The Aberdeen Bestiary

Folio 60r - the peacock, continued.


Translation Open Book View Download image for personal, teaching or research purposes Help Copyright

Help

To explore the image, simply click the image to zoom, double-click to zoom out, or click-drag to pan. You can also zoom in and out using the mouse scroll wheel.

Shortcuts

(Alt is Option on Macintosh)

  • Alt-click-drag to create a zoom-rectangle
  • Alt-click / Alt-double-click to zoom fully in / out
  • Alt-click-Reset button to return to the prior view

The thumbnail view in the top left can also be clicked or click-dragged to pan.

Keyboard shortcuts:

  • a to zoom in
  • z to zoom out
  • Arrow keys pan arround the image
  • Escape resets initial view or exits fullscreen

Toolbar buttons

Use the Toolbar for exact navigation - if using a mouse, hold it over any button to see a helpful tip.


Zoom out

Zoom in

Pan left

Pan right

Pan up

Pan down

Reset Image

Full screen view

View translation alongside image

View double page - bi folio

Download image for personal, research or teaching purposes

Help

Commentary, Translation and Transcription

These sections are located below the image on each page, scroll down page and click on the tabs to view them. It is also possible to view the translation alongside the image by clicking the translation icon in the toolbar

It is not part of the project to provide a definitive edition of the text of the Bestiary, but to help readers by providing a transcription and translation of the text. Currently the following editorial conventions obtain:

Text

  1. The original capitalisation is retained, but capitals have been added for personal and place names, excluding deus and diabolus.
  2. The original punctuation, including a point and inverted semi-colon (both serving as commas), and a point (serving as a full stop), is represented by comma, full stop and question-mark; a colon has been inserted before quotations.
  3. Suggested readings are in [ ].
  4. Variants from other Bestiary texts (eg Ashmole 1511 and Patrologia Latina 176) are added where they indicate a corruption, elucidate a meaning and replace excised text. They are represented as [A: PL:]

Translation

  1. Direct quotations from the Bible, where identified, are cited from the Authorised Version in ( ).
  2. Paraphrased quotations are identified where possible and indicated as: (see Job, 18:22).
  3. Suggested translations of corrupt words are in [ ].
  4. Capitalisation is sparing; additional punctuation has been used where necessary to give the sense. Paragraphs have been created to break up the text.
and taking pleasure in their company. But when you are deprived of your honours or robbed of your possessions, when one of your friends dies, then grief follows. Joy in this world, therefore, is always mingled with sadness. Once every three years the fleet of Solomon is sent across the sea to Tharsis. Solomon's fleet is the virtue of confession. In this fleet we are transported across the sea of this world, that we might not be drowned in it. The fleet is sent to Tharsis, therefore, from where it is said to bring back gold, silver, elephants' tusks, apes and peacocks. There is said to be gold and silver in Tharsis, that is, men eminent in their wisdom, skilled in their oratory. When they earnestly desire the joy of this world, they gain knowledge of themselves; and when they come with Solomon's fleet to Jerusalem, there in the peace of the Church they become purer through confession. From this purest of gold, King Solomon made golden shields. The shields of gold are those who live chastely and defend others from the attacks of the Devil. In addition, from the silver mentioned above, silver trumpets were made, that is, the teachers of the Church. The fleet also brought apes and peacocks, that is, the mockers and the effete, so that those who had been, in Tharsis, scoffers and pleasure-seekers might live with humility in the peace of conversion. Solomon's fleet also brought back elephants' tusks, that is, the proud with their disparaging words. For when the proud speak disparagingly of the good works of ordinary people, it is as if they gnawed with their teeth on these people's bones. Note that the tusks of elephants are of ivory. And from ivory the the throne of Solomon was made. For those who had been accustomed to live by preying on others, by submitting themselves to Solomon, thereafter furnished a seat for others to sit on. Once every three years Solomon's fleet used to go to Tharsis. In moral terms, the first year is meditation; the second, discourse; the third, action. When confession treats of all three stages together, it is as if a voyage is made by Solomon's servants to Tharsis once every three years. But, as history relates, 'Jehosaphat, king of Judah, built sea-going fleets, that they might sail to Ophir for gold; and they could not, for they were wrecked at Asiongaber' (see 1 Kings, 22:48). Jehosaphat we take to mean 'judging'; Judah, 'confession'. Jehosaphat is called 'king of Judah'

Text

The peacock.

