The Aberdeen Bestiary

Folio 95v - the adamas stone, continued.


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Commentary, Translation and Transcription

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It is not part of the project to provide a definitive edition of the text of the Bestiary, but to help readers by providing a transcription and translation of the text. Currently the following editorial conventions obtain:

Text

  1. The original capitalisation is retained, but capitals have been added for personal and place names, excluding deus and diabolus.
  2. The original punctuation, including a point and inverted semi-colon (both serving as commas), and a point (serving as a full stop), is represented by comma, full stop and question-mark; a colon has been inserted before quotations.
  3. Suggested readings are in [ ].
  4. Variants from other Bestiary texts (eg Ashmole 1511 and Patrologia Latina 176) are added where they indicate a corruption, elucidate a meaning and replace excised text. They are represented as [A: PL:]

Translation

  1. Direct quotations from the Bible, where identified, are cited from the Authorised Version in ( ).
  2. Paraphrased quotations are identified where possible and indicated as: (see Job, 18:22).
  3. Suggested translations of corrupt words are in [ ].
  4. Capitalisation is sparing; additional punctuation has been used where necessary to give the sense. Paragraphs have been created to break up the text.
godliness; God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory' (1 Timothy, 3:16). Moreover, Physiologus says of the adamant stone that iron does has no effect on it, just as, death will not rule Christ. For he destroyed death and trampled on it, as the apostle bore witness, saying: 'Death is swallowed up in victory. O death, where is thy sting?' (1 Corinthians, 16:54-55). Nor is this stone affected by fire, meaning the devil who with his blazing darts burns the whole earth, its cities and its wanton, drunken and raging inhabitants; of these Isaiah says: 'Your country is desolate, your cities are burned with fire' (Isaiah, 1:7). 'The Lord Jesus Christ shall consume him with the breath from his mouth' (see 2 Thessalonians, 2:8). No other stone can damage adamant, that is, no man at all, nor any creature, can oppose Christ. 'All things were made by him, and without him was not any thing made' (John, 1:3). Adamant is a small and unsightly stone, with a dusky colour and the brightness of crystal, and is about the size of an Abelline nut. It yields to no other matter, not iron, nor indeed fire, and it never grows hot; for this reason its name, translated from Greek, means 'invincible force'. While adamant remains unconquered by iron, however, and scorns fire, it can broken by the fresh blood of a goat, softened by heat and thus crushed with repeated blows of iron. Engravers use fragments of it for engraving and cutting gemstones. Adamant is at odds with the magnet stone in so much as, placed near iron, it will not suffer the metal to be drawn to the magnet; if the adamant is removed, however, the magnet seizes

Text

The great strength of the adamas stone and how it can be used.

Comment

Initial, type 4.

Folio Attributes

  • Initial Type 4

    Initial Type 4

    Initial Type 4
    Type 4 initial. Detail from f.96v

    Type 4 initials are red or blue. On any given page they alternate red and blue regularly. Blue initials are embellished with red tassels and vice versa. The colouring and form of the letters is not very even and appears rather hurried in places. In the Bestiary proper, they appear on f.79v and f.80r. Thereafter this is the basic initial used in the thirteenth-century Lapidary addition, found from f.94r onwards. This suggests that gaps left in the twelfth-century text on ff. 79v and 80r were filled in when the book was completed in the later thirteenth century. The poor quality of the later work is apparent from f.94r onwards, and is apparent on f.79v where the wrong capital ‘U’ was inserted and later corrected to ‘F’ for Fagus, the beech tree.

Transcription

pietatis quod manifestum est in carne iustificatum est in\ spiritu, quod apparuit angelus predicatum est gentibus, credi\tum est in hoc mundo, assumptum est in gloria. Quod\ autem de eo lapide dicit Phisiologus, quod neque ferrum illi\ prevalet, id est mors illi non dominabitur. Delevit mortem enim\ et conculcavit sicut per apostolum testatur dicens: Devicta est\ mors in victoria. Ubi est mors contricio tua, ubi est mors\ aculeus tuus? Sed neque ignis illi potest quicque facere\ id est diabolus qui ignitis iaculis suis succendit omnem\ terram et civitates, luxuriosos, ebriosos, et iracundos,\ de quibus Ysaias dicit: Terra autem deserta civitates vestre\ igni cremate. Dominus autem Jesus Christus interficiet eum spiri\tu oris sui. Sed neque alter lapis nocuit, id est nullus homo\ penitus neque ulla creatura poterit adversus eum. Omnia\ enim per ipsum facta sunt, et sine ipso factum est nichil. \ Adamas lapis parvus et indecorus ferrugineum\ habens colorem et splendorem crista\llinum et in\ modum nuclei avellani. Hic nulli cedit ma\terie nec ferro quidem nec igni nec unquam incalescit, un\de et nomen interpretacione Greca indomita vis ac\cepit. Sed dum sit invictus ferro ignisque contemptor,\ hyrcino sanguine rumpitur recenti, et calido maceratus,\ sicque multis ictibus ferri perfrangitur. Cuius fragmenta\ sculptores pro gemmis insignendis perforandis utuntur.\ Hic autem dissidet cum magnete lapide in tantum ut\ iuxta positus ferrum non paciatur abstrahi in magne\tem, sed si ammotus fuerit adamas magnetem [magnes] rapit\

