Professor Timothy IngoldThe University of AberdeenSchool of Social ScienceChair in Social Anthropologywork+44 (0)1224 274350workfax+44 (0) 01224 email@example.com
Department of Anthropology
School of Social Science
University of Aberdeen
Aberdeen AB24 3QY
Department of Anthropology
School of Social Science
University of Aberdeen
Aberdeen AB24 3QY
Tim Ingold was born in 1948. He received his BA in Social Anthropology from the University of Cambridge in 1970, and his PhD in 1976. For his doctoral research he carried out ethnographic fieldwork (1971-72) among the Skolt Saami of northeastern Finland, and the resulting monograph ('The Skolt Lapps Today', 1976) was a study of the ecological adaptation, social organisation and ethnic politics of this small minority community under conditions of post-war resettlement. Following a year (1973-74) at the University of Helsinki, he was appointed to a Lectureship in Social Anthropology at the University of Manchester. Here he continued his research on northern circumpolar peoples, looking comparatively at hunting, pastoralism and ranching as alternative ways in which such peoples have based a livelihood on reindeer or caribou. His second book, 'Hunters, pastoralists and ranchers: reindeer economies and their transformations', was published in 1980. A further spell of ethnographic fieldwork, this time among Finnish rather than Saami people, was undertaken in the district of Salla, in northern Finland, in 1979-80. The purpose of this research was to examine how farming, forestry and reindeer herding were combined on the level of local livelihood, to investigate the reasons for the intense rural depopulation in the region, and to compare the long term effects of post-war resettlement here with those experienced by the Skolt Saami.
Ingold’s research on circumpolar reindeer herding and hunting led to a more general concern with human-animal relations and the conceptualisation of the humanity-animality interface, as well as with the comparative anthropology of hunter-gatherer and pastoral societies, themes which he also explored while teaching courses at Manchester in economic and ecological anthropology. These concerns led to a number of essays which were collected together in his book 'The Appropriation of Nature', published in 1986. The same year also saw the publication of another major volume, 'Evolution and Social Life', a study of the ways in which the notion of evolution has been handled in the disciplines of anthropology, biology and history, from the late nineteenth century to the present. Two important conferences also took place in that year: the World Archaeological Congress (Southampton), in which Ingold organised a series of sessions devoted to cultural attitudes to animals, and the Fourth International Conference on Hunting and Gathering Societies (London), of which he was a principal organiser. Ingold edited one of the volumes to arise from the Southampton Congress, 'What is an animal?', published in 1988, and was co-editor of the two-volume work 'Hunters and Gatherers', consisting of papers from the London conference and published in the same year.
Through a reconsideration of toolmaking and speech as criteria of human distinctiveness, Ingold became interested in the connection, in human evolution, between language and technology. With Kathleen Gibson, he organised an international conference on this theme in 1990, and the resulting volume, edited by Gibson and Ingold ('Tools, language and cognition in human evolution'), was published in 1993. Since then, Ingold has sought ways of bringing together the anthropologies of technology and art, leading to his current view of the centrality of skilled practice. At the same time he has continued his research and teaching in ecological anthropology and, influenced by the work of James Gibson on perceptual systems, has been exploring ways of integrating ecological approaches in anthropology and psychology. In his recent work, linking the themes of environmental perception and skilled practice, Ingold has attempted to replace traditional models of genetic and cultural transmission, founded upon the alliance of neo-Darwinian biology and cognitive science, with a relational approach focusing on the growth of embodied skills of perception and action within social and environmental contexts of development. These ideas are presented in his book 'The Perception of the Environment' (2000), a collection of twenty-three essays written over the previous decade on the themes of livelihood, dwelling and skill.
Ingold was appointed to a Chair at the University of Manchester in 1990, and in 1995 he became Max Gluckman Professor of Social Anthropology. He was Editor of 'Man' (the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute) from 1990 to 1992, and edited the Routledge 'Companion Encyclopedia of Anthropology', published in 1994. In 1988 he founded the Group for Debates in Anthropological Theory, and edited a volume of the first six annual debates ('Key Debates in Anthropology', 1996). He was elected to a Fellowship of the British Academy in 1997, and of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 2000. In 1999 he was President of the Anthropology and Archaeology Section of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.
