LLM General Law 1 Year / 2 Years On Campus Learning Full Time, Part Time January
Fees and Funding
|Home / EU / RUK Students||Tuition fee for main award||£6,000|
|International Students||Tuition fee for main award||£16,100|
For January students, the first semester covers courses with the prefix LS55 and there is the compulsory course LS551T Critical Legal Thinking and Scholarship.
All candidates must take the following course:
Critical Legal Thinking and Scholarship (LS551T)
This compulsory course provides students from diverse legal and educational backgrounds with a common understanding of the core research, analytical, and writing skills which would be required to excel in LLM-Taught courses. It commences with a few lectures and progresses to working within smaller groups in a workshop environment and finally to the submission of an individual assignment. It also incorporates elements such as library workshops to provide students with hands-on experience with the resources available for course and dissertation work.
Students may then select any four modules for semester one and three from across the LLM options with the exception of: LS501E, and LS551K.
Cultural Property Issues: Law, Art, and Museums (LS55UU)
Taught by museum and law academics, this course will examine cultural property issues such as treasure trove, looting and repatriation, forgery, sacred and street art, and the derogatory treatment of art. Objects from the University Museum and collections worldwide will be drawn on to illustrate aspects of the course. Museum practice and operational experience will also inform certain aspects. Students will be encouraged to explore and develop their own ideas. Facilitating this, the course will include a programme of case studies and/or issue papers to be presented by students for class discussion.
Principles of Environmental Regulation (LS551A)
The purpose of this course is to introduce the main principles of environmental law. The course analyses the challenges of environmental protection from the perspective of international, European and national law. Besides the conceptual analysis of the main principles of environmental law and methods of regulation, the course focuses on the delicate interaction between the principles of economic law (e.g. the right to property, the protection of investments, free trade) and environmental protection. Is there a conflict between economic law and environmental law or are these fields of law mutually reinforcing?
Choice of Law for Business (LS551B)
This LLM course as a whole addresses choice of law for business, and focuses on three areas, namely contractual obligations, non-contractual obligations and corporate law. Students are expected to develop a clear understanding of relevant legislation and judgments, as well as to consider whether the law strikes an appropriate balance between party autonomy and the interests of states in prescribing relevant outcomes. The course is taught by means of seminars and guided independent reading.
International Humanitarian Law (LS551G)
The course explores the history, nature and salient features of the principles of ‘the laws and customs of war’, also called IHL; they are enshrined, inter alia, in the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977. The principles of distinction, humanity, necessity and proportionality as applied to contemporary armed conflicts are examined. The course emphasises the rules and challenges pertaining to civilian immunity, occupation, legal controls on weapons and how IHL is implemented and enforced. It also clarifies the differences/complementarity between IHL and international human rights law and the law on the use of force.
Low Carbon Energy Transition: Nuclear Energy and Carbon Capture and Storage (LS551J)
Nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage are seen by some governments as key contributors alongside renewable energy to the decarbonisation of energy supplies. However, significant risks of harm to the environment and human health and challenges with securing investment and overcoming public concerns are associated with the use of both technologies. The seven seminar course examines legal responses to these risks and challenges at international, European Union and national levels, critically considering their adequacy for tackling the difficulties with employing nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage as part of a low carbon energy transition.
Corporate Environmental Liability (LS551L)
Corporate environmental liability is a significant area of concern not only for those corporations engaged in activities which exhibit environmental risk but society as whole. An efficient, effective liability regime must be present to ensure that corporations do not shirk their financial liabilities. The course draws attention to the conflicting goals of corporate law (i.e. the limitation of liability) and environmental law (i.e. ensuring that polluters pay for damage caused) and encourages students to consider and develop solutions to this problem. Whilst the course focuses on EU environmental law, many of the concepts covered are relevant to other jurisdictions.
Criminal Evidence and Proof (LS551R)
This course is comparative in nature and examines in depth various, key evidentiary doctrines, focussing upon the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights and differences in the approaches adopted by national jurisdictions. Topics addressed include: the nature of proof; expert evidence; vulnerable witnesses; hearsay; the right to confrontation; similar facts evidence; corroboration; and the presumption of innocence. The emphasis is not so much on ‘black-letter law’ but on the principles and policies, often clashing, which underlie the detailed legal rules and regulations governing the relevant types of evidence.
