The Aberdeen Bestiary

Folio 102v - Of stones and what they can do, continued.


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Commentary, Translation and Transcription

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It is not part of the project to provide a definitive edition of the text of the Bestiary, but to help readers by providing a transcription and translation of the text. Currently the following editorial conventions obtain:

Text

  1. The original capitalisation is retained, but capitals have been added for personal and place names, excluding deus and diabolus.
  2. The original punctuation, including a point and inverted semi-colon (both serving as commas), and a point (serving as a full stop), is represented by comma, full stop and question-mark; a colon has been inserted before quotations.
  3. Suggested readings are in [ ].
  4. Variants from other Bestiary texts (eg Ashmole 1511 and Patrologia Latina 176) are added where they indicate a corruption, elucidate a meaning and replace excised text. They are represented as [A: PL:]

Translation

  1. Direct quotations from the Bible, where identified, are cited from the Authorised Version in ( ).
  2. Paraphrased quotations are identified where possible and indicated as: (see Job, 18:22).
  3. Suggested translations of corrupt words are in [ ].
  4. Capitalisation is sparing; additional punctuation has been used where necessary to give the sense. Paragraphs have been created to break up the text.
in water; it is quenched in oil, Anyone wearing it who suffers from a swelling between the skin and the flesh (ie dropsy), will benefit, if it is poured in. Ground and mixed with water, it fixes loose teeth in place. By means of inhalation in hot baths it restores menstrual flow. The odour given out by jet when it burns will, in inhaled, get rid of epilepsy, and it puts snakes and demons to flight. It helps those who have an upset stomach; it is good for ringing in the ears; and it offers protection against spells; it is said to be a test for virginity. A woman who suffers from the flux, if it is of the womb, will be healed by water in which jet has been soaked for three days. Lodestone is found in the land of the cave-dwellers and in India. It has a metallic colour and attracts iron. Its virtue is that if a man wants to know if his wife is chaste or not, he should place the stone under her head when she is asleep; if she is chaste, she will embrace him warmly; otherwise, she will fall from the bed as if struck by a hand; this happens because of the odour of the stone. If a thief should enter a house to rob it, and should place in different parts of the house a live coal and on top of it powdered lodestone, so that it gives off smoke to the four corners of the house, it will seem to those who are in the house that the house is collapsing; as a result, they will flee and the thief can rob the place. Lodestone produces harmony between man and woman; it bestows grace, eloquence, skill in argument. If it is given in the form of a drink, it purges dropsy. Its powder, put on a fire, quenches it. Coral grows like a tree in the sea, at which time it is green; afterwards, however, it hardens and takes on a reddish colour. It resembles the branch of a tree. Its virtue is that it drives away lightning and storms, wherever it is; and if it is scattered around a vineyard or olive-grove, or on a field or on seeded ground, it protects it from hail and storms and it increases its yield. It banishes apparitions and brings a good outcome to legal business. Almandine comes from the part of Asia called Alablanda. It resembles sard and is not easily distinguished from it. Carnelian has a pale colour. Its virtue is this: it quenches the anger of people in dispute, and it staunches blood flowing from any part of the body, especially menstrual flow. The carbuncle is found in Libya where cave-dwellers live; it sends out rays like a live coal, by night but not by day. Ligurium comes from the urine of the lynx. You can see through the middle of the stone as through glass. The beast hides its urine in the sand lest it should be found. The virtue of ligurium is that it takes away stomach-ache and staunches

Text

The properties of various stones.

Comment

Initials type 4.

Folio Attributes

  • Initial Type 4

    Initial Type 4

    Initial Type 4
    Type 4 initial. Detail from f.96v

    Type 4 initials are red or blue. On any given page they alternate red and blue regularly. Blue initials are embellished with red tassels and vice versa. The colouring and form of the letters is not very even and appears rather hurried in places. In the Bestiary proper, they appear on f.79v and f.80r. Thereafter this is the basic initial used in the thirteenth-century Lapidary addition, found from f.94r onwards. This suggests that gaps left in the twelfth-century text on ff. 79v and 80r were filled in when the book was completed in the later thirteenth century. The poor quality of the later work is apparent from f.94r onwards, and is apparent on f.79v where the wrong capital ‘U’ was inserted and later corrected to ‘F’ for Fagus, the beech tree.

