The research of CELMR is based around several different overarching themes.


Education, Skills and Labour Mobility

The economic importance of human capital, and in particular education, has long been recognised by economists and policy makers. This programme of research focuses on the effects of education on labour market outcomes, the issue of occupational and spatial mobility, educational mismatch and the impact of immigration on economic variables.

Selected Key Publications:

  • T. Barmby, J. Sessions and Alexandros Zangelidis, “Looking after number two? Competition, cooperation and workplace interaction,” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 131, 2016: 166-82.
  • Harminder Battu and Keith Bender, “Educational mismatch in developing countries: A review of the existing evidence,” The Economics of Education, ed by S. Bradley and C. Green, Academic Press, pp. 269-89.
  • Keith Bender and John Heywood, “The Job Satisfaction of the Highly Educated:  The Role of Gender, Academic Tenure, and Comparison Income,” Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 53, 2006: 253-79.
  • Keith Bender and K. Roche, “Educational mismatch and the earnings distribution,” Southern Economic Journal, 85, 2018: 441-56.
  • C. Monchuk, M. Kilkenny and Euan Phimister, “Rural homeownership and labour mobility in the United States,” Regional Studies, 48, 2014: 350-62.
  • Ioannis Theodossiou and Alexandros Zangelidis, “Should I stay or should I go? The effect of gender, education and unemployment on labour market transitions,” Labour Economics, 16, 2009: 566-77.

Inequality in the Labour Market

One of the most important developments in the labour markets, both in Europe and elsewhere, has been a pronounced increase in labour market flexibility and the level of earnings inequality with profound socio-economic implications. This programme of research investigates various labour market themes including wage determination, low pay, poverty and debt, unemployment and labour market discrimination.

Selected Key Publications:

Health and Work

This research programme focuses on the impact of socio-economic and occupational conditions on individuals’ health and health inequalities, the impact of labour market and macroeconomic conditions on job satisfaction, quality of life and well-being and issues related to health and safety at work.  This theme further aims at maintaining and enhancing the research links and synergies between CELMR and the Health Economics Research Unit (HERU:

Selected Key Publications:

Wage Determination and Employment

This research programme focuses on how systems of wage setting, employment determination and the resulting wage structures affect economic performance. They constitute the incentive mechanism encouraging production and the vehicle whereby the benefits from work are distributed. Trade unions play a significant role in this process. In the public sector, in which much of the work already undertaken has been focused, the absence of market forces and the intervention of the state and its various agencies act to produce quite difference wage outcomes from those observed in the private sector.

Selected Key Publications:

  • Keith Bender, “Examining equality between public and private sector wage distributions,” Economic Inquiry, 41, 2003:  62-79.
  • Holger Görg, P. Henze, V. Jienwatcharamongkhol, D. Kopasker, Hassan Molana, Catia Montagna, and F. Sjöholm, “Firm size distribution and employment fluctuations: Theory and evidence,” Research in Economics, 71, 2017: 690-703.
  • W. David McCausland, F. Summerfield and Ioannis Theodossiou, “The Effect of industry-level aggregate demand on earnings: Evidence from the US,” Journal of Labor Research, 41, 2020: 102-127.
  • Hassan Molana and Catia Montagna, “Competitive selection, trade, and employment: The strategic use of subsidies,” Review of International Economics, 26, 2018: 1154-77.
  • John Skåtun and Ioannis Theodossiou, “Personnel decisions, wage profiles and investment in firms,” British Journal of Industrial Relations, 49, 2011: 742-56.
  • John Skåtun, “Taxation, risk aversion, and the wage gaps in tournaments,” Oxford Economic Papers, 69, 2017: 834-45.
  • Alexandros Zangelidis, “Seniority profiles in unionised workplaces: Do unions still have the edge?” Oxford Bulletin of Economics & Statistics, 70, 2008: 327-46.

Macroeconomic Policy, Globalisation and Labour Market Outcomes

With a key emphasis on labour market issues, this research theme addresses the role of macroeconomic policies on labour markets and their implications for wage determination, unemployment and the working experience of the workforce as well as income distribution and poverty.  A key subtheme is the challenges that global developments pose on the ability of countries to implement independent labour market and redistributive policies and to study the impact of these policies in determining labour market outcomes and productivity with a focus on globalisation. Results often challenge conventional wisdom on the implications of government macroeconomic policies for the sustainability of welfare state institutions and labour market regulations. 

