivation, enclaves, and socioeconomic classes of UK immigrants. Does English proficiency matter?', Scottish Economic Society Annual Conference, Perth, 15-17 April 2018.

Aoki, Y. and Santiago, L. (2018) 'Speak better, do better? Education and health of migrants in the UK', Workshop on Health Challenges, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, 4-5 June 2018.

Aoki, Y. and Santiago, L. (2018) 'Deprivation, enclaves, and socioeconomic classes of UK immigrants. Does English proficiency matter?', International Association for Applied Econometrics Annual Conference, Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) and Université de Montréal (UdeM), Montréal, Canada, 26-29 June 2018.

Aoki, Y. and Santiago, L. (2018) 'Deprivation, segregation and socioeconomic class of UK immigrants. Does English proficiency matter?', EEA-ESEM 2018. 33rd Annual Congress of the European Economic Association - 71st European Meeting of the Econometric Society, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany, 27-31 August 2018.