Transcription

in aqua, extinguitur in oleo, utilis est ferenti qui habet inflacionem inter\ cutem et carnem infundura, si pulvis misceatur cum aqua confirmat\ dentes qui firmi non sunt, per estuvias supra reddit feminibus naturas\ suas, si odor eius sentitur cum ardet aufert caducam guttam, et odor eius\ fugat serpentes et demones, valet habentibus ventrem reversum, va\let auribus tinientibus defendit incantaciones, probat virginitatem\ ut dicitur, femina que patitur fluxum si uteri aqua per tres dies in qua lavatur\ sanabitur.\ Magnates invenitur inter Draconitidos et India,\ colorem habet ferreum et ferrum attrahit, eius virtus est si quis voluerit\ scire si uxor eius sit casta vel non, ponat lapidem sub capite eius cum\ dormierit, si casta est deosculabitur eum, si alia cadet a lecto acsi ma\nu pulsaretur, et hoc contingit ex odore lapidis, si latro intret in do\mum furandi et in diversas partes domus ponat vivum carbonem\ et desuper pulverem magnatis ita quod inde fumus exeat per quatuor angu\los domus videbitur hiis qui sunt in domo quod cadat, et sic fugient, et latro\ locum furandi habere potest, fert concordiam inter hominem et feminam, con\fert graciam, eloquenciam, sensum disputandi, si datur ad bibendum\ purgat ydropsim, pulvis valet si supra ponatur arsure.\ Corallus crescit ut arbor in mari et tunc viridis est, sed postea\ indurescit et accipit colorem rubeum, similitudinem habet\ rami, virtus euis est fugat fulgura et tempestatem ab omni loco ubi est\ et si prociatur [proiciatur] inter vinetum vel olivetum vel in campo vel in semine de\fendit a grandine et tempestate, multiplicat fructus, aufert fantas\mata bonum finem et licium confert in operando.\ Alemandina venit de parte Asie que vocatur Alablanda, sim\ilitudinem habet sardine et non defacile discernitur ab illa.\ Cornelius obscurum habet colorem, virtus eius est hec, aufert iram dis\putancium, sistit sanguinem de fluxu sanguinis de quolibet\ membro et maxime menstruum. \ Carbunculus invenitur in Libia ubi ma\nent traconitidide mittit radios ut carbo vivus, et hoc de noc\te non de die. \ Ligurium nascitur de urina lincis que videt per medium\ lapidis sicut per medium vitrioli bestia cooperit urinam suam harena\ ne inveniatur eius[......] aufert dolorem ventris et sistit\

Translation

in water; it is quenched in oil, Anyone wearing it who suffers from a swelling between the skin and the flesh (ie dropsy), will benefit, if it is poured in. Ground and mixed with water, it fixes loose teeth in place. By means of inhalation in hot baths it restores menstrual flow. The odour given out by jet when it burns will, in inhaled, get rid of epilepsy, and it puts snakes and demons to flight. It helps those who have an upset stomach; it is good for ringing in the ears; and it offers protection against spells; it is said to be a test for virginity. A woman who suffers from the flux, if it is of the womb, will be healed by water in which jet has been soaked for three days. Lodestone is found in the land of the cave-dwellers and in India. It has a metallic colour and attracts iron. Its virtue is that if a man wants to know if his wife is chaste or not, he should place the stone under her head when she is asleep; if she is chaste, she will embrace him warmly; otherwise, she will fall from the bed as if struck by a hand; this happens because of the odour of the stone. If a thief should enter a house to rob it, and should place in different parts of the house a live coal and on top of it powdered lodestone, so that it gives off smoke to the four corners of the house, it will seem to those who are in the house that the house is collapsing; as a result, they will flee and the thief can rob the place. Lodestone produces harmony between man and woman; it bestows grace, eloquence, skill in argument. If it is given in the form of a drink, it purges dropsy. Its powder, put on a fire, quenches it. Coral grows like a tree in the sea, at which time it is green; afterwards, however, it hardens and takes on a reddish colour. It resembles the branch of a tree. Its virtue is that it drives away lightning and storms, wherever it is; and if it is scattered around a vineyard or olive-grove, or on a field or on seeded ground, it protects it from hail and storms and it increases its yield. It banishes apparitions and brings a good outcome to legal business. Almandine comes from the part of Asia called Alablanda. It resembles sard and is not easily distinguished from it. Carnelian has a pale colour. Its virtue is this: it quenches the anger of people in dispute, and it staunches blood flowing from any part of the body, especially menstrual flow. The carbuncle is found in Libya where cave-dwellers live; it sends out rays like a live coal, by night but not by day. Ligurium comes from the urine of the lynx. You can see through the middle of the stone as through glass. The beast hides its urine in the sand lest it should be found. The virtue of ligurium is that it takes away stomach-ache and staunches
  • Commentary

    Text

    The properties of various stones.

    Comment

    Initials type 4.

    Folio Attributes

    • Initial Type 4

      Initial Type 4

      Initial Type 4
      Type 4 initial. Detail from f.96v

      Type 4 initials are red or blue. On any given page they alternate red and blue regularly. Blue initials are embellished with red tassels and vice versa. The colouring and form of the letters is not very even and appears rather hurried in places. In the Bestiary proper, they appear on f.79v and f.80r. Thereafter this is the basic initial used in the thirteenth-century Lapidary addition, found from f.94r onwards. This suggests that gaps left in the twelfth-century text on ff. 79v and 80r were filled in when the book was completed in the later thirteenth century. The poor quality of the later work is apparent from f.94r onwards, and is apparent on f.79v where the wrong capital ‘U’ was inserted and later corrected to ‘F’ for Fagus, the beech tree.