In 1999, Tim Ingold moved to take up the newly established Chair of Social Anthropology at the University of Aberdeen, where he has been instrumental in setting up the UK's youngest Department of Anthropology, established in 2002. In his latest research he has been exploring three themes, all arising from his earlier work on the perception of the environment, concerning first, the dynamics of pedestrian movement, secondly, the creativity of practice, and thirdly, the linearity of writing. These issues all come together in his current project, funded by a 3-year ESRC Professorial Fellowship (2005-08), entitled 'Explorations in the comparative anthropology of the line'. Starting from the premise that what walking, observing and writing all have in common is that they proceed along lines of one kind and another, the project seeks to forge a new approach to understanding the relation, in human social life and experience, between movement, knowledge and description. At the same time, and complementing this study, Ingold is researching and teaching on the connections between anthropology, archaeology, art and architecture (the '4 As'), conceived as ways of exploring the relations between human beings and the environments they inhabit. Taking an approach radically different from the conventional anthropologies and archaeologies 'of' art and of architecture, which treat artworks and buildings as though they were merely objects of analysis, he is looking at ways of bringing together the 4 As on the level of practice, as mutually enhancing ways of engaging with our surroundings.
Interests relating to past fieldwork: Work, environment and identity among Saami and Finnish people in Lapland; reindeer herding and husbandry in northern Finland; domestic organisation and rural economy among northern Finnish farmers; migration and rural depopulation; long-term effects of displacement and resettlement; social and environmental aspects of technical change.
Theoretical interests: Ecological approaches in anthropology and psychology; comparative anthropology of hunter-gatherer and pastoral societies; human-animal relations; theories of evolution in anthropology, biology and history; relations between biological, psychological and anthropological approaches to culture and social life; environmental perception; language, technology and skilled practice; anthropology, archaeology, art and architecture; the anthropology of lines and line-making.
This project, funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Board, was undertaken in conjunction with the School of Fine Art at the University of Dundee. The project combines approaches from fine art and anthropology to examine the relation between perception, creativity, innovation and skill, through an empirical study of the knowledge practices of fine art. The research has also explored the potential of a practice-based approach to teaching and learning in both disciplines.
This project, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council, builds on a previous study that focused specifically on recreational rambling and hillwalking in Scotland. The current research is designed to reveal the sociality of walking over a broader canvas. Through an ethnography of everyday pedestrian movements we are exploring how walking binds time and place in people’s experience, relationships and life-histories
Lines from the past: towards an anthropological archaeology of inscriptive practices
This project is to convert a series of six public lectures delivered in Edinburgh in May 2003 into a short book, Lines from the past, scheduled for completion early in 2006. These were the Rhind Lectures, sponsored by the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. In them, I sketched an initial agenda for the comparative anthropology of the line, focusing on the themes of: language, music and notation; traces, threads and surfaces; the gestural trace and the point-to-point connector; writing and drawing, and the significance of the straight line.
Explorations in the comparative anthropology of the line (2005-2008)
This project, funded by a Professorial Fellowship from the Economic and Social Research Council, pursues the implications of treating the human being not as a self-contained entity but as growing along a way of life. Every such way is a line of some kind. Through a comparative and historical anthropology of the line, the research will forge a new approach to understanding the relation, in human life and experience, between movement, knowledge and description. As a work of intellectual synthesis, the research will be library- based, spanning literatures in several disciplines within and beyond the social sciences. It will lead to the production of two major books. 'Life on the line' will explore how, in the transition from the trace to the connector, the growing line was shorn of the movement that gave rise to it. 'The 4 As' will examine the relations between anthropology, archaeology, art and architecture as disciplinary paths along which environments are perceived, shaped and understood.
Introduction to Anthropology I (one-semester course for around 200 Level 1 students, taught from 1999 - when teaching in Anthropology receommenced at the University of Aberdeen - until 2004). Course code AT1002.
Anthropological Theory (one-semester course for around 30 Level 3 students, 2001-03). Course code AT3501.
