The Aberdeen Bestiary

Folio 5v - Omnibus animantibus/Adam names all living things


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Commentary, Translation and Transcription

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It is not part of the project to provide a definitive edition of the text of the Bestiary, but to help readers by providing a transcription and translation of the text. Currently the following editorial conventions obtain:

Text

  1. The original capitalisation is retained, but capitals have been added for personal and place names, excluding deus and diabolus.
  2. The original punctuation, including a point and inverted semi-colon (both serving as commas), and a point (serving as a full stop), is represented by comma, full stop and question-mark; a colon has been inserted before quotations.
  3. Suggested readings are in [ ].
  4. Variants from other Bestiary texts (eg Ashmole 1511 and Patrologia Latina 176) are added where they indicate a corruption, elucidate a meaning and replace excised text. They are represented as [A: PL:]

Translation

  1. Direct quotations from the Bible, where identified, are cited from the Authorised Version in ( ).
  2. Paraphrased quotations are identified where possible and indicated as: (see Job, 18:22).
  3. Suggested translations of corrupt words are in [ ].
  4. Capitalisation is sparing; additional punctuation has been used where necessary to give the sense. Paragraphs have been created to break up the text.
Adam was the first to provide words for all living things, naming each one in conformity with the existing order according to its function in nature. The races of man later named each animal in their own languages; But Adam named them not in Latin or Greek, nor in the languages of any barbarian races, but in the language which before the Flood was universal, which is called Hebrew. In Latin they are called animalia, animals, or animantia, living things, because they are animated by life and activated by the breath of life. Quadrupedia, quadrupeds, are so called because they go on quatuor pedes, four feet. Although they are like cattle, quadrupeds - deer, fallow deer, wild asses and others - are not in man's charge. They are not, however, wild beasts, like lions; nor beasts of burden, serving the needs of man. We call pecus, cattle, anything which lacks human speech or appearance. Strictly speaking, the name is usually applied to those animals which are suitable for food, like sheep and pigs, or for use by men, like horses and oxen. Moreover, there is a difference between pecora, cattle, and pecudes, cattle raised for meat. For people long ago used pecora to mean all animals; but pecudes are animals which are eaten - pecu-ed-es, 'cattle for eating'. Generally, all animals are called pecus from pascendum, 'put to pasture'. Iumenta have taken their name from the fact that they assist us with our work or burdens by their help in carrying or ploughing. For the ox draws the waggon and turns with the ploughshare the heaviest clods of earth. The horse and ass carry loads and ease man's toil on foot. So they are called iumenta because they help people with their burdens, for they are animals of great strength. In the same way armenta are so called because they are suitable for arms - that is, for war - or because we use them in arms. Others understand by armenta, oxen, from arandum, 'ploughing' - aramenta, as it were; or because they are armed with horns. But there is a distinction between armenta and greges . Armenta are herds of horses and oxen; greges, flocks of goats and sheep.

Text

Adam names and classifies the beasts. Initial type 3.

Transcription

Omnibus animantibus Adam primus vocabula indidit appel\lans unicuique nomen ex presenti institutione iuxta con\ditionem nature cui serviret. Gentes autem unicuique anima\lium ex propria lingua dederunt vocabula. Non autem secundum\ latinam linguam atque grecam, aut quarumlibet gentium\ barbararum nomina imposuit Adam, sed illa lingua que\ ante diluvium una fuit omnium, que hebrea nuncupatur.\ Latine autem animalia, sive animantia dicta, qui animentur vita\ et moventur spiritu. Quadrupedia vocata, quia quatuor pedes gra\diuntur, que dum similia sint pecoribus, tamen sub cura hu\mana non sunt ut cervi, dame, onagri et cetera. Sed neque\ bestie sunt, aut [A: ut] leones, neque iumenta ut usus hominum\ iuvare possint. Pecus dicimus omne quod humana lingua et\ effigie caret, proprie autem pecorum nomen his animalibus acco\modari solet, que sunt ad vescendum apta, ut oves et sues,\ aut in usu hominum commoda, ut equi et boves. Differt autem\ inter pecora et pecudes. Nam veteres communiter in significatione\ omnium animalium pecora dixerunt, pecudes autem tamen illa\ animalia qui eduntur quasi pecuedes. Generaliter autem omne animal pecus\ a pascendo vocatum. Iumenta nomina inde traxerunt quod nostrum\ laborem vel onus suo adiutorio subvectando vel arando iu-\ vent. Nam bos carpenta trahit, et durissimas terre glebas vomere\ vertit. Equus et asinus portant onera et hominum in gradiendo\ laborem temperant. Unde et iumenta appellantur, ab eo quod iu\vent homines. Sunt enim magnarum virium animalia. Item quoque armen\ta vel quod sint armis apta, id est bello, vel quod his in armis utimur. Alii\ armenta boves intelligunt ab arando quasi aramenta, vel quod sint\ cornibus armata. Discretio est autem inter armenta et greges. Nam\ armenta equorum et bovum sunt, greges vero caprarum et ovium.\