  • Translation
    in water; it is quenched in oil, Anyone wearing it who suffers from a swelling between the skin and the flesh (ie dropsy), will benefit, if it is poured in. Ground and mixed with water, it fixes loose teeth in place. By means of inhalation in hot baths it restores menstrual flow. The odour given out by jet when it burns will, in inhaled, get rid of epilepsy, and it puts snakes and demons to flight. It helps those who have an upset stomach; it is good for ringing in the ears; and it offers protection against spells; it is said to be a test for virginity. A woman who suffers from the flux, if it is of the womb, will be healed by water in which jet has been soaked for three days. Lodestone is found in the land of the cave-dwellers and in India. It has a metallic colour and attracts iron. Its virtue is that if a man wants to know if his wife is chaste or not, he should place the stone under her head when she is asleep; if she is chaste, she will embrace him warmly; otherwise, she will fall from the bed as if struck by a hand; this happens because of the odour of the stone. If a thief should enter a house to rob it, and should place in different parts of the house a live coal and on top of it powdered lodestone, so that it gives off smoke to the four corners of the house, it will seem to those who are in the house that the house is collapsing; as a result, they will flee and the thief can rob the place. Lodestone produces harmony between man and woman; it bestows grace, eloquence, skill in argument. If it is given in the form of a drink, it purges dropsy. Its powder, put on a fire, quenches it. Coral grows like a tree in the sea, at which time it is green; afterwards, however, it hardens and takes on a reddish colour. It resembles the branch of a tree. Its virtue is that it drives away lightning and storms, wherever it is; and if it is scattered around a vineyard or olive-grove, or on a field or on seeded ground, it protects it from hail and storms and it increases its yield. It banishes apparitions and brings a good outcome to legal business. Almandine comes from the part of Asia called Alablanda. It resembles sard and is not easily distinguished from it. Carnelian has a pale colour. Its virtue is this: it quenches the anger of people in dispute, and it staunches blood flowing from any part of the body, especially menstrual flow. The carbuncle is found in Libya where cave-dwellers live; it sends out rays like a live coal, by night but not by day. Ligurium comes from the urine of the lynx. You can see through the middle of the stone as through glass. The beast hides its urine in the sand lest it should be found. The virtue of ligurium is that it takes away stomach-ache and staunches
  • Transcription
    in aqua, extinguitur in oleo, utilis est ferenti qui habet inflacionem inter\ cutem et carnem infundura, si pulvis misceatur cum aqua confirmat\ dentes qui firmi non sunt, per estuvias supra reddit feminibus naturas\ suas, si odor eius sentitur cum ardet aufert caducam guttam, et odor eius\ fugat serpentes et demones, valet habentibus ventrem reversum, va\let auribus tinientibus defendit incantaciones, probat virginitatem\ ut dicitur, femina que patitur fluxum si uteri aqua per tres dies in qua lavatur\ sanabitur.\ Magnates invenitur inter Draconitidos et India,\ colorem habet ferreum et ferrum attrahit, eius virtus est si quis voluerit\ scire si uxor eius sit casta vel non, ponat lapidem sub capite eius cum\ dormierit, si casta est deosculabitur eum, si alia cadet a lecto acsi ma\nu pulsaretur, et hoc contingit ex odore lapidis, si latro intret in do\mum furandi et in diversas partes domus ponat vivum carbonem\ et desuper pulverem magnatis ita quod inde fumus exeat per quatuor angu\los domus videbitur hiis qui sunt in domo quod cadat, et sic fugient, et latro\ locum furandi habere potest, fert concordiam inter hominem et feminam, con\fert graciam, eloquenciam, sensum disputandi, si datur ad bibendum\ purgat ydropsim, pulvis valet si supra ponatur arsure.\ Corallus crescit ut arbor in mari et tunc viridis est, sed postea\ indurescit et accipit colorem rubeum, similitudinem habet\ rami, virtus euis est fugat fulgura et tempestatem ab omni loco ubi est\ et si prociatur [proiciatur] inter vinetum vel olivetum vel in campo vel in semine de\fendit a grandine et tempestate, multiplicat fructus, aufert fantas\mata bonum finem et licium confert in operando.\ Alemandina venit de parte Asie que vocatur Alablanda, sim\ilitudinem habet sardine et non defacile discernitur ab illa.\ Cornelius obscurum habet colorem, virtus eius est hec, aufert iram dis\putancium, sistit sanguinem de fluxu sanguinis de quolibet\ membro et maxime menstruum. \ Carbunculus invenitur in Libia ubi ma\nent traconitidide mittit radios ut carbo vivus, et hoc de noc\te non de die. \ Ligurium nascitur de urina lincis que videt per medium\ lapidis sicut per medium vitrioli bestia cooperit urinam suam harena\ ne inveniatur eius[......] aufert dolorem ventris et sistit\
Folio 102v - Of stones and what they can do, continued. | The Aberdeen Bestiary | The University of Aberdeen