The 4 As: Anthropology, Archaeology, Art and Architecture (one-semester course for around 12 Level 4 students, 2004 to present). Course code AT4511.
Ingold, T. (2012). 'Looking for lines in nature'. Earthlines, vol 3, pp. 48-51.
Ingold, T. (2011). 'Worlds of sense and sensing the world: Reply to David Howes'. Social Anthropology, vol 19, no. 3, pp. 313-317, 323-327.
Ingold, T. (2010). 'The textility of making'. Cambridge Journal of Economics, vol 34, no. 1, pp. 91-102.
Ingold, T. (2010). 'Footprints through the weather-world: walking, breathing, knowing'. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, vol 16, no. Supplement s1, pp. S121-S139.
Ingold, T. (2010). 'Ways of mind-walking: reading, writing, painting'. Visual Studies, vol 25, no. 1, pp. 15-23.
Ingold, T. (2010). 'The man in the machine and the self-builder'. Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, vol 35, no. 3-4, pp. 353-364.
Ingold, T. (2008). 'Bindings against boundaries: entanglements of life in an open world'. Environment and Planning A, vol 40, no. 8, pp. 1796-1810.
Ingold, T. (2008). 'Anthropology is not ethnography'. Proceedings of the British Academy, vol 154, pp. 69-92.
Ingold, T. (2008). 'When biology goes underground: genes and the spectre of race'. Genomics, Society and Policy, vol 4, no. 1, pp. 23-37.
Ingold, T. (2007). 'Comment'. Journal of Iberian Archaeology, vol 9-10, pp. 313-317.
Ingold, T. (2007). 'Materials against materiality'. Archaeological Dialogues, vol 14, no. 1, pp. 1-16.
Ingold, T. (2007). 'Earth, sky, wind, and weather'. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, vol 13, no. Suppl. 1, pp. s19-s38.
Ingold, T. (2006). 'Up, across and along'. Place and Location: Studies in Environmental Aesthetics and Semiotics, vol 5, pp. 21-36.
Walker, TR., Habeck, JO., Karjalainen, TP., Virtanen, T., Solovieva, N., Jones, V., Kuhry, P., Ponomarev, VI., Mikkola, K., Nikula, A., Patova, E., Crittenden, PD., Young, SD. & Ingold, T. (2006). 'Perceived and measured levels of environmental pollution: Interdisciplinary research in the subarctic lowlands of northeast European Russia'. Ambio, vol 35, no. 5, pp. 220-228.
Ingold, T. (2005). 'Epilogue: towards a politics of dwelling'. Conservation and Society, vol 3, no. 2, pp. 501-508Special.
Ingold, T. (2005). 'The eye of the storm: visual perception and the weather'. Visual Studies, vol 20, no. 2, pp. 97-104.
Ingold, T. (2005). 'Brereton’s brandishments'. Journal of Critical Realism, vol 4, no. 1, pp. 112-127.
Ingold, T. (2004). 'Beyond biology and culture: the meaning of evolution in a relational world'. Social Anthropology, vol 12, no. 4.
Ingold, T. (2004). 'Culture on the ground: the world perceived through the feet'. Journal of Material Culture, vol 9, no. 3, pp. 315-340.
Ingold, T. (2002). 'On the distinction between evolution and history'. Social Evolution and History, vol 1, no. 1, pp. 5-24.
Ingold, T. (1998). 'Herds of the tundra: A Portrait of Saami Reindeer Pastoralism'. American Ethnologist, vol 25, no. 1, pp. 73-74.
Ingold, T. (1996). 'Situating action: 5. The history and evolution of bodily skills'. Ecological Psychology, vol 8, no. 2, pp. 171-182.
Ingold, T. (2008). 'Review of 'Of passionate curves and desirable cadences: themes on Waiwai social being', by George Mentore'. Tipiti, vol 6, no. 1-2, pp. 63-76.
Ingold, T. (1995). 'Tools, Language and Cognition'. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, vol 1, no. 2, pp. 396-398.
Reviews of Books, Films and Articles
Ingold, T. (2006). 'Review: Doreen Massey, For Space, Sage, London (2005) viii + 222 pages, £18.99 paperback'. Journal of Historical Geography, vol 32, no. 4, pp. 891-893.