Comment

Folio mark 'CCCC', bottom left.

Folio Attributes

  • Gatherings, quire marks, folio marks

    Gatherings, quire marks, folio marks

    Gatherings, quire marks, folio marks
    Folio Marks

    To make a normal gathering, a sheet of vellum (the skin of a calf, lamb or kid) would be folded over twice and cut around the edges. This would make a gathering or quire of eight folios with sixteen sides. In the Bestiary there are fifteen quires, thirteen of which are made with the usual eight folios. The last two quires, added in the late thirteenth century, have six and four folios respectively. The folios are not precisely cut but in the most regular quires (B and C) they measure 300mm high and 210mm wide. In order to assemble the quires in the correct sequence they were labelled in lead point with letters of the alphabet. Some are missing with the result that the sequence runs -,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,K,-(folio missing),M,N. The last two quires (O and P) are the later additions and are not marked. The quire system was examined by MR James when the book was being rebound and he was able to produce the following analysis of the gatherings: A8 (wants folio 2, 8); B8 (4,5); C8 (4,8); D8 (4,5); E8-L8 (1); M8; N8; O6; P4 (4). Individual sheets in the quire needed to be marked. Although there were eight folios only the first four needed marking because they were folded with the last four. Each sheet was distinctively marked to make sure the quires could not get muddled up. The asterisk sign is repeated in quires B and M but they remain distinct because the B sign is in the top right corner while the M signs are all in the bottom left corner.

  • Ruling

    Ruling

    Ruling
    Ruling continues under the illustration. Detail from f.16r

    After the leaves had been pricked, they were ready for ruling. Most pages up to quire F have 29 lines (except for the heavily illustrated quire A). The remaining quires use 28, 30 or 31 lines. The most regular ruling is found in B and C: the two top and bottom lines extend across the whole page. The lines in A, B and C are ruled in a grey colour. From D onwards the lines are a darker brown. The horizontal lines here are also neater, not overlapping the vertical margins. This would suggest that the ruling in A,B and C was done by a different person from the rest. In D and E there is a triple spaced double line across the top and bottom of the page but thereafter the ruling patterns become somewhat arbitrary. Sometimes there are double spaced top and bottom lines, sometimes the number of lines varies. On f.18v, the normal pattern of 29 lines is inadequate. It would appear that the scribe himself had to add two additional lines below the bottom margin, in order to complete his tale. Generally, the written space is 185 x 110/115mm. The ruling appears to have been made without any plan for the illuminations: on f.14r and f.16r the ruled lines pass under the illustration. Two pairs of leaves were left blank. F.3v-f.4r were probably intended to be glued together in order to support the weight of paint and gold leaf on f.4v. f.6r and f.6v precede the Lion story. In the Ashmole Bestiary, the lion has two full page illustrations, which were probably intended here. Two pairs of leaves are glued together. F.56r has a hole in it, which is concealed by being glued to the next page, f.56v. F.93r is glued to f.93v, probably because of the gilded double illumination on f.93v.

