The Aberdeen Bestiary

Folio 83r - the nature of man, continued.


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Commentary, Translation and Transcription

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It is not part of the project to provide a definitive edition of the text of the Bestiary, but to help readers by providing a transcription and translation of the text. Currently the following editorial conventions obtain:

Text

  1. The original capitalisation is retained, but capitals have been added for personal and place names, excluding deus and diabolus.
  2. The original punctuation, including a point and inverted semi-colon (both serving as commas), and a point (serving as a full stop), is represented by comma, full stop and question-mark; a colon has been inserted before quotations.
  3. Suggested readings are in [ ].
  4. Variants from other Bestiary texts (eg Ashmole 1511 and Patrologia Latina 176) are added where they indicate a corruption, elucidate a meaning and replace excised text. They are represented as [A: PL:]

Translation

  1. Direct quotations from the Bible, where identified, are cited from the Authorised Version in ( ).
  2. Paraphrased quotations are identified where possible and indicated as: (see Job, 18:22).
  3. Suggested translations of corrupt words are in [ ].
  4. Capitalisation is sparing; additional punctuation has been used where necessary to give the sense. Paragraphs have been created to break up the text.
by ellipsis; it is used in the neuter form. The occiput, occipicium, is the rear part of the head, as if the word came from contra capitium, 'opposite the covering of the head' or because it is behind the head, capitis retrorsum. The word for hair, capilli, comes as if from capitis pili, 'hairs of the head'. Hair was created to embellish the head and to protect the brain from cold and to keep the sun off it. The word for hair, pilos, comes from pellis, the skin, from which the hair emerges, as pilum, the pestle, comes from pila, the mortar, in which it pounds colours. A hairstyle is called cesaries, from cedere, to cut; for this reason it only applies to men. For cutting the hair is appropriate for men; it is unfitting for women. The word coma is strictly speaking, 'uncut hair', and comes from the Greek. For the Greeks call uncut hair kaimos from their word for 'cutting off'; they have also the word kirin [keirein] 'to clip or crop'. From this comes the word for curls, cirri, which the Greeks call maaonem [mallos], a lock of hair. The word crinis properly speaking refers to women's hair. The locks are so called because they are parted, discernere, by the bands of a filet. From this source also comes the word discriminalia, the hairpins by which the parted locks are fastened in place. The temples, timpora [tempora], lie below the skull, on the left and right. They are so called because they are mobile; with that mobility, they are changed at certain intervals like the seasons, tempora. The word for face, facies, comes from effigies, likeness. For it portrays the whole nature of a man and reveals each person's character. The countenance, vultus, is so called because it displays the desires, voluntas, of the soul. For it is changed, as the soul wills, into different movements of the features. For this reason the face, facies, and the countenance, vultus, differ from each other. For we understand by the face, facies, simply a person's natural appearance; the countenance, vultus, signifies their inner disposition. The forehead, frons, gets its name from the openings, foramen, in which the eyes are set. It provides a certain representation of the mind and expresses in its own appearance the motion of the intellect, showing when it is either happy or sad. The eyes, oculus, are so called either because the coverings of the eyelids hide them, occultare, lest they should be harmed by the impact of an injury, or because they have a hidden, occultus, light, that is, one which is secret or is located within. Here

Text

Isidore on the head, hair and face.

Comment

Folio mark, * in circle, bottom left.

Folio Attributes

  • Gatherings, quire marks, folio marks

    Gatherings, quire marks, folio marks

    Gatherings, quire marks, folio marks
    Folio Marks

    To make a normal gathering, a sheet of vellum (the skin of a calf, lamb or kid) would be folded over twice and cut around the edges. This would make a gathering or quire of eight folios with sixteen sides. In the Bestiary there are fifteen quires, thirteen of which are made with the usual eight folios. The last two quires, added in the late thirteenth century, have six and four folios respectively. The folios are not precisely cut but in the most regular quires (B and C) they measure 300mm high and 210mm wide. In order to assemble the quires in the correct sequence they were labelled in lead point with letters of the alphabet. Some are missing with the result that the sequence runs -,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,K,-(folio missing),M,N. The last two quires (O and P) are the later additions and are not marked. The quire system was examined by MR James when the book was being rebound and he was able to produce the following analysis of the gatherings: A8 (wants folio 2, 8); B8 (4,5); C8 (4,8); D8 (4,5); E8-L8 (1); M8; N8; O6; P4 (4). Individual sheets in the quire needed to be marked. Although there were eight folios only the first four needed marking because they were folded with the last four. Each sheet was distinctively marked to make sure the quires could not get muddled up. The asterisk sign is repeated in quires B and M but they remain distinct because the B sign is in the top right corner while the M signs are all in the bottom left corner.