Ingold, T. (2001). 'Adrian Franklin. Animals and modern cultures: A sociology of human-animal relations in modernity'. Society & Animals, vol 9, no. 2, pp. 183-188.
Ingold, T. (1999). 'Paths of fire: An anthropologist's inquiry into western technology'. Technology and Culture, vol 40, no. 1, pp. 130-132.
Ingold, T. (2006). 'Rethinking the animate, re-animating thought'. Ethnos, vol 71, no. 1, pp. 9-20.
Ingold, T. (2001). 'Primitive mentality: Comment'. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, vol 7, no. 4, pp. 770-770.
Chapters in Books, Reports and Conference Proceedings
Ingold, T. (in press). 'Walking with Dragons: An Anthropological Excursion on the Wild Side'. in C Deane-Drummond, D Clough & R Artinian-Kaiser (eds), Animals as Religious Subjects : Transdisciplinary Perspectives. Bloomsbury, pp. 35-58.
Ingold, T. (in press). 'The conical lodge at the centre of the earth-sky world'. in D Anderson, R Wishart & V Vaté (eds), About the Hearth: Perspectives on Home, Hearth and Household in the Circumploar North. Berghahn Books, Oxford, pp. 11-28.
Ingold, T. (2013). 'Prospect'. in T Ingold & G Palsson (eds), Biosocial Becomings: Integrating Social and Biological Anthropology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1-21.
Ingold, T. (in press). 'Designing Environments for Life'. in K Hastrup (ed.), Anthropology and Nature. Routledge, Abingdon.
Ingold, T. (in press). 'Being Alive to a World Without Objects'. in G Harvey (ed.), The Handbook of Contemporary Animism. Equinox Publishing.
Ingold, T. (2013). 'The metamorphosis of trees'. in M Payne (ed.), David Nash: A Natural Gallery. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp. 34-49.
Ingold, T. (in press). 'The axe and the cathedral: Making, building and the design of things'. in G Lewis & B Piekut (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Critical Improvisation Studies. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Ingold, T. (2013). 'The art of inquiry: Reflections of an anthropologist'. in E ter Gast, H Oosterling, I van der Tuin & PP Verbeek (eds), Yes Naturally: How Art saves the World. NAI, Rotterdam, pp. 172-177.
Ingold, T. & Gatt, C. (in press). 'From description to correspondence: Anthropology in real time'. in W Gunn, T Otto & R Charlotte-Smith (eds), Design Anthropology: Theory and Practice. Bloomsbury, London.
Ingold, T. (2013). 'The maze and the labyrinth: walking and the education of attention'. in Walk-On: From Richard Long to Janet Cardiff. Art Editions North, University of Sunderland, pp. 7-11.
Ingold, T. (2013). 'The maze and the labyrinth: Reflections of a fellow-traveller'. in C Watts (ed.), Relational archaeologies: Humans, animals, things. Routledge, Abingdon, pp. 245-249.
Ingold, T. (2012). 'Lines and the weather'. in J Ruskin, J Brouwer, A Mulder & L Spuybroek (eds), Vital Beauty: Reclaiming aesthetics in the tangle of technology and nature. V2_Publishing, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 12-28.
Ingold, T. (2012). 'Introduction'. in M Janowski & T Ingold (eds), Imagining Landscapes: Past, present and future. Ashgate, Abingdon, pp. 1-18.
Ingold, T. (2012). 'The shape of the land'. in A Arnason, N Ellison, J Vergunst & A Whitehouse (eds), Landscapes Beyond Land: Routes, Aesthetics, Narratives. Berghahn Books, Oxford, pp. 197-208.
Ingold, T. (2012). 'Introduction: The perception of the user-producer'. in W Gunn & J Donovan (eds), Design and Anthropology. Anthropological Studies of Creativity and Perception, Ashgate, Farnham, pp. 19-33.
Ingold, T. (2011). 'Introduction'. in T Ingold (ed.), Redrawing anthropology : Materials, movements, lines. Anthropological Studies of Creativity and Perception, Ashgate, Farnham, pp. 1-20.