Transcription

tum copia, et eorum delectari presentia. Cum autem aliquis pri\ vatur honoribus spoliatur rebus, cum aliquis amicorum moritur, tunc\ dolor sequitur. Hoc gaudium igitur semper doloribus immiscetur. Per tres\ annos semel classis Salomonis per mare mitittur in Tharsis. Clas\ sis Salomonis, est virtus confessionis. Hac classe per huius mundi\ mare vehimur, ne submergamur. In Tharsis ergo mittitur, que\ inde aurum et argentum dentes elephantorum simias et pa\ vos deferre perhibetur. Aurum et argentum in Tharsis esse dicitur,\ id est viri sapientia clari, eloquentia periti. Qui dum presentis seculi\ gaudium implorant et exquirunt seipsos cognoscunt, et dum\ per classem Salomonis de Tharsis ad Jerusalem veniunt, in pace ecclesie\ per confessionem puriores fiunt. De hoc auro purissimo fecit rex\ Salomon scuta aurea. Scuta aurea sunt, qui pure vivunt, et\ alios ab incursu diaboli defendunt. Ex predicto etiam argento\ fiunt tube argentee, id est doctores ecclesie. Attulit etiam simias et pa\ vos, id est derisores et delicatos ut qui in Tharsis derisores et de\ licati fuerant, in pace conversionis humiles existant. Attulit\ etiam classis Salomonis dentes elefantorum detractiones su\ perborum. Dum enim verbis bonis operibus simplicium detrahunt, quasi dentibus eorum ossa rodunt. Nota quod dentes elefantis\ materia fiunt eboris. Et de materia eboris, fit thronus Salomo\ nis. Qui enim rapina vivere consueverant, subiecti vero Sa\ lomoni seipsos postea sedem parant. Per tres annos semel clas\ sis Salomonis, ire consueverat in Tharsis. Primus annus mora\ liter est cogitatio, secundus locucio, tercius operatio. Cum igitur de his tribus\ simul confessio agitur, quasi a servis Salomonis per tres annos\ semel in Tharsis itur. Sed, et Josaphat rex Juda sicut ystoria dicit\ classes in mare fecit, que navigarent in Ophir propter aurum, et ire\ non potuerunt quia confracte sunt in Asion Gaber. Josaphat iu\ dicans Judas confessio interpretatur. Josaphat autem rex Juda dicitur', '', '',

Translation

and taking pleasure in their company. But when you are deprived of your honours or robbed of your possessions, when one of your friends dies, then grief follows. Joy in this world, therefore, is always mingled with sadness. Once every three years the fleet of Solomon is sent across the sea to Tharsis. Solomon's fleet is the virtue of confession. In this fleet we are transported across the sea of this world, that we might not be drowned in it. The fleet is sent to Tharsis, therefore, from where it is said to bring back gold, silver, elephants' tusks, apes and peacocks. There is said to be gold and silver in Tharsis, that is, men eminent in their wisdom, skilled in their oratory. When they earnestly desire the joy of this world, they gain knowledge of themselves; and when they come with Solomon's fleet to Jerusalem, there in the peace of the Church they become purer through confession. From this purest of gold, King Solomon made golden shields. The shields of gold are those who live chastely and defend others from the attacks of the Devil. In addition, from the silver mentioned above, silver trumpets were made, that is, the teachers of the Church. The fleet also brought apes and peacocks, that is, the mockers and the effete, so that those who had been, in Tharsis, scoffers and pleasure-seekers might live with humility in the peace of conversion. Solomon's fleet also brought back elephants' tusks, that is, the proud with their disparaging words. For when the proud speak disparagingly of the good works of ordinary people, it is as if they gnawed with their teeth on these people's bones. Note that the tusks of elephants are of ivory. And from ivory the the throne of Solomon was made. For those who had been accustomed to live by preying on others, by submitting themselves to Solomon, thereafter furnished a seat for others to sit on. Once every three years Solomon's fleet used to go to Tharsis. In moral terms, the first year is meditation; the second, discourse; the third, action. When confession treats of all three stages together, it is as if a voyage is made by Solomon's servants to Tharsis once every three years. But, as history relates, 'Jehosaphat, king of Judah, built sea-going fleets, that they might sail to Ophir for gold; and they could not, for they were wrecked at Asiongaber' (see 1 Kings, 22:48). Jehosaphat we take to mean 'judging'; Judah, 'confession'. Jehosaphat is called 'king of Judah'
  • Commentary

    Text

    The peacock.