Transcription

delectionem [PL, per defectionem] et neutraliter pronuntiatur. Occipicium\ capitis pars posterior quas [PL, quasi] contra captium [PL, capitium] vel quod sit\ capitis retrorsum. Capilli vocati quasi capitis pili, facti\ ut decorem prestent, et cerebrum adversum frigus muniant,\ atque a sole defendant. Pilos enim dictos [PL, pili autem dicti] a pelle qua prode\unt, sicut et pilum dicitur a pila ubi pigmentum tunditur. Ce\saries a cedendo vocata, ideoque tantum virorum est. Virum\ enim tonsum esse decet, mulierem non decet. Come sunt\ proprie non cesi capilli, et est Grecus sermo. Nam comas Greci\ kaimoc [kaimos], a secando nominant. Unde et kirin tondere.\ Inde et cirri vocantur quod idem Grec maaonem\ vocant. Crines proprie mulierum sunt. Dicti enim crines\ eo quod vittis discernantur. Unde et discriminalia dicun\tur a quibus divisi religantur. Timpora sunt que calva\rie dextra levaque subiacent, que ideo sic nuncupantur\ quia moventur, ipsaque mobilitate quasi tempora a quibus\dam intervallis mutantur. Facies dicta ab effigie. Ibi enim\ est tota figura hominis et uniuscuiusque persone cognitio.\ Vultus vero dictus, eo quod per eum animi voluntas osten\ditur. Secundum voluntatem enim in varios motus mutatur.\ Unde et differunt sibi utroque. Nam facies simpliciter ac\cipitur, de uniuscuiusque naturali aspectu, vultus enim\ animorum qualitatem significat. Frons ab oculorum fo\raminibus nominata est. Hec ymago quedam animi men\tis motum specie sua exprimit, dum vel leta vel tristis est.\ Oculi vocati sive quia eos ciliorum tegminia occultant, ne qua\ incidentis iniurie offensione ledantur, sive quia occultum\ lumen habent id est secretum vel intus positum. Hic\

Translation

by ellipsis; it is used in the neuter form. The occiput, occipicium, is the rear part of the head, as if the word came from contra capitium, 'opposite the covering of the head' or because it is behind the head, capitis retrorsum. The word for hair, capilli, comes as if from capitis pili, 'hairs of the head'. Hair was created to embellish the head and to protect the brain from cold and to keep the sun off it. The word for hair, pilos, comes from pellis, the skin, from which the hair emerges, as pilum, the pestle, comes from pila, the mortar, in which it pounds colours. A hairstyle is called cesaries, from cedere, to cut; for this reason it only applies to men. For cutting the hair is appropriate for men; it is unfitting for women. The word coma is strictly speaking, 'uncut hair', and comes from the Greek. For the Greeks call uncut hair kaimos from their word for 'cutting off'; they have also the word kirin [keirein] 'to clip or crop'. From this comes the word for curls, cirri, which the Greeks call maaonem [mallos], a lock of hair. The word crinis properly speaking refers to women's hair. The locks are so called because they are parted, discernere, by the bands of a filet. From this source also comes the word discriminalia, the hairpins by which the parted locks are fastened in place. The temples, timpora [tempora], lie below the skull, on the left and right. They are so called because they are mobile; with that mobility, they are changed at certain intervals like the seasons, tempora. The word for face, facies, comes from effigies, likeness. For it portrays the whole nature of a man and reveals each person's character. The countenance, vultus, is so called because it displays the desires, voluntas, of the soul. For it is changed, as the soul wills, into different movements of the features. For this reason the face, facies, and the countenance, vultus, differ from each other. For we understand by the face, facies, simply a person's natural appearance; the countenance, vultus, signifies their inner disposition. The forehead, frons, gets its name from the openings, foramen, in which the eyes are set. It provides a certain representation of the mind and expresses in its own appearance the motion of the intellect, showing when it is either happy or sad. The eyes, oculus, are so called either because the coverings of the eyelids hide them, occultare, lest they should be harmed by the impact of an injury, or because they have a hidden, occultus, light, that is, one which is secret or is located within. Here
  • Commentary

    Text

    Isidore on the head, hair and face.

    Comment

    Folio mark, * in circle, bottom left.

    Folio Attributes

    • Gatherings, quire marks, folio marks

      Gatherings, quire marks, folio marks

      Gatherings, quire marks, folio marks
      Folio Marks

      To make a normal gathering, a sheet of vellum (the skin of a calf, lamb or kid) would be folded over twice and cut around the edges. This would make a gathering or quire of eight folios with sixteen sides. In the Bestiary there are fifteen quires, thirteen of which are made with the usual eight folios. The last two quires, added in the late thirteenth century, have six and four folios respectively. The folios are not precisely cut but in the most regular quires (B and C) they measure 300mm high and 210mm wide. In order to assemble the quires in the correct sequence they were labelled in lead point with letters of the alphabet. Some are missing with the result that the sequence runs -,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,K,-(folio missing),M,N. The last two quires (O and P) are the later additions and are not marked. The quire system was examined by MR James when the book was being rebound and he was able to produce the following analysis of the gatherings: A8 (wants folio 2, 8); B8 (4,5); C8 (4,8); D8 (4,5); E8-L8 (1); M8; N8; O6; P4 (4). Individual sheets in the quire needed to be marked. Although there were eight folios only the first four needed marking because they were folded with the last four. Each sheet was distinctively marked to make sure the quires could not get muddled up. The asterisk sign is repeated in quires B and M but they remain distinct because the B sign is in the top right corner while the M signs are all in the bottom left corner.