Ingold, T. (2011). 'Closing Keynote Speech'. in J Ziker & F Stammler (eds), Histories From the North: Environments, Movements and Narratives. Anthropology Publications, Boise State University, Boise, ID, pp. 198-210.
Ingold, T. (2010). 'Epilogue'. in K Benediktsson & KA Lund (eds), Conversations with landscape. Anthropological Studies in Creativity and Perception, Ashgate, Farnham, pp. 241-251.
Ingold, T. (2009). '12 As'. in W Gunn (ed.), Fieldnotes and sketchbooks: challenging the boundaries between descriptions and processes of describing. Peter Lang Pub., Frankfurt, Germany, pp. 109-134.
Ingold, T. (2009). 'Against space: place, movement, knowledge'. in P Kirby (ed.), Boundless Worlds: An Anthropological Approach to Movement. Berghahn Books, Oxford, United Kingdom, pp. 29-43.
Ingold, T. (2009). 'Stories against classification: transport, wayfaring and the integration of knowledge'. in Kinship and Beyond: The Genealogical Model Reconsidered. Fertility, Reproduction and Sexuality, vol. 15, Berghahn Books, Oxford, United Kingdom, pp. 193-213.
Ingold, T. (2009). 'The wedge and the knot: hammering and stitching the face of nature'. in S Bergmann, P. M. Scott, M. Jansdottir & H Bedford-Strohm (eds), Nature, Space and the Sacred: Transdisciplinary Perspectives. Ashgate, Aldershot, United Kingdom, pp. 147-161.
Ingold, T. (2008). 'When ANT meets SPIDER: social theory for arthropods'. in C Knappett & L Malafouris (eds), Material Agency: Towards a Non-Anthropocentric Approach. Springer Science+Business Media, New York, NY, USA, pp. 209-215.
Ingold, T. & Vergunst, J. (2008). 'Introduction'. in T Ingold & J Vergunst (eds), Ways of walking: Ethnography and practice on foot. Anthropological Studies of Creativity and Perception, Ashgate, Aldershot, United Kingdom, pp. 1-19.
Ingold, T. (2008). 'Point, Line and Counterpoint: From Environment to Fluid Space'. in A Berthoz & Y Christen (eds), Neurobiology of the "Umwelt": How Living Beings Perceive the World. Research and Perspectives in Neurosciences, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 141-155.
Mazzullo, N. & Ingold, T. (2008). 'Being along: place, time and movement among Sami people in northern Finland'. in J O. Baerenholdt & B Granaas (eds), Mobility and Place: Enacting Northern European Peripheries. Ashgate, Aldershot, United Kingdom, pp. 27-38.
Ingold, T. & Hallam, E. (2007). 'Creativity and cultural improvisation: an introduction'. in T Ingold & E Hallam (eds), Creativity and cultural improvisation. Berg, Oxford, pp. 1-24.
Ingold, T. (2007). 'Movement, knowledge and description'. in S Ulijaszek & D Parkin (eds), Holistic anthropology: emergence and convergence. Berghahn Books, Berghahn, Oxford, pp. 194-211.
Ingold, T. (2007). 'The 4 As (Anthropology, Archaeology, Art and Architecture): reflections on a teaching and learning experience'. in M Harris (ed.), Ways of knowing: new approaches in the anthropology of knowledge and learning. Berghahn Books, Oxford, pp. 287-305.
Ingold, T. (2007). 'Against soundscape'. in A Carlyle (ed.), Autumn leaves: sound and the environment in artistic practice. Double Entendre, Paris, pp. 10-13.
Ingold, T. (2007). 'The social child'. in A Fogel, BJ King & SG Shanker (eds), Human Development in the Twenty-First Century: Visionary Ideas from Systems Scientists. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, pp. 112-118.
Ingold, T. (2006). 'Walking the plank: meditations on a process of skill'. in J Dakers (ed.), Defining technological literacy: towards an epistemological framework. Palgrave Macmillan, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, pp. 65-80.
Ingold, T. (2006). 'Against human nature'. in D Aerts, N Gontier & J. P. Van Bendegem (eds), Evolutionary episetmology, language and culture. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 259-281.