Criminal Law (LS551S)
The course examines topics of current interest in criminal law from a theoretical perspective. The course focuses on the moral principles and policy considerations underlying specific criminal laws, rather than taking a purely “black-letter law” approach. It considers how some of the most serious offences, such as murder and rape, should be defined and also examines various defences such as provocation, diminished responsibility, mental disorder, coercion and necessity.
Legal and Environmental Issues for Unconventional Hydrocarbon (LS551U)
This course undertakes a study of unconventional sources of petroleum. utilising the seminar method of learning, where practical, real-life examples are used, this course will enable students to explore the key legal and environmental issues related to the development and transport of unconventional hydrocarbons.
European Economic Law (LS5543)
Historically, markets of the EEC/EU were integrated mainly on the basis of the case law of ECJ/CJEU using fundamental freedoms as a tool. Today, these freedoms are still an important pillar of the economic constitution, but free trade and competition between Member States’ undertakings have to be supported by other policies and the creation of competition in markets that suffer from market failure. This course looks at the integrating function of fundamental freedoms and develops further insights into the essential influence that the European Legal Order has on State domestic legal systems - and also, especially, on the economic systems.
The use of Force in International Law (LS5549)
The course analyses how international law regulates the use of armed forces between States. It is of interest to students who want to understand the legal considerations which frame contemporary conflicts. The course will study the fundamental principle of the prohibition on the use of inter-State force. It will examine the current exceptions to this principle, and how States try to justify the use of force. Consequently, the course will study the most recent recourses to force on the international plane, in particular in Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Syria, and Ukraine. Teaching will be delivered mainly through discussion based seminars.
Intellectual Property Law, Human Rights and Development (LS5578)
As both intellectual property laws and human right laws are increasingly harmonized internationally, this course engages students with an analysis of some developments (such as access to knowledge) at the intersections of these two areas of law. Students need not have any prior knowledge of intellectual property law or human rights law. Through a series of seminar discussions guided by an intellectual property rights specialist and a human rights specialist, the course exposes students to the tensions and complementary elements between the laws and encourages students to explore in depth their project of interest within these rich lines of analysis.
Trade Marks and Brand Development (LS5584)
This course tracks the ongoing interactions between trade mark and related laws on the one hand and the social and commercial practices of branding on the other. Through the use of cases and contemporary examples throughout, the course views trade mark and related laws within their historical, current, and developing social and commercial contexts. It offers a critical view of certain developments in the laws, their roles in and responses to the evolving practices of branding. It provides students with both an analytical and a practical view on the protection of trade mark and related rights.
International Investment Arbitration In the Energy Sector (LS5585)
The complex interaction between investment protection and the sovereign right of states to regulate has been most acute in the energy sector. On the one hand, investors require strong guarantees that states will respect the “rules of the game” that constitute the basis of their investments. On the other, states can be tempted to interfere with foreign energy investments because of their particular strategic and social importance. This course aims to analyse if existing investment disciplines are adapted to the specific regulatory risks that investors face in the energy landscape of the 21st Century.
International Trade and Finance Law (LS5588)
This course focuses on the difficulties which can arise when the buyer and seller of goods are located in different legal systems: we examine the sources of International Trade Law and the legal issues arising for buyer and seller in an international sale of goods transaction. We consider how to minimise or avoid these difficulties in the following contexts: the Sale of Goods Act 1979 and the CISG; Incoterms and bills of lading; International Documentary Letters of Credit; dispute resolution by litigation and arbitration.
Private International Law of Family Law (LS5589)
To learn about the contribution of international instruments to private international law of family law, in particular those developed by the Hague Conference on Private International Law and the European Union. To analyse the Hague Conventions on International Child Abduction (1980), Maintenance (2007) and Intercountry Adoption (1993) and the EU Regulations dealing with child abduction and maintenance. Finally, to consider possible future regulation of international surrogacy arrangements.