    Comment

    Folio mark 'CCCC', bottom left.

    Folio Attributes

    • Gatherings, quire marks, folio marks

      Gatherings, quire marks, folio marks

      Gatherings, quire marks, folio marks
      Folio Marks

      To make a normal gathering, a sheet of vellum (the skin of a calf, lamb or kid) would be folded over twice and cut around the edges. This would make a gathering or quire of eight folios with sixteen sides. In the Bestiary there are fifteen quires, thirteen of which are made with the usual eight folios. The last two quires, added in the late thirteenth century, have six and four folios respectively. The folios are not precisely cut but in the most regular quires (B and C) they measure 300mm high and 210mm wide. In order to assemble the quires in the correct sequence they were labelled in lead point with letters of the alphabet. Some are missing with the result that the sequence runs -,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,K,-(folio missing),M,N. The last two quires (O and P) are the later additions and are not marked. The quire system was examined by MR James when the book was being rebound and he was able to produce the following analysis of the gatherings: A8 (wants folio 2, 8); B8 (4,5); C8 (4,8); D8 (4,5); E8-L8 (1); M8; N8; O6; P4 (4). Individual sheets in the quire needed to be marked. Although there were eight folios only the first four needed marking because they were folded with the last four. Each sheet was distinctively marked to make sure the quires could not get muddled up. The asterisk sign is repeated in quires B and M but they remain distinct because the B sign is in the top right corner while the M signs are all in the bottom left corner.

    • Ruling

      Ruling

      Ruling
      Ruling continues under the illustration. Detail from f.16r

      After the leaves had been pricked, they were ready for ruling. Most pages up to quire F have 29 lines (except for the heavily illustrated quire A). The remaining quires use 28, 30 or 31 lines. The most regular ruling is found in B and C: the two top and bottom lines extend across the whole page. The lines in A, B and C are ruled in a grey colour. From D onwards the lines are a darker brown. The horizontal lines here are also neater, not overlapping the vertical margins. This would suggest that the ruling in A,B and C was done by a different person from the rest. In D and E there is a triple spaced double line across the top and bottom of the page but thereafter the ruling patterns become somewhat arbitrary. Sometimes there are double spaced top and bottom lines, sometimes the number of lines varies. On f.18v, the normal pattern of 29 lines is inadequate. It would appear that the scribe himself had to add two additional lines below the bottom margin, in order to complete his tale. Generally, the written space is 185 x 110/115mm. The ruling appears to have been made without any plan for the illuminations: on f.14r and f.16r the ruled lines pass under the illustration. Two pairs of leaves were left blank. F.3v-f.4r were probably intended to be glued together in order to support the weight of paint and gold leaf on f.4v. f.6r and f.6v precede the Lion story. In the Ashmole Bestiary, the lion has two full page illustrations, which were probably intended here. Two pairs of leaves are glued together. F.56r has a hole in it, which is concealed by being glued to the next page, f.56v. F.93r is glued to f.93v, probably because of the gilded double illumination on f.93v.

