The Aberdeen Bestiary

Folio 21v - the he-goat, continued. De apro; the boar.De iuvenco; the bullock


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Commentary, Translation and Transcription

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It is not part of the project to provide a definitive edition of the text of the Bestiary, but to help readers by providing a transcription and translation of the text. Currently the following editorial conventions obtain:

Text

  1. The original capitalisation is retained, but capitals have been added for personal and place names, excluding deus and diabolus.
  2. The original punctuation, including a point and inverted semi-colon (both serving as commas), and a point (serving as a full stop), is represented by comma, full stop and question-mark; a colon has been inserted before quotations.
  3. Suggested readings are in [ ].
  4. Variants from other Bestiary texts (eg Ashmole 1511 and Patrologia Latina 176) are added where they indicate a corruption, elucidate a meaning and replace excised text. They are represented as [A: PL:]

Translation

  1. Direct quotations from the Bible, where identified, are cited from the Authorised Version in ( ).
  2. Paraphrased quotations are identified where possible and indicated as: (see Job, 18:22).
  3. Suggested translations of corrupt words are in [ ].
  4. Capitalisation is sparing; additional punctuation has been used where necessary to give the sense. Paragraphs have been created to break up the text.
The he-goat is a wanton and frisky animal, always longing for sex; as a result of its lustfulness its eyes look sideways - from which it has has derived its name. For, according to Suetonius, hirci are the corners of the eyes. Its nature is so very heated that its blood alone will dissolve a diamond, against which the properties of neither fire nor iron can prevail. Kids, hedi, take their name from the word for eating, edendum, for the young ones are very fat and taste delicious. As a result their name means 'eat' and 'eatable'. Of the boar The boar gets its name, aper, from its wildness, a feritate, the letter f being replaced by a p; for the same reason, it is called by the Greeks suagros, meaning wild. For everything which is untamed and savage we call, loosely, agreste, wild. Of the bullock The bullock is called iuvencus because it undertakes to help man in his work of tilling the ground, or because among pagans it was always a bullock which was sacrificed to Jove - never a bull. For in selecting sacrificial victims, age also was a consideration. The word for bull, taurus, is Greek, as the word for ox, bos. The bulls of India are tawny in hue and so swift-footed that they seem to fly. Their hair grows against the nap of their coat, their mouth opens to the size of their head. They also move their horns in whatever direction they wish, and the toughness of their hides turns aside all weapons. So fierce and savage are they ...

Text

The he-goat, a wanton animal. Kids, deliciously edible. The boar, a wild creature. The bullock, a beast which helps man.

Comment

A wild boar leaping through a forest. The illustration of the bullock has been excised. Initial type 2. After f.21v two leaves are missing which should have contained ox, camel, dromedary, ass, wild ass, part of horse.

Transcription

Hircus lascivum et petulcum animal et fervens \semper ad coitum, cuius oculi ob libidinem in transversum \aspiciunt. Unde et nomen traxit. Nam hirci sunt oculorum angeli \secundum Suetonium. Cuius natura adeo calidissima est ut adaman\tem lapidem quem nec ignis nec ferri valet domare materia \solus huius cruor dissolvat. Hedi ab edendo vocati, parvi \enim pinguissimi sunt, et saporis iocundi. Unde et ede \inde et edulium vocatur. \ De apro \ Aper a feritate ablata, f littera, et subrogata p unde apud grecos suagros idest ferus dicitur. Omne enim quod ferum est et immite, abusive agreste vocamus. \ De iuvenco \ Iuvencus dictus quod iuvare incipiat hominum usus in terra \colenda, vel quia apud gentiles iovi semper ubique iu\vencus immmmolabatur, et nunquam taurus. Nam in victimis \etiam etas considerabatur. Taurus grecum nomen est sicut et bos. \Indicis tauris colr fulvus est, volueris pernicitas. pilus in contrarium versus hiatus omne quod caput. Hi quoque circumferunt cornua flexibilitate qua volunt, tergi duricia omne telum respuunt, tam immiti feritate \