Translation

godliness; God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory' (1 Timothy, 3:16). Moreover, Physiologus says of the adamant stone that iron does has no effect on it, just as, death will not rule Christ. For he destroyed death and trampled on it, as the apostle bore witness, saying: 'Death is swallowed up in victory. O death, where is thy sting?' (1 Corinthians, 16:54-55). Nor is this stone affected by fire, meaning the devil who with his blazing darts burns the whole earth, its cities and its wanton, drunken and raging inhabitants; of these Isaiah says: 'Your country is desolate, your cities are burned with fire' (Isaiah, 1:7). 'The Lord Jesus Christ shall consume him with the breath from his mouth' (see 2 Thessalonians, 2:8). No other stone can damage adamant, that is, no man at all, nor any creature, can oppose Christ. 'All things were made by him, and without him was not any thing made' (John, 1:3). Adamant is a small and unsightly stone, with a dusky colour and the brightness of crystal, and is about the size of an Abelline nut. It yields to no other matter, not iron, nor indeed fire, and it never grows hot; for this reason its name, translated from Greek, means 'invincible force'. While adamant remains unconquered by iron, however, and scorns fire, it can broken by the fresh blood of a goat, softened by heat and thus crushed with repeated blows of iron. Engravers use fragments of it for engraving and cutting gemstones. Adamant is at odds with the magnet stone in so much as, placed near iron, it will not suffer the metal to be drawn to the magnet; if the adamant is removed, however, the magnet seizes
  • Commentary

    Text

    The great strength of the adamas stone and how it can be used.

    Comment

    Initial, type 4.

    Folio Attributes

    • Initial Type 4

      Initial Type 4

      Initial Type 4
      Type 4 initial. Detail from f.96v

      Type 4 initials are red or blue. On any given page they alternate red and blue regularly. Blue initials are embellished with red tassels and vice versa. The colouring and form of the letters is not very even and appears rather hurried in places. In the Bestiary proper, they appear on f.79v and f.80r. Thereafter this is the basic initial used in the thirteenth-century Lapidary addition, found from f.94r onwards. This suggests that gaps left in the twelfth-century text on ff. 79v and 80r were filled in when the book was completed in the later thirteenth century. The poor quality of the later work is apparent from f.94r onwards, and is apparent on f.79v where the wrong capital ‘U’ was inserted and later corrected to ‘F’ for Fagus, the beech tree.

  • Translation
    godliness; God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory' (1 Timothy, 3:16). Moreover, Physiologus says of the adamant stone that iron does has no effect on it, just as, death will not rule Christ. For he destroyed death and trampled on it, as the apostle bore witness, saying: 'Death is swallowed up in victory. O death, where is thy sting?' (1 Corinthians, 16:54-55). Nor is this stone affected by fire, meaning the devil who with his blazing darts burns the whole earth, its cities and its wanton, drunken and raging inhabitants; of these Isaiah says: 'Your country is desolate, your cities are burned with fire' (Isaiah, 1:7). 'The Lord Jesus Christ shall consume him with the breath from his mouth' (see 2 Thessalonians, 2:8). No other stone can damage adamant, that is, no man at all, nor any creature, can oppose Christ. 'All things were made by him, and without him was not any thing made' (John, 1:3). Adamant is a small and unsightly stone, with a dusky colour and the brightness of crystal, and is about the size of an Abelline nut. It yields to no other matter, not iron, nor indeed fire, and it never grows hot; for this reason its name, translated from Greek, means 'invincible force'. While adamant remains unconquered by iron, however, and scorns fire, it can broken by the fresh blood of a goat, softened by heat and thus crushed with repeated blows of iron. Engravers use fragments of it for engraving and cutting gemstones. Adamant is at odds with the magnet stone in so much as, placed near iron, it will not suffer the metal to be drawn to the magnet; if the adamant is removed, however, the magnet seizes
  • Transcription
    pietatis quod manifestum est in carne iustificatum est in\ spiritu, quod apparuit angelus predicatum est gentibus, credi\tum est in hoc mundo, assumptum est in gloria. Quod\ autem de eo lapide dicit Phisiologus, quod neque ferrum illi\ prevalet, id est mors illi non dominabitur. Delevit mortem enim\ et conculcavit sicut per apostolum testatur dicens: Devicta est\ mors in victoria. Ubi est mors contricio tua, ubi est mors\ aculeus tuus? Sed neque ignis illi potest quicque facere\ id est diabolus qui ignitis iaculis suis succendit omnem\ terram et civitates, luxuriosos, ebriosos, et iracundos,\ de quibus Ysaias dicit: Terra autem deserta civitates vestre\ igni cremate. Dominus autem Jesus Christus interficiet eum spiri\tu oris sui. Sed neque alter lapis nocuit, id est nullus homo\ penitus neque ulla creatura poterit adversus eum. Omnia\ enim per ipsum facta sunt, et sine ipso factum est nichil. \ Adamas lapis parvus et indecorus ferrugineum\ habens colorem et splendorem crista\llinum et in\ modum nuclei avellani. Hic nulli cedit ma\terie nec ferro quidem nec igni nec unquam incalescit, un\de et nomen interpretacione Greca indomita vis ac\cepit. Sed dum sit invictus ferro ignisque contemptor,\ hyrcino sanguine rumpitur recenti, et calido maceratus,\ sicque multis ictibus ferri perfrangitur. Cuius fragmenta\ sculptores pro gemmis insignendis perforandis utuntur.\ Hic autem dissidet cum magnete lapide in tantum ut\ iuxta positus ferrum non paciatur abstrahi in magne\tem, sed si ammotus fuerit adamas magnetem [magnes] rapit\
Folio 95v - the adamas stone, continued. | The Aberdeen Bestiary | The University of Aberdeen