  • Translation
    and taking pleasure in their company. But when you are deprived of your honours or robbed of your possessions, when one of your friends dies, then grief follows. Joy in this world, therefore, is always mingled with sadness. Once every three years the fleet of Solomon is sent across the sea to Tharsis. Solomon's fleet is the virtue of confession. In this fleet we are transported across the sea of this world, that we might not be drowned in it. The fleet is sent to Tharsis, therefore, from where it is said to bring back gold, silver, elephants' tusks, apes and peacocks. There is said to be gold and silver in Tharsis, that is, men eminent in their wisdom, skilled in their oratory. When they earnestly desire the joy of this world, they gain knowledge of themselves; and when they come with Solomon's fleet to Jerusalem, there in the peace of the Church they become purer through confession. From this purest of gold, King Solomon made golden shields. The shields of gold are those who live chastely and defend others from the attacks of the Devil. In addition, from the silver mentioned above, silver trumpets were made, that is, the teachers of the Church. The fleet also brought apes and peacocks, that is, the mockers and the effete, so that those who had been, in Tharsis, scoffers and pleasure-seekers might live with humility in the peace of conversion. Solomon's fleet also brought back elephants' tusks, that is, the proud with their disparaging words. For when the proud speak disparagingly of the good works of ordinary people, it is as if they gnawed with their teeth on these people's bones. Note that the tusks of elephants are of ivory. And from ivory the the throne of Solomon was made. For those who had been accustomed to live by preying on others, by submitting themselves to Solomon, thereafter furnished a seat for others to sit on. Once every three years Solomon's fleet used to go to Tharsis. In moral terms, the first year is meditation; the second, discourse; the third, action. When confession treats of all three stages together, it is as if a voyage is made by Solomon's servants to Tharsis once every three years. But, as history relates, 'Jehosaphat, king of Judah, built sea-going fleets, that they might sail to Ophir for gold; and they could not, for they were wrecked at Asiongaber' (see 1 Kings, 22:48). Jehosaphat we take to mean 'judging'; Judah, 'confession'. Jehosaphat is called 'king of Judah'
  • Transcription
    tum copia, et eorum delectari presentia. Cum autem aliquis pri\ vatur honoribus spoliatur rebus, cum aliquis amicorum moritur, tunc\ dolor sequitur. Hoc gaudium igitur semper doloribus immiscetur. Per tres\ annos semel classis Salomonis per mare mitittur in Tharsis. Clas\ sis Salomonis, est virtus confessionis. Hac classe per huius mundi\ mare vehimur, ne submergamur. In Tharsis ergo mittitur, que\ inde aurum et argentum dentes elephantorum simias et pa\ vos deferre perhibetur. Aurum et argentum in Tharsis esse dicitur,\ id est viri sapientia clari, eloquentia periti. Qui dum presentis seculi\ gaudium implorant et exquirunt seipsos cognoscunt, et dum\ per classem Salomonis de Tharsis ad Jerusalem veniunt, in pace ecclesie\ per confessionem puriores fiunt. De hoc auro purissimo fecit rex\ Salomon scuta aurea. Scuta aurea sunt, qui pure vivunt, et\ alios ab incursu diaboli defendunt. Ex predicto etiam argento\ fiunt tube argentee, id est doctores ecclesie. Attulit etiam simias et pa\ vos, id est derisores et delicatos ut qui in Tharsis derisores et de\ licati fuerant, in pace conversionis humiles existant. Attulit\ etiam classis Salomonis dentes elefantorum detractiones su\ perborum. Dum enim verbis bonis operibus simplicium detrahunt, quasi dentibus eorum ossa rodunt. Nota quod dentes elefantis\ materia fiunt eboris. Et de materia eboris, fit thronus Salomo\ nis. Qui enim rapina vivere consueverant, subiecti vero Sa\ lomoni seipsos postea sedem parant. Per tres annos semel clas\ sis Salomonis, ire consueverat in Tharsis. Primus annus mora\ liter est cogitatio, secundus locucio, tercius operatio. Cum igitur de his tribus\ simul confessio agitur, quasi a servis Salomonis per tres annos\ semel in Tharsis itur. Sed, et Josaphat rex Juda sicut ystoria dicit\ classes in mare fecit, que navigarent in Ophir propter aurum, et ire\ non potuerunt quia confracte sunt in Asion Gaber. Josaphat iu\ dicans Judas confessio interpretatur. Josaphat autem rex Juda dicitur', '', '',
Folio 60r - the peacock, continued. | The Aberdeen Bestiary | The University of Aberdeen