Translation

Adam was the first to provide words for all living things, naming each one in conformity with the existing order according to its function in nature. The races of man later named each animal in their own languages; But Adam named them not in Latin or Greek, nor in the languages of any barbarian races, but in the language which before the Flood was universal, which is called Hebrew. In Latin they are called animalia, animals, or animantia, living things, because they are animated by life and activated by the breath of life. Quadrupedia, quadrupeds, are so called because they go on quatuor pedes, four feet. Although they are like cattle, quadrupeds - deer, fallow deer, wild asses and others - are not in man's charge. They are not, however, wild beasts, like lions; nor beasts of burden, serving the needs of man. We call pecus, cattle, anything which lacks human speech or appearance. Strictly speaking, the name is usually applied to those animals which are suitable for food, like sheep and pigs, or for use by men, like horses and oxen. Moreover, there is a difference between pecora, cattle, and pecudes, cattle raised for meat. For people long ago used pecora to mean all animals; but pecudes are animals which are eaten - pecu-ed-es, 'cattle for eating'. Generally, all animals are called pecus from pascendum, 'put to pasture'. Iumenta have taken their name from the fact that they assist us with our work or burdens by their help in carrying or ploughing. For the ox draws the waggon and turns with the ploughshare the heaviest clods of earth. The horse and ass carry loads and ease man's toil on foot. So they are called iumenta because they help people with their burdens, for they are animals of great strength. In the same way armenta are so called because they are suitable for arms - that is, for war - or because we use them in arms. Others understand by armenta, oxen, from arandum, 'ploughing' - aramenta, as it were; or because they are armed with horns. But there is a distinction between armenta and greges . Armenta are herds of horses and oxen; greges, flocks of goats and sheep.
  • Commentary

    Text

    Adam names and classifies the beasts. Initial type 3.

  • Translation
    Adam was the first to provide words for all living things, naming each one in conformity with the existing order according to its function in nature. The races of man later named each animal in their own languages; But Adam named them not in Latin or Greek, nor in the languages of any barbarian races, but in the language which before the Flood was universal, which is called Hebrew. In Latin they are called animalia, animals, or animantia, living things, because they are animated by life and activated by the breath of life. Quadrupedia, quadrupeds, are so called because they go on quatuor pedes, four feet. Although they are like cattle, quadrupeds - deer, fallow deer, wild asses and others - are not in man's charge. They are not, however, wild beasts, like lions; nor beasts of burden, serving the needs of man. We call pecus, cattle, anything which lacks human speech or appearance. Strictly speaking, the name is usually applied to those animals which are suitable for food, like sheep and pigs, or for use by men, like horses and oxen. Moreover, there is a difference between pecora, cattle, and pecudes, cattle raised for meat. For people long ago used pecora to mean all animals; but pecudes are animals which are eaten - pecu-ed-es, 'cattle for eating'. Generally, all animals are called pecus from pascendum, 'put to pasture'. Iumenta have taken their name from the fact that they assist us with our work or burdens by their help in carrying or ploughing. For the ox draws the waggon and turns with the ploughshare the heaviest clods of earth. The horse and ass carry loads and ease man's toil on foot. So they are called iumenta because they help people with their burdens, for they are animals of great strength. In the same way armenta are so called because they are suitable for arms - that is, for war - or because we use them in arms. Others understand by armenta, oxen, from arandum, 'ploughing' - aramenta, as it were; or because they are armed with horns. But there is a distinction between armenta and greges . Armenta are herds of horses and oxen; greges, flocks of goats and sheep.
  • Transcription
    Omnibus animantibus Adam primus vocabula indidit appel\lans unicuique nomen ex presenti institutione iuxta con\ditionem nature cui serviret. Gentes autem unicuique anima\lium ex propria lingua dederunt vocabula. Non autem secundum\ latinam linguam atque grecam, aut quarumlibet gentium\ barbararum nomina imposuit Adam, sed illa lingua que\ ante diluvium una fuit omnium, que hebrea nuncupatur.\ Latine autem animalia, sive animantia dicta, qui animentur vita\ et moventur spiritu. Quadrupedia vocata, quia quatuor pedes gra\diuntur, que dum similia sint pecoribus, tamen sub cura hu\mana non sunt ut cervi, dame, onagri et cetera. Sed neque\ bestie sunt, aut [A: ut] leones, neque iumenta ut usus hominum\ iuvare possint. Pecus dicimus omne quod humana lingua et\ effigie caret, proprie autem pecorum nomen his animalibus acco\modari solet, que sunt ad vescendum apta, ut oves et sues,\ aut in usu hominum commoda, ut equi et boves. Differt autem\ inter pecora et pecudes. Nam veteres communiter in significatione\ omnium animalium pecora dixerunt, pecudes autem tamen illa\ animalia qui eduntur quasi pecuedes. Generaliter autem omne animal pecus\ a pascendo vocatum. Iumenta nomina inde traxerunt quod nostrum\ laborem vel onus suo adiutorio subvectando vel arando iu-\ vent. Nam bos carpenta trahit, et durissimas terre glebas vomere\ vertit. Equus et asinus portant onera et hominum in gradiendo\ laborem temperant. Unde et iumenta appellantur, ab eo quod iu\vent homines. Sunt enim magnarum virium animalia. Item quoque armen\ta vel quod sint armis apta, id est bello, vel quod his in armis utimur. Alii\ armenta boves intelligunt ab arando quasi aramenta, vel quod sint\ cornibus armata. Discretio est autem inter armenta et greges. Nam\ armenta equorum et bovum sunt, greges vero caprarum et ovium.\
Folio 5v - Omnibus animantibus/Adam names all living things | The Aberdeen Bestiary | The University of Aberdeen