  • Translation
    by ellipsis; it is used in the neuter form. The occiput, occipicium, is the rear part of the head, as if the word came from contra capitium, 'opposite the covering of the head' or because it is behind the head, capitis retrorsum. The word for hair, capilli, comes as if from capitis pili, 'hairs of the head'. Hair was created to embellish the head and to protect the brain from cold and to keep the sun off it. The word for hair, pilos, comes from pellis, the skin, from which the hair emerges, as pilum, the pestle, comes from pila, the mortar, in which it pounds colours. A hairstyle is called cesaries, from cedere, to cut; for this reason it only applies to men. For cutting the hair is appropriate for men; it is unfitting for women. The word coma is strictly speaking, 'uncut hair', and comes from the Greek. For the Greeks call uncut hair kaimos from their word for 'cutting off'; they have also the word kirin [keirein] 'to clip or crop'. From this comes the word for curls, cirri, which the Greeks call maaonem [mallos], a lock of hair. The word crinis properly speaking refers to women's hair. The locks are so called because they are parted, discernere, by the bands of a filet. From this source also comes the word discriminalia, the hairpins by which the parted locks are fastened in place. The temples, timpora [tempora], lie below the skull, on the left and right. They are so called because they are mobile; with that mobility, they are changed at certain intervals like the seasons, tempora. The word for face, facies, comes from effigies, likeness. For it portrays the whole nature of a man and reveals each person's character. The countenance, vultus, is so called because it displays the desires, voluntas, of the soul. For it is changed, as the soul wills, into different movements of the features. For this reason the face, facies, and the countenance, vultus, differ from each other. For we understand by the face, facies, simply a person's natural appearance; the countenance, vultus, signifies their inner disposition. The forehead, frons, gets its name from the openings, foramen, in which the eyes are set. It provides a certain representation of the mind and expresses in its own appearance the motion of the intellect, showing when it is either happy or sad. The eyes, oculus, are so called either because the coverings of the eyelids hide them, occultare, lest they should be harmed by the impact of an injury, or because they have a hidden, occultus, light, that is, one which is secret or is located within. Here
  • Transcription
    delectionem [PL, per defectionem] et neutraliter pronuntiatur. Occipicium\ capitis pars posterior quas [PL, quasi] contra captium [PL, capitium] vel quod sit\ capitis retrorsum. Capilli vocati quasi capitis pili, facti\ ut decorem prestent, et cerebrum adversum frigus muniant,\ atque a sole defendant. Pilos enim dictos [PL, pili autem dicti] a pelle qua prode\unt, sicut et pilum dicitur a pila ubi pigmentum tunditur. Ce\saries a cedendo vocata, ideoque tantum virorum est. Virum\ enim tonsum esse decet, mulierem non decet. Come sunt\ proprie non cesi capilli, et est Grecus sermo. Nam comas Greci\ kaimoc [kaimos], a secando nominant. Unde et kirin tondere.\ Inde et cirri vocantur quod idem Grec maaonem\ vocant. Crines proprie mulierum sunt. Dicti enim crines\ eo quod vittis discernantur. Unde et discriminalia dicun\tur a quibus divisi religantur. Timpora sunt que calva\rie dextra levaque subiacent, que ideo sic nuncupantur\ quia moventur, ipsaque mobilitate quasi tempora a quibus\dam intervallis mutantur. Facies dicta ab effigie. Ibi enim\ est tota figura hominis et uniuscuiusque persone cognitio.\ Vultus vero dictus, eo quod per eum animi voluntas osten\ditur. Secundum voluntatem enim in varios motus mutatur.\ Unde et differunt sibi utroque. Nam facies simpliciter ac\cipitur, de uniuscuiusque naturali aspectu, vultus enim\ animorum qualitatem significat. Frons ab oculorum fo\raminibus nominata est. Hec ymago quedam animi men\tis motum specie sua exprimit, dum vel leta vel tristis est.\ Oculi vocati sive quia eos ciliorum tegminia occultant, ne qua\ incidentis iniurie offensione ledantur, sive quia occultum\ lumen habent id est secretum vel intus positum. Hic\
Folio 83r - the nature of man, continued. | The Aberdeen Bestiary | The University of Aberdeen