Lee, J. & Ingold, T. (2006). 'Fieldwork on foot: perceiving, routing, socializing'. in P Collins & S Coleman (eds), Locating the Field. Space, Place and Context in Anthropology. Berg, Oxford, pp. 67-86.
Ingold, T. (2005). 'A manifesto for the anthropology of the North'. in A Sudkamp (ed.), Connections: local and global aspects of Arctic social systems. International Arctic Social Science Association, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, pp. 61-71.
Ingold, T. (2005). 'Naming as storytelling: speaking of animals among the Koyukon of Alaska'. in G Sanga, A Minelli & G. Ortalli (eds), Animal names. Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Venice, pp. 159-172.
Ingold, T. (2005). 'Time, memory and property'. in T Widlok (ed.), Property and equality, Volume 1: Ritualisation, sharing, egalitarianism. Berghahn, Oxford, pp. 165-174.
Ingold, T. (2004). 'A circumpolar night’s dream'. in E Schwimmer, J Clammer & S. Poirier (eds), Figured worlds: ontological obstacles in intercultural relations. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, pp. 25-57.
Ingold, T. (2004). 'André Leroi-Gourhan and the evolution of writing'. in N Schlanger & F Audouze (eds), Autour de l’homme: contexte et actualité d’André Leroi-Gourhan. Libraire Archéologique, Quetigny, pp. 109-123.
Ingold, T. (2004). 'Two reflections on ecological knowledge'. in G Ortalli & G Sanga (eds), Nature knowledge: ethnoscience, cognition, identity. Berghahn, New York, pp. 301-311.
Ingold, T. (2003). 'Three in one: how an ecological approach can obviate the distinctions between body, mind and culture'. in A Roepstorff & N. Bub (eds), Imagining nature: practices of cosmology and identity. Aarhus University Press, Aarhus, pp. 40-55.
Ingold, T. (2002). 'Epilogue'. in E Kasten (ed.), People and the land: pathways to reform in post-Soviet Siberia. Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 245-254.
Ingold, T. (2002). 'Between evolution and history: biology, culture and the myth of human origins'. in M Wheeler & J. Ziman (eds), The evolution of cultural entities. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 43-66.
Ingold, T. (2001). 'From the transmission of representations to the education of attention'. in H Whitehouse (ed.), The Debated Mind: Evolutionary psychology versus ethnography. Berg, Oxford, pp. 113-153.
Ingold, T. (2001). 'Beyond art and technology: the anthropology of skill'. in M B. Schiffer (ed.), Anthropological perspectives on technology. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 17-31.
Ingold, T. (2001). 'From complementarity to obviation: on dissolving the boundaries between social and biological anthropology, archaeology and psychology'. in S Oyama & P. E. Griffiths (eds), Cycles of contingency: developmental systems and evolution. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., pp. 255-279.
Books and Reports
Ingold, T. (2013). 'Making: Anthropology, Archaeology, Art and Architecture'. Routledge, Abingdon.
Ingold, T. & Palsson, G. (eds) (2013). 'Biosocial Becomings: Integrating Social and Biological Anthropology'. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Janowski, M. & Ingold, T. (eds) (2012). 'Imagining Landscapes: Past, Present and Future'. Antropological Studies of Creativity and Perception, Ashgate, Abingdon, UK.
Ingold, T. (2011). 'Being Alive: Essays on Movement, Knowledge and Description'. Routledge, London.
Ingold, T. (2011). 'Redrawing Anthropology: Materials, movements, lines'. Anthropological Studies of Creativity and Perception, Ashgate, Farnham.
Ingold, T. & Vergunst, J. (eds) (2008). 'Ways of Walking: Ethnography and Practice on Foot'. Anthropological Studies of Creativity and Perception, Ashgate, Aldershot, United Kingdom.
Ingold, T. (2007). 'Lines: A Brief History'. Routledge, Oxon, UK.
Hallam, E. & Ingold, T. (2007). 'Creativity and Cultural Improvisation'. A. S. A. Monographs, vol. 44, Berg Publishers, Oxford.
Contributions to Specialist Publications
Ingold, T. (2004). 'Anthropology at Aberdeen'. p. 181-197, Aberdeen University Review, 60 3.