Translation

The he-goat is a wanton and frisky animal, always longing for sex; as a result of its lustfulness its eyes look sideways - from which it has has derived its name. For, according to Suetonius, hirci are the corners of the eyes. Its nature is so very heated that its blood alone will dissolve a diamond, against which the properties of neither fire nor iron can prevail. Kids, hedi, take their name from the word for eating, edendum, for the young ones are very fat and taste delicious. As a result their name means 'eat' and 'eatable'. Of the boar The boar gets its name, aper, from its wildness, a feritate, the letter f being replaced by a p; for the same reason, it is called by the Greeks suagros, meaning wild. For everything which is untamed and savage we call, loosely, agreste, wild. Of the bullock The bullock is called iuvencus because it undertakes to help man in his work of tilling the ground, or because among pagans it was always a bullock which was sacrificed to Jove - never a bull. For in selecting sacrificial victims, age also was a consideration. The word for bull, taurus, is Greek, as the word for ox, bos. The bulls of India are tawny in hue and so swift-footed that they seem to fly. Their hair grows against the nap of their coat, their mouth opens to the size of their head. They also move their horns in whatever direction they wish, and the toughness of their hides turns aside all weapons. So fierce and savage are they ...
  • Commentary

    Text

    The he-goat, a wanton animal. Kids, deliciously edible. The boar, a wild creature. The bullock, a beast which helps man.

    Comment

    A wild boar leaping through a forest. The illustration of the bullock has been excised. Initial type 2. After f.21v two leaves are missing which should have contained ox, camel, dromedary, ass, wild ass, part of horse.

  • Translation
    The he-goat is a wanton and frisky animal, always longing for sex; as a result of its lustfulness its eyes look sideways - from which it has has derived its name. For, according to Suetonius, hirci are the corners of the eyes. Its nature is so very heated that its blood alone will dissolve a diamond, against which the properties of neither fire nor iron can prevail. Kids, hedi, take their name from the word for eating, edendum, for the young ones are very fat and taste delicious. As a result their name means 'eat' and 'eatable'. Of the boar The boar gets its name, aper, from its wildness, a feritate, the letter f being replaced by a p; for the same reason, it is called by the Greeks suagros, meaning wild. For everything which is untamed and savage we call, loosely, agreste, wild. Of the bullock The bullock is called iuvencus because it undertakes to help man in his work of tilling the ground, or because among pagans it was always a bullock which was sacrificed to Jove - never a bull. For in selecting sacrificial victims, age also was a consideration. The word for bull, taurus, is Greek, as the word for ox, bos. The bulls of India are tawny in hue and so swift-footed that they seem to fly. Their hair grows against the nap of their coat, their mouth opens to the size of their head. They also move their horns in whatever direction they wish, and the toughness of their hides turns aside all weapons. So fierce and savage are they ...
  • Transcription
    Hircus lascivum et petulcum animal et fervens \semper ad coitum, cuius oculi ob libidinem in transversum \aspiciunt. Unde et nomen traxit. Nam hirci sunt oculorum angeli \secundum Suetonium. Cuius natura adeo calidissima est ut adaman\tem lapidem quem nec ignis nec ferri valet domare materia \solus huius cruor dissolvat. Hedi ab edendo vocati, parvi \enim pinguissimi sunt, et saporis iocundi. Unde et ede \inde et edulium vocatur. \ De apro \ Aper a feritate ablata, f littera, et subrogata p unde apud grecos suagros idest ferus dicitur. Omne enim quod ferum est et immite, abusive agreste vocamus. \ De iuvenco \ Iuvencus dictus quod iuvare incipiat hominum usus in terra \colenda, vel quia apud gentiles iovi semper ubique iu\vencus immmmolabatur, et nunquam taurus. Nam in victimis \etiam etas considerabatur. Taurus grecum nomen est sicut et bos. \Indicis tauris colr fulvus est, volueris pernicitas. pilus in contrarium versus hiatus omne quod caput. Hi quoque circumferunt cornua flexibilitate qua volunt, tergi duricia omne telum respuunt, tam immiti feritate \
Folio 21v - the he-goat, continued. De apro; the boar.De iuvenco; the bullock | The Aberdeen Bestiary | The University of Aberdeen