International Human Rights Law (LS5590)
The course was designed to help students build competence in dealing with the doctrinal issues about international human rights. It involves understanding the place of human rights in public international law, finding one’s way around the foundational human rights documents and the jurisprudence of human rights bodies. The course delivery puts heavy emphasis on classroom discussion on the controversial issues on contemporary human rights law that shape doctrinal development in this field: the justifiability of torture, the limits of freedom of religion, the justiciability of social rights, etc
Carriage of Goods By Sea (LS5592)
We look at the issues arising from the use of a ship to transport goods from buyer to seller when each is based in a separate legal system. We examine the contract of affreightment; the relevance of charterparties; the possibilities offered by Bills of Lading and analogous ‘documents’ (whether electronic or not). We consider the law concerning a cargo claim as it may involve the Hague Rules, the Hague-Visby Rules, the Hamburg Rules. We also evaluate the Rotterdam Rules. We consider international commercial dispute resolution of cargo claims by arbitration and litigation.
Oil and Gas Law: Taxation of Upstream (LS5593)
The legal framework for exploring for and producing hydrocarbons can be dynamic and complex. A number of layers are further added to the complexity through developing systems for ensuring an appropriate flow of revenue to the state. Many of these systems are extremely complex, and often ‘the devil is in the detail’: it is the precise terms of any legal arrangement that determine the balance of revenues between the state and the investor.
Downstream Energy Law (LS5594)
The supply of electricity and natural gas – as network-related industries – presents specific regulatory challenges. These challenges are of particular importance in the context of the liberalisation of these sectors, i.e. the restructuring of these industries from monopolies to competitive markets. Will liberalised electricity and gas markets ensure security and reliability of energy supply? Will consumers be adequately protected against potential abusive behaviour of dominant market players? Is liberalisation compatible with the objectives of decarbonisation and environmental protection? The purpose of this course is to explore the law and policy framework governing energy supply in a liberalised market environment.
Commercialising Innovation and Law (LS5595)
Students will explore the diversity of laws and practices relevant to commercialising innovation. We will consider patents, trade secrets, copyright and database rights, new business models, competition and (focussing on natural resources), communications and activities in developing areas. Visiting speakers from practice and industry are regularly invited. In the first session, students develop an innovative idea, as a base for discussion in each session. Seminars involve individual and group work, and the preparation of posters. Assessment is by essay and exam.
International Criminal Law (LS5597)
The course explores the history, ambit and nature of ICL and the notion of individual criminal responsibility, issues of immunities, superior orders and subordinate responsibility. War crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide and the crime of aggression are also critically examined. National and international prosecution of international crimes with emphasis on the Rome Statute and the International Criminal Court (ICC) and questions of international cooperation to suppress international crimes are carefully studied in light of relevant cases such as decisions of the Nuremburg and Tokyo tribunals, the ICC, ICTY and the ICTR (tribunals for Yugoslavia and Rwanda respectively).
Semester 2 for January starts is the summer period during which time students write their dissertation.
Master of Law Dissertation (LS5904)
Between May and mid-August students prepare a 10,000 word dissertation on a topic of their choice related to their specialist LLM programme. Students are instructed through the delivery of a preparatory lecture, two supervisory meetings and a two hour dissertation planning workshop in a small group setting. Students are expected to spend considerable time on independent research throughout the course of the dissertation module, including; preparation of dissertation plan, amendment of plan in accordance with supervisory comments, preparation for the dissertation workshop, and, of course, in the final 10,000 word dissertation itself.
For January starts Semester 3 is the September semester with courses starting with LS50.
International Energy and Environmental Law (LS501C)
The course deals with the regulation of international activities regarding energy and the environment. The course will consider the international legal framework regarding energy sources, and it will look at the various legal instruments at the global and regional level as well as the key actors that are involved in regulation. It will also examine environmental issues that correspond to the generation and use of energy in the international context and the responses relating to environmental protection of soil, water, air, atmosphere and species.
Oil and Minerals for Good (LS501D)
The course examines the relationship between law, energy and natural resources, ethics, governance and development at the national and international levels on the one hand and variable developmental outcomes, particularly the resource curse phenomenon, on the other hand. The course then proceeds to apply advanced academic and experiential knowledge to formulate the fundamentals for overarching legal frameworks that will enable the good exploitation and development of energy and natural resources, thereby producing enduring benefits for all key stakeholders.
