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Improving Your Writing

Layers of the Past Tense Exercise

Which of the following is correct?

Let us suppose the following sequence of events: 1. Smith hypothesises that pigs can fly; 2. Smith throws a pig off a tower; 3. Smith observes the pig crashing to the ground; 4. Smith concludes that pigs cannot fly, but that they are good at landing on all fours.

  1. Smith had assumed that pigs could fly, until he threw one off a tower.

Is this correct (referring to the above sequence of events)?

Let us suppose the same sequence of events: 1. Smith hypothesises that pigs can fly; 2. Smith throws a pig off a tower; 3. Smith observes the pig crashing to the ground; 4. Smith concludes that pigs cannot fly, but that they are good at landing on all fours.

  1. Smith had concluded that pigs could fly once he had thrown one off a tower.

Is this correct (referring to the above sequence of events)?

Let us suppose the same sequence of events: 1. Smith hypothesises that pigs can fly; 2. Smith throws a pig off a tower; 3. Smith observes the pig crashing to the ground; 4. Smith concludes that pigs cannot fly, but that they are good at landing on all fours.

  1. Observing the pig land on all fours, Smith concluded that while pigs cannot fly they are good at landing on all fours.

Is this correct (referring to the above sequence of events)?

Let us suppose the same sequence of events: 1. Smith hypothesises that pigs can fly; 2. Smith throws a pig off a tower; 3. Smith observes the pig crashing to the ground; 4. Smith concludes that pigs cannot fly, but that they are good at landing on all fours.

  1. Having observed the pig land on all fours, Smith concluded that pigs cannot fly.

Is this correct (referring to the above sequence of events)?

Let us suppose the same sequence of events: 1. Smith hypothesises that pigs can fly; 2. Smith throws a pig off a tower; 3. Smith observes the pig crashing to the ground; 4. Smith concludes that pigs cannot fly, but that they are good at landing on all fours.

  1. Smith had hypothesised that pigs could fly, and launched one off a tower, before he concluded that they were incapable of flight.

Is this correct (referring to the above sequence of events)?

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