Selected Key Publications:

  • D. Leahy and Catia Montagna, “Unionisation and Foreign Direct Investment: Challenging Conventional Wisdom?” Economic Journal, 110, 2000: 80-92.
  • D. Leahy and Catia Montagna, “Strategic investment and international outsourcing in unionised oligopoly,” Labour Economics, 19, 2012: 260-69.
  • G. Dewit, D. Leahy and Catia Montagna, “Employment protection flexibility and firms' strategic location decisions under uncertainty,” Economica, 80, 2013: 441–474.
  • W. David McCausland, F. Summerfield and Ioannis Theodossiou, “The effect of industry-level aggregate demand on earnings: evidence from the US,”  Journal of Labor Research, 41, 2020: 102-27.
  • W. David McCausland and Ioannis Theodossiou, “The consequences of fiscal stimulus on public debt: A historical perspective,” Cambridge Journal of Economics, 40, 2016: 1103-16.  
  • Hassan Molana and Catia Montagna,Aggregate Scale Economies, Market Integration and Optimal Welfare State Policy,” Journal of International Economics, 69, 2006: 321-340.
  • Antonella Nocco and Catia Montagna “Unionisation, integration and selection,” Canadian Journal of Economics, 46, 2013: 23-45.
  • F. Summerfield and Ioannis Theodossiou, “The effects of macroeconomic conditions at graduation on overeducation,” Economic Inquiry, 55, 2017:  1370-87.
  • Ioannis Theodossiou and Alexandros Zangelidis, “Inequality and participative democracy: A self‐reinforcing mechanism,” Review of Income and Wealth, 66, 2018: 74-93.
  • Harrison, C., I. Omeihe, A. Simba and Kingsley Omeihe, ‘‘Leading the way: the entrepreneur or the leader’’ Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 2020. 

  • Kingsley Omeihe, I. Omeihe, Amoako, and V. Gustafsson, ‘‘Trust in Nigerian SMEs Exporting to West African Markets’.’ In D. M. Nziku, & J. J. Struthers (Eds.), Enterprise and Economic Development in Africa, Emerald Group Publishing Limited.2021. 

Human Resources and Personnel Economics

One of the most applied areas of labour economics is how it influences human resource management and personnel policies for employers.  Central to this is how workers are contracted and motivated at work, how work is organised, the payment schemes used and voice in the workplace, just to name a few key areas.  This theme sheds light on key current aspects of the employment relationship such as ‘gig’ work and working from home.


Selected Key Publications:

  • Nicole Andelic, J. Allan, Keith Bender, D. Powell, S. Stoffel and Ioannis Theodossiou, “Employment contracts and stress: Experimental evidence,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 187, July 2021: 360-73.
  • T. Barmby, J. Sessions and Alexandros Zangelidis, “Looking after number two? Competition, cooperation and workplace interaction,” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 131, 2016: 166-82.
  • Keith Bender, John Heywood and M. Kidd, “Claims of employment discrimination and worker voice,” Industrial Relations Journal, 48, 2017: 133-53.
  • Keith Bender and Ioannis Theodossiou, “The unintended consequences of flexicurity: The health consequences of flexible employment,” Review of Income and Wealth, 64(4), Dec 2018: 777-99.
  • John Skåtun, “Divide the workers and conquer the surplus: Part-time workers and pay,” Economics Letters, 61, 1998: 235-42.
  • John Skåtun and Ioannis Theodossiou, “Personnel decisions, wage profiles and investment in firms,” British Journal of Industrial Relations, 49, 2011: 742-56.
  • Zhang, H., Kwan, H. K., Everett, A. M., & Jian, Z. Q. Servant leadership, organizational identification, and work-to-family enrichment: The moderating role of work climate for sharing family concerns. Human Resource Management, 51(5), 2012, 747-767.

  • Yang, Z., Zhang, H., Kwan, H. K., & Chen, S.  Crossover effects of servant leadership and job social support on employee spouses: The mediating role of employee organization-based self-esteemJournal of Business Ethics, 147(3), 2018, 595-604.

  • Karen Bilsland, Andrew Cumbers, Managerial control and the limits to employee participation in retail work spaces: evidence from a UK IKEA store’ New Technology, Work and Employment, 33 (2) 2018, 130-148,

  • Firfiray S., C. Cruz, I. Neacsu and Luis Gomez-Mejia, "Is nepotism so bad for family firms? A socioemotional wealth approach," Human Resource Management Review, 28, 2018, 83-97.

  • Shainaz Firfiray and Margarita Mayo, “The lure of work‐life benefits: Perceived person‐organization fit as a mechanism explaining job seeker attraction to organizations,” Human Resource Management, 56, 2017, 629-49.