Energy, Innovation and Law (LS501F)
Students will explore the law and regulation which is relevant to innovation across the energy sector (taken in its widest sense). We will consider intellectual property, UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol, government initiatives, competition, human rights, and oil and gas licensing. We will focus on the impact of these fields on business, reward, sharing, sustainable growth, energy security, and the relationship between private rights, raw materials and the wider public interest. Sessions will be interactive and you need not have studied any of these fields before – although we will move quickly. Assessment is by essay, exam and group presentation.
Comparative and International Perspectives on Company Law (LS501G)
This course is a selective and critical examination of company laws. A theoretical approach shall be taken based upon the general theory of comparative law developed by Zweigert and Kötz and the Wilsonian theory of legal transplants. Key issues in comparative company law shall be examined using the theoretical framework of Hansmann and Kraakman with its particular focus on the agency problem. Specific topics shall include directors’ duties; the protection of minority shareholders and the limits of limited liability. The course is assessed by a three hour examination and a coursework essay.
Low Carbon Energy Transition: Renewable Energy Law (LS501H)
A transition from reliance on fossil fuels to low-carbon renewable energy is essential for mitigating climate change and for making energy supplies more sustainable. The course considers the challenges and concerns that this fundamental change in the nature of energy supplies gives rise to, and explores laws role in addressing them. The course examines the legal regimes for promoting renewable energy at international, EU and UK levels, and considers how law can be used to address significant constraints on the growth of renewable energy including difficulties with grid access and public opposition to wind energy development.
International Law (LS501K)
The course aim is to familiarise students with public international law and to analyse some of its major issues. Students will be required to study the key concepts of public international law in order to be able to participate effectively in the seminars. The first seminar will identify the principles and rules of public international law through an advanced knowledge of the main sources of this law, international customs and treaties; following seminars will assess critically the evolution of public international law in an era of crises.
Criminological Theories (LS501R)
The course focuses on different theories that attempt to explain why people engage in criminal or deviant behaviour. We will examine explanations of crime/deviance that appeal to the following factors: 1) biological factors, 2) economic conditions and 3) environmental conditions. We will also consider theorists who analyse criminal behaviour in terms of the ‘labels’ social groups apply to different kinds of conduct. There are six 2hour seminars. Assessment consists in an exam (50%), an essay (40%) and a presentation (10%, which is assessed on a pass/fail basis).
International Law: A Time of Challenges (LS501U)
The course analyses recent developments in public international law. It first considers the sources of public international law. The question is then asked whether traditional public international law can regulate pressing issues on the international plane. Examples of these problems are: international terrorism, nuclear weapons proliferation, protection of human rights, ethnic conflicts, climate change, and energy security supply. The course encourages the student to think creatively as an international lawyer to resolve contemporary international dilemmas. Teaching will be delivered through discussion based seminars. Assessment is based on the drafting of an essay and an exam.
The Politics of Human Rights (LS5068)
The course addresses the political processes by which human rights law is created and sustained (e.g. by exploring the main drivers of the change in human rights norms – like global civil society activism). Classroom discussions look into the ways in which international human rights law shapes controversial issues of international politics (like the problems of international development or humanitarian intervention). Two seminars are dedicated to ‘case studies’ on human rights politics: (1) the practice of human rights activism, and (2) the relevance of human rights for dealing with the social and political tensions generated by the oil industry in Nigeria.
Oil and Gas Law (LS5076)
The petroleum industry brings together the most powerful public and private actors in the form of states and trans-national corporations. Oil and gas law has the task of arranging the resultant relationships and of ensuring that the legitimate interests of each side are protected. Following a series of introductory lectures, students will participate in interactive seminars considering topics drawn from the state control, contracting and regulatory aspects of oil and gas law. This course is available to LLM students on programmes other than the specialist LLM Oil and Gas Law programmes.
International Commercial Arbitration (on Campus) (LS5083)
The demand for international commercial arbitration has increased significantly over the last 20 years. Empirical surveys conducted consistently report figures that suggest around 60% of businesses prefer arbitration over other dispute resolution methods. This course provides students with a solid understanding of how arbitration works both in principle and in practice. Topics covered include; the arbitration agreement, arbitral jurisdiction, the arbitral tribunal, challenging and enforcing awards. This course is taught together with International Commercial Arbitration in the Asia Pacific.
International Commercial Arbitration In the Asia Pacific (on Campus) (LS5085)
The demand for international commercial arbitration has increased significantly over the last 20 years. Empirical surveys consistently report figures that suggest around 60% of businesses prefer arbitration over other dispute resolution methods. This course provides students with a solid understanding of how arbitration works in principle and in practice. Topics covered include; arbitration agreement, arbitral jurisdiction, arbitral tribunal, challenging and enforcing awards. This course is taught together with the International Commercial Arbitration course. This course allows a greater focus on the Asia Pacific region and is particularly relevant to those who foresee themselves working in that part of the world.
Private International Law: Jurisdiction in Business Transactions (LS5089)
We examine the question of jurisdiction in relation to commercial matters involving private international law. We examine the general and special jurisdictional aspects of the Brussels I Regulation and the Recast Brussels I Regulation; choice of court agreements; and, international commercial arbitration.
International Intellectual Property Law (LS5092)
Students will explore the diverse elements of law which constitute international intellectual property law. We will consider the framework of international conventions, copyright and moral rights (with a particular focus on new developments and the digital age), patents, designs, the work of the World Health Organisation and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Throughout the challenge is to identify conflicts and synergies, and areas for future development, through regard to cases, scholarship, and the activities of policy makers and activists. Assessment is by an essay, an exam and an individual presentation.
Private International Law: Concepts and Institutions (LS5093)
As a result of globalisation, and, in Europe, of its recent communitarisation, Private International Law has undergone profound changes and has become a subject of increasing prominence and complexity. This course forms a foundation for the Programme LLM in Private International Law and is designed to enable students to gain an in-depth understanding of key concepts of Private International Law, including classification, renvoi, incidental question, public policy and mandatory rules. Students will also acquire insight into the role played by key institutions to develop principles and harmonize rules pertaining to jurisdiction, choice of law and recognition and enforcement of judgments.
Competition Law (LS5094)
This course addresses the problems of establishing an effective legal regulation of competitive conditions in the EU. We examine: the economic theory of competition and the difficulties of translating this into effective legal regulation; the operation of Art 101 TFEU in multi-level and other complex markets; the operation of the vertical block exemption; developments within Art 102 TFEU; the Merger Regulation; public and private enforcement of EU Competition law.
Comparative and International Insolvency Law (LS5095)
This course explores, through seminar discussion including some group work, the theory and general principles of insolvency law, the domestic insolvency law of selected jurisdictions (currently Scotland, the US and Germany), the theory and general principles of international insolvency law and selected topics in international insolvency law (currently the EU Regulation on Insolvency Proceedings, domestic law provisions regulating international insolvency in selected jurisdictions and the UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency). Topics and selected jurisdictions may vary according to topicality.
Issues in Criminal Justice (LS5096)
This course is comparative in nature and examines in depth certain aspects of the criminal justice process, focussing upon differences between the adversarial and inquisitorial models. Examples are mainly drawn from Scotland, England and continental Europe. Topics addressed include: prosecution systems; the position of the accused; the status granted to the victim; plea-bargaining; the trial process; and appeals. The emphasis is not so much on ‘black-letter law’ but on the principles and policies, often clashing, which underlie the detailed legal rules and regulations governing the relevant institutions and processes.
World Trade Organisation: Gatt (LS5098)
The course aims to provide a thorough and critical understanding of fundamental concepts, principles and institutions of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), with emphasis on trade in goods (GATT). The main topics covered include relevant historical and institutional developments, WTO dispute resolution, core principles such as the non-discrimination, most-favour-nation (MFN) and the prohibition of quantitative restrictions on international trade. The security, environment, human rights, labour standards, economic emergencies and free trade areas and customs unions based exceptions and their challenges are also analytically explored. These are studied in light of relevant WTO panel and Appellate